The Hymns and Carols of Christmas


These are links to free, on-line dictionaries and other linguistic resources for Old English and Middle English. Omission should not be considered an editorial comment; more likely, I simply have not found that resource.

 I have omitted links to subscription-based dictionaries. This website is entirely free, and is the largest ever published in the English language. For that reason, I only link to free resources here.

Old English

Old English Resources at Lexilogos; a comprehensive resource that includes dictionaries, grammars, text resources.

Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary; this "dictionary records the state of the English language as it was used between ca. 700-1100 AD by the Anglo-Saxon inhabitans of the British Isles."

Old English Dictionary at


Middle English

Middle English Resources at Lexilogos; another comprehensive resource that includes dictionaries, grammars, text resources.

Electronic Middle English Dictionary at the University of Michigan, plus their Middle English Compendium.

At Project Gutenberg: A Concise Dictionary of Middle-English by Mayhew and Skeat:

Francis Henry Stratmann, A Middle English Dictionary (PDF from Internet Archive)


Latin Dictionaries

There are a huge number of Latin dictionaries on-line. In order to keep this page manageable, I've listed only two of them.

Perseus Latin Dictionary, an online version of the Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary, Tufts University, a part of the Perseus Digital Library, plus of possible interest, their links to Greek and Roman Materials.

Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid, University of Notre Dame.

From Edith Rickert, Ancient English Christmas Carols (London: 1910): Glossary (largely Latin)

Several Adobe™ PDF files, mostly from Google Books; the Internet Archive is also an excellent resource (and it is possible to copy and paste from many of their PDF files).

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