PAGE
READING MATTER

Introductory Suggestions

194-195

The Labors of Hercules

196-203

P. Cornelius Lentulus: The Story of a Roman Boy

204-215
APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES

Appendix I. Tables of Declensions, Conjugations, Numerals, etc.

226-260
Appendix II. Rules of Syntax261-264
Appendix III. Reviews265-282
Special Vocabularies283-298
Latin-English Vocabulary299-331
English-Latin Vocabulary332-343

INDEX 344-348
194

READING MATTER

INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS

How to Translate. You have already had considerable practice in translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill can make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accurately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following suggestions:

1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.

2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are nominatives or accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.

3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use in the sentence from their endings.

4. If you cannot yet translate the sentence, put down the English meanings of all the words in the same order as the Latin words. You will then generally see through the meaning of the sentence.

5. Be careful to

a. Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong.

b. Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they govern.

c. Translate adverbs with the words that they modify.

d. Make sense. If you do not make sense, you have made a mistake. One mistake will spoil a whole sentence.

6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over again, and try to understand it as Latin, without thinking of the English translation.

195 The Parts of a Sentence. You will now meet somewhat longer sentences than you have had before. To assist in translating them, remember, first of all, that every sentence conveys a meaning and either tells us something, asks a question, or gives a command. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and the verb may always have an adverb, and, if transitive, will have a direct object.

However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize its subject, verb, and object or predicate complement without any difficulty. These will give you the leading thought, and they must never be lost sight of while making out the rest of the sentence. The chief difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a single adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause taking the place of one of these; for Latin, like English, has adjective, adverbial, and substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the sentence The idle boy does not study, the word idle is an adjective. In The boy wasting his time does not study, the words wasting his time form an adjective phrase modifying boy. In the sentence The boy who wastes his time does not study, the words who wastes his time form an adjective clause modifying boy, and the sentence is complex. These sentences would show the same structure in Latin.

In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the parts of a clause together and not let them become confused with the principal sentence. To distinguish between the subordinate clauses and the principal sentence is of the first importance, and is not difficult if you remember that a clause regularly contains a word that marks it as a clause and that this word usually stands first. These words join clauses to the words they depend on, and are called subordinate conjunctions. They are not very numerous, and you will soon learn to recognize them. In Latin they are the equivalents for such words as when, while, since, because, if, before, after, though, in order that, that, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin subordinate conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of the verb in the clauses which they introduce.

196 statue of Hercules
HERCULES


197
THE LABORS OF HERCULES

Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant he strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength, and on reaching manhood he succeeded in delivering the Thebans from the oppression of the Minyæ. In a fit of madness, sent upon him by Juno, he slew his own children; and, on consulting the Delphic oracle as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was caused, unintentionally, by his wife Deiani´ra. Hercules had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted Deianira. Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Deianira, and told her it would act as a charm to secure her husband’s love. Some time after, Deianira, wishing to try the charm, soaked one of her husband’s garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and, after suffering terrible torments, died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter.

LIII.1 THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS

infant Hercules fighting two serpents
HERCULES ET SERPENTES

2 grave supplicium sūmmit de malīs, sed iī quī lēgibus3 deōrum pārent, etiam post mortem cūrantur. Illa vīta dīs2 erat grātissima quae hominibus miserīs ūtilissima fuerat. Omnium autem praemiōrum summum erat immortālitās. Illud praemium Herculī datum est.

Herculis pater fuit Iuppiter, māter Alcmēna, et omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dīcitur. Sed Iūnō, rēgīna deōrum, eum, adhūc 198 īnfantem, interficere studēbat; nam eī4 et5 Herculēs et Alcmēna erant invīsī. Itaque mīsit duās serpentīs, utramque saevissimam, quae mediā nocte domum6 Alcmēnae vēnērunt. Ibi Herculēs, cum frātre suō, nōn in lectulō sed in scūtō ingentī dormiēbat. Iam audācēs serpentēs adpropinquāverant, iam scūtum movēbant. Tum frāter, terrōre commōtus, magnā vōce mātrem vocāvit, sed Herculēs ipse, fortior quam frāter, statim ingentīs serpentīs manibus suīs rapuit et interfēcit.

1. This number refers to the lesson after which the selection may be read.
2. and dīs are from deus. Cf. § 468.
3. lēgibus, § 501. 14.
4. , to her, referring to Juno.
5. et ... et, both ... and.
6. domum, § 501. 20.
LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINYÆ

Herculēs ā puerō1 corpus suum gravissimīs et difficillimīs labōribus exercēbat et hōc modō vīrēs2 suās cōnfirmāvit. Iam adulēscēns Thēbīs3 habitābat. Ibi Creōn quīdam erat rēx. Minyae, gēns validissima, erant fīnitimī Thēbānīs, et, quia ōlim Thēbānōs vīcerant, quotannīs lēgātōs mittēbant et vectīgal postulābant. Herculēs autem cōnstituit cīvīs suōs hōc vectīgālī līberāre et dixit rēgī, “Dā mihi exercitum tuum et ego hōs superbōs hostīs superābō.” Hanc condiciōnem rēx nōn recūsāvit, et Herculēs nūntiōs in omnīs partis dīmīsit et cōpiās coēgit.4 Tum tempore opportūnissimō proelium cum Minyīs commīsit. Diū pugnātum est, sed dēnique illī impetum Thēbānōrum sustinēre nōn potuērunt et terga vertērunt fugamque cēpērunt.

1. ā puerō, from boyhood.
2. virēs, from vīs. Cf. § 468.
3. Thēbīs, § 501. 36. 1.
4. coēgit, from cōgō.
HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN ORACLE TO SEEK EXPIATION

Post hoc proelium Creōn rēx, tantā victōriā laetus, fīliam suam Herculī in mātrimōnium dedit. Thēbīs Herculēs cum uxōre suā diū vīvēbat et ab omnibus magnopere amābātur; sed post multōs annōs subitō 1in furōrem incidit et ipse suā manū līberōs suōs interfēcit. Post breve tempus 2ad sānitātem reductus tantum scelus expiāre cupiēbat et cōnstituit ad ōrāculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem ōrāculum erat omnium clārissimum. Ibi sedēbat fēmina quaedam quae Pȳthia appellābātur. Ea cōnsilium dabat iīs quī ad ōrāculum veniēbant.

1. in furōrem incidit, went mad.
2. ad sānitātem reductus, lit. led back to sanity. What in good English?

199 Hercules fights the Nemean lion
HERCULES LEONEM SUPERAT

LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS1 · HE STRANGLES THE NEME´AN LION

Itaque Herculēs Pȳthiae tōtam rem dēmonstrāvit nec scelus suum abdidit. Ubi iam Herculēs fīnem fēcit, Pȳthia iussit eum ad urbem Tīryntha2 discēdere et ibi rēgī Eurystheō sēsē committere. Quae3 ubi audīvit, Herculēs ad illam urbem statim contendit et Eurystheō sē in servitūtem trādidit et dīxit, “Quid prīmum, Ō rēx, mē facere iubēs?” Eurystheus, quī perterrēbātur vī et corpore ingentī Herculis et eum occidī4 studēbat, ita respondit: “Audī, Herculēs! Multa mira5 nārrantur dē leōne saevissimō quī hōc tempore in valle Nemaeā omnia vāstat. Iubeō tē, virōrum omnium fortissimum, illō mōnstrō hominēs līberāre.” Haec verba Herculī maximē placuērunt. “Properābo,” inquit, 200 “et parēbō imperiō6 tuō.” Tum in silvās in quibus leō habitābat statim iter fēcit. Mox feram vīdit et plūrīs impetūs fēcit; frūstrā tamen, quod neque sagittīs neque ūllō aliō tēlō mōnstrum vulnerāre potuit. Dēnique Herculēs saevum leōnem suīs ingentibus bracchiīs rapuit et faucīs eius omnibus vīribus compressit. Hōc modō brevī tempore eum interfēcit. Tum corpus leōnis ad oppidum in umerīs reportāvit et pellem posteā prō7 veste gerēbat. Omnēs autem quō eam regiōnem incolēbant, ubi fāmam dē morte leōnis ingentis accēpērunt, erant laetissimī et Herculem laudābant verbīs amplissimīs.

1. Eu-rys´theus (pronounced U-ris´thūs) was king of Tī´ryns, a Grecian city, whose foundation goes back to prehistoric times.
2. Tīryntha, the acc. case of Tīryns, a Greek noun.
3. Quae, obj. of audīvit. It is placed first to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. This is called a connecting relative.
4. occīdī, pres. pass. infin.
5. mīra, marvelous things, the adj. being used as a noun. Cf. omnia, in the next line.
6. imperiō, § 501. 14.
7. prō, for, instead of.
LVI. SLAYING THE LERNE´AN HYDRA

Deinde Herculēs ab Eurystheō iussus est Hydram occīdere. Itaque cum amīcō Iolāō1 contendit ad palūdem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incolēbat. Hoc autem mōnstrum erat serpēns ingēns quae novem capita habēbat. Mox is mōnstrum repperit et summō2 cum perīculō collum eius sinistrā manū rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextrā manū capita novem abscīdere incēpit, sed frūstrā labōrābat, quod quotiēns hoc fēcerat totiēns alia nova capita vidēbat. Quod3 ubi vīdit, statuit capita ignī cremāre. Hōc modō octō capita dēlēvit, sed extrēmum caput vulnerārī nōn potuit, quod erat immortāle. Itaque illud sub ingentī saxō Herculēs posuit et ita victōriam reportāvit.

1. Iolāō, abl. of I-o-lā´us, the hero’s best friend.
2. Note the emphatic position of this adjective.
3. Quod ubi, when he saw this, another instance of the connecting relative. Cf. p. 199, l. 3.
LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR

Postquam Eurystheō mors Hydrae nuntiata est, summus terror animum eius occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad sē reportāre cervum quendam; nam minimē cupīvit tantum virum in rēgnō suō tenēre. Hie autem cervus dīcēbātur aurea cornua et pedēs multō1 celeriōrēs ventō2 habēre. Prīmum Herculēs vestīgia animālis petīvit, deinde, ubi cervum ipsum vīdit, omnibus vīribus currere incēpit. Per plūrimōs diēs contendit nec noctū cessāvit. Dēnique postquam per 201 tōtum annum cucurrerat—ita dīcitur—cervum iam dēfessum cēpit et ad Eurystheum portāvit.

Tum vērō iussus est Herculēs aprum quendam capere quī illō tempore agrōs Erymanthiōs vāstābat et hominēs illīus locī magnopere perterrēbat. Herculēs laetē negōtium suscēpit et in Arcadiam celeriter sē recēpit. Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille autem; simul atque Herculem vīdit, statim quam3 celerrimē fūgit et metū perterritus in fossam altam sēsē abdidit. Herculēs tamen summā cum difficultāte eum extrāxit, nec aper ūllō modō sēsē līberāre potuit, et vīvus ad Eurystheum portātus est.

1. multō, § 501. 27.
2. ventō, § 501. 34.
3. quam. What is the force of quam with a superlative?
LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGE´AN STABLES AND KILLS THE STYMPHALIAN BIRDS

Deinde Eurystheus Herculī hunc labōrem multō graviōrem imperāvit. Augēās1 quīdam, quī illō tempore rēgnum Ēlidis2 obtinēbat, tria mīlia boum3 habēbat. Hī4 ingentī stabulō continēbantur. Hoc stabulum, quod per trīgintā annōs nōn pūrgātum erat, Herculēs intrā spatium ūnīus diēī pūrgāre iussus est. llle negōtium alacriter suscēpit, et prīmum labōre gravissimō maximam fossam fōdit per quam flūminis aquam dē montibus ad mūrum stabulī dūxit. Tum partem parvam mūrī dēlēvit et aquam in stabulum immīsit. Hōc modō fīnm operis fēcit ūnō diē facillimē.

Post paucōs diēs Herculēs ad oppidum Stymphālum iter fēcit; nam Eurystheus iusserat eum avis Stymphālidēs occīdere. Hae avēs rōstra ferrea habēbant et hominēs miserōs dēvorābant. Ille, postquam ad locum pervēnit, lacum vīdit in quō avēs incolēbant. Nūllō tamen modō Herculēs avibus adpropinquāre potuit; lacus enim nōn ex aquā sed ē līmō cōnstitit.5 Dēnique autem avēs 6dē aliquā causā perterritae in aurās volāvērunt et magna pars eārum sagittīs Herculis occīsa est.

1. Augēās, pronounced in English Aw-jē´as.
2. Ēlidis, gen. case of Ēlis, a district of Greece.
3. boum, gen. plur. of bōs. For construction see § 501. 11.
4. ingentī stabulō, abl. of means, but in our idiom we should say in a huge stable.
5. cōnstitit, from consto.
6. dē aliquā causā perterritae, frightened for some reason.

202 Hercules and the Cretan bull
HERCULES ET TAURUS

LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND CARRIES HIM LIVING TO EURYSTHEUS

Tum Eurystheus iussit Herculem portāre vīvum ex īnsulā Crētā taurum quendam saevissimum. Ille igitur nāvem cōnscendit—nam ventus erat idōneus—atque statim solvit. Postquam trīduum nāvigavit, incolumis īnsulae adpropinquāvit. Deinde, postquam omnia parāta sunt, contendit ad eam regiōnem quam taurus vexābat. Mox taurum vīdit ac sine ūllō metū cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingentī labōre mōnstrum ad nāvem trāxit atque cum hāc praedā ex īnsulā discessit.

THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOME´DES

Postquam ex īnsulā Crētā domum pervēnit, Hercules ab Eurystheō in Thrāciam missus est. Ibi Diomēdēs quīdam, vir saevissimus, rēgnum obtinēbat et omnīs ā fīnibus suīs prohibēbat. Herculēs iussus erat equōs Diomedis rapere et ad Eurystheum dūcere. Hī autem equī hominēs miserrimōs dēvorābant dē quibus rēx supplicium sūmere cupiēbat. Herculēs ubi pervēnit, prīmum equōs ā rēge postulāvit, sed rēx eōs dēdere recūsāvit. Deinde ille īrā commōtus rēgem occīdit et corpus eius equīs trādidit. Itaque is quī anteā multōs necāverat, ipse eōdem suppliciō necātus est. Et equī, nūper saevissima animālia, postquam dominī suī corpus dēvorāvērunt, mānsuētī erant.

203
LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOL´YTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS

Gēns Amāzonum1 dīcitur2 omnīnō ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum virīs proelium committere nōn verēbantur. Hippolytē, Amāzonum rēgīna, balteum habuit pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidēre fīlia Eurystheī vehementer cupiēbat. Itaque Eurystheus iussit Herculem impetum in Amāzonēs facere. Ille multīs cum cōpiīs nāvem cōnscendīt et paucis diēbus in Amāzonum fīnīs pervēnit, ac balteum postulāvit. Eum trādere ipsa Hipporytē quidem cupīvit; reliquīs tamen Amazonibus3 persuādēre nōn potuit. Postrīdiē Herculēs proelium commīsit. Multās hōrās utrimque quam fortissimē pugnātum est Dēnique tamen mulieres terga vertērunt et fugā salūtem petiērunt. Multae autem captae sunt, in quō numerō erat ipsa Hippolytē. Herculēs postquam balteum accēpit, omnibus captīvīs lībertātem dedit.

1. A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor.
2. omnīnō, etc., to have consisted entirely of women.
3. Amāzonibus, § 501. 14.
THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CER´BERUS

Hercules and Cerberus
HERCULES ET CERBERUS

Iamque ūnus modo ē duodecim labōribus relinquēbātur sed inter omnīs hic erat difficillimus. Iussus est enim canem Cerberum4 ex Orcō in lūcem trahere. Ex Orcō autem nēmō anteā reverterat. Praetereā Cerberus erat mōnstrum maximē horribile et tria capita habēbat. Herculēs postquam imperia Eurystheī accēpit, statim profectus est et in Orcum dēscendit. Ibi vērō nōn sine summō periculō Cerberum manibus rapuit et ingentī cum labōre ex Orcō in lūcem et adurbem Eurystheī trāxit.

Sic duodecim laborēs illī5 intrā duodecim annōs cōnfectī sunt. Dēmum post longam vītam Herculēs ā deīs receptus est et Iuppiter fīliō suō dedit immortālitātem.

4. The dog Cerberus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode of the dead.
5. illī, those famous.

204
P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY1
LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPE´II

P. Cornēlius Lentulus,2 adulēscēns Rōmānus, amplissimā familiā3 nātus est; nam pater eius, Mārcus, erat dux perītissimus, cuius virtūte4 et cōnsiliō multae victōriae reportātae erant; atque mater eius, lūlia, ā clārissimīs maiōribus orta est. Nōn vērō in urbe sed rūrī5 Pūblius nātus est, et cum mātre habitābat in vīllā quae in maris lītore et sub radīcibus magnī montis sita erat. Mōns autem erat Vesuvius et parva urbs Pompēiī octō mīlia6 passuum7 aberat. In Italiā antīquā erant plūrimae quidem villae et pulchrae, sed inter hās omnīs nūlla erat pulchrior quam villa Mārcī Iūliaeque. Frōns vīllae mūrō a maris fluctibus mūniēbātur. Hinc mare et lītora et īnsulae longē lātēque cōnspicī8 ac saepe nāvēs longae et onerāriae poterant. Ā tergō et ab utrōque latere agrī ferācissimī patēbant. Undique erat magna variōrum flōrum cōpia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestāte9 umbram 205 dēfessīs agricolīs grātissimam adferēbant. Praetereā erant1 in agrīs stabulīsque multa animālium genera, nōn sōlum equī et bovēs sed etiam rārae avēs. Etiam erat10 magna piscīna plēna piscium; nam Rōmānī piscīs dīligenter colēbant.

Roman boys
PUERI ROMANI

1. This story is fiction with certain historical facts in Cæsar’s career as a setting. However, the events chronicled might have happened, and no doubt did happen to many a Roman youth.
2. A Roman had three names, as, Pūblius (given name), Cornēlius (name of the gēns or clan), Lentulus (family name).
3. Abl. of source, which is akin to the abl. of separation (§ 501. 32).
4. virtūte, § 501. 24.
5. rūrī, § 501. 36. 1.
6. mīlia, § 501. 21.
7. passuum, § 501. 11.
8. cōnspicī, infin. with poterant, § 215. Consult the map of Italy for the approximate location of the villa.
9. aestāte, § 501. 35.
10. How are the forms of sum translated when they precede the subject?
LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM

Huius vīllae Dāvus, servus Mārcī, est vīlicus1 et cum Lesbiā uxōre omnia cūrat. Vīlicus et uxor in casā humilī, mediīs in agrīs sitā, habitant. Ā prīmā lūce ūsque ad vesperum sē2 gravibus labōribus exercent ut omnī rēs bene gerant.3 Plūrima enim sunt officia Dāvī et Lesbiae. Vīlicus servōs regit nē tardī sint4; mittit aliōs quī agrōs arent,4 aliōs quī hortōs inrigent,4 et opera in5 tōtum diem impōnit. Lesbia autem omnibus vestīmenta parat, cibum coquit, pānem facit.

Roman cottage
CASA ROMANA

Nōn longē ab hōrum casā et in summō colle situm surgēbat domicilium ipsīus dominī dominaeque amplissimum. Ibi plūrīs annōs6 Pūblius cum mātre vītam fēlīcem agēbat; nam pater eius, Mārcus, in terrīs longinquīs gravia reī pūblicae bella gerēbat nec domum7 revertī poterat. Neque puerō quidem molestum est rūrī8 vīvere. Eum multae rēs dēlectant. Magnopere amat silvās, agrōs, equōs, bovēs, gallīnās, avīs, reliquaque animālia. Saepe plūrīs hōrās9 ad mare sedet quō9 melius fluctūs et nāvīs spectet. Nec omnīnō sine comitibus erat, quod Lȳdia, Dāvī fīlia, quae erat eiusdem aetātis, cum eō adhūc infante lūdēbat, inter quōs cum annīs amīcitia crēscēbat. Lȳdia nūllum alium ducem dēligēbat et Pūblius ab puellae latere rārō 206 discēdēbat. Itaque sub clārō Italiae sōle Pūblius et Lȳdia, amīcī fidēlissimī, per campōs collīsque cotīdiē vagābantur. Modo in silvā fīnitimā lūdebant ubi Pūblius sagittīs10 celeribus avis dēiciēbat et Lȳdia corōnīs variōrum flōrum comās suās ōrnābat; modo aquam et cibum portābant ad Dāvum servōsque dēfessōs quī agrōs colēbant: modo in casā parvā aut hōrās lactās in lūdō cōnsūmēbant aut auxilium dabant Lesbiae, quae cibum virō et servīs parābat vel aliās rēs domesticās agēbat.

1. The vīlicus was a slave who acted as overseer of a farm. He directed the farming operations and the sale of the produce.
2. se, reflexive pron., object of exercent.
3. For the construction, see § 501. 40.
4. in, for.
5. annōs, § 501. 21.
6. domum, § 501. 20.
7. rūrī, § 501. 36. 1.
8. hōrās, cf. annōs, line 17.
9. quō ... spectet, §§ 349, 350.
10. sagittis, § 501. 24.
LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, IS SHIPWRECKED · JULIA RECEIVES A LETTER FROM HIM

Iam Pūblius1 decem annōs habēbat cum M. Cornēlius Lentulus, pater eius, quī quīnque annōs2 grave bellum in Asiā gerēbat, non sine glōriā domum3 revertēbātur. Namque multa secunda proelia fēcerat, maximās hostium cōpiās dēlēverat, multās urbīs populo4 Rōmānō inimīcās cēperat. Primum nūntius pervēnit quī ā Lentulō5 missus erat6 ut profectiōnem suam nūntiāret. Deinde plūrīs diēs7 reditum virī optimī māter fīliusque exspectābant et animīs8 sollicitis deōs immortālīs frūstrā colēbant. Tum dēmum hās litterās summo cum gaudiō accēpērunt:

9“Mārcus Iūliae suac salūtem dīcit. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō. Ex Graeciā, quō10 praeter spem et opīniōnem hodiē pervēnī, hās litterās ad tē scribō. Namque nāvis nostra frācta est; nōs autem—11dīs est gratia—incolumes sumus. Ex Asiae12 portū nāvem lēnī ventō solvimus. Postquam13 altum mare tenuimus 14nec iam ūllae terrae appāruērunt, caelum undique et undique fluctūs, subitō magna tempestās coorta est et nāvem vehementissimē adflīxit. Ventīs fluctibusque 207 adflīctātī15 nec sōlem discernere nec cursum tenēre poterāmus et omnia praesentem mortem intentābant. Trīs diēs16 et trīs noctīs16 sine rēmīs vēlīsque agimur. Quārtō diē17 prīmum terra vīsa est et violenter in saxa, quae nōn longē ā lītore aberant, dēiectī sumus. Tum vērō maiōra perīcula timēbāmus; sed nauta quīdam, vir fortissimus, ex nāve in fluctūs īrātōs dēsiluit 18ut fūnem ad lītus portāret; quam rem summō labōre vix effēcit. Ita omnēs servātī sumus. Grātiās igitur et honōrem Neptūnō dēbēmus, quī deus nōs ē perīculō ēripuit. Nunc Athēnīs19 sum, quō cōnfūgī ut mihi paucās hōrās ad quiētem darem.20 Quam prīmum autem aliam nāvem condūcam ut iter ad Italiam reliquum cōnficiam et domum21 ad meōs cārōs revertar. Salūtā nostrum Pūblium amīcissimē et valētūdinem tuam cūrā dīligenter. 22Kalendīs Mārtiīs.”

1. was ten years old.
2. annōs, § 501. 21.
3. domum, § 501. 20.
4. populō, dat. with inimīcās, cf. § 501. 16.
5. Lentulō, § 501. 33.
6. ut ... nūntiāret, § 501. 40.
7. diēs, cf. annōs, 1. 9.
8. animīs, abl. of manner. Do you see one in line 15?
9. This is the usual form for the beginning of a Latin letter. First we have the greeting, and then the expression Sī valēs, etc. The date of the letter is usually given at the end, and also the place of writing, if not previously mentioned in the letter.
10. quō, where.
11. dīs est grātia, thank God, in our idiom.
12. Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in Asia Minor.
13. altum mare tenuimus, we were well out to sea.
14. nec iam, and no longer.
16. adflīctātī, perf. passive part. tossed about.
16. What construction?
17. diē, § 501. 35.
18. ut ... portāret, § 501. 40.
19. Athēnīs, § 501. 36. 1.
20. darem, cf. portāret, l. 6.
21. Why not ad domum?
22. Kalendīs Mārtiīs, the Calends or first of March; abl. of time, giving the date of the letter.
LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME · PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII WITH HIS FATHER

Post paucōs diēs nāvis M. Cornēlī Lentulī portum Mīsēnī1 petiit, quī portus nōn longē ā Pompēiīs situs est; quō in portū classis Rōmānā pōnēbātur et ad pugnās nāvālīs ōrnābātur. Ibi nāvēs omnium generum cōnspicī poterant. Iamque incrēdibilī celeritāte nāvis longa quā Lentulus vehēbātur lītorī adpropinquāvit; nam nōn sōlum ventō sed etiam rēmīs impellēbātur. In altā puppe stābat gubernātor et nōn procul aliquī mīlitēs Rōmānī cum armīs splendidīs, inter quōs clārissimus erat Lentulus. Deinde servī rēmīs contendere cessāvērunt2; nautae vēlum contrāxērunt et ancorās iēcērunt. Lentulus statim ē nāvī ēgressus est et3 ad villam suam properāvit. Eum Iūlia, Pūblius, tōtaque familia excēpērunt. 4Quī complexūs, quanta gaudia fuērunt!

Postrīdiē eius diēī Lentulus fīliō suō dīxit, “Venī, mī Pūblī, mēcum. 208 Pompēiōs iter hodiē faciam. Māter tua suādet5 ut frūctūs et cibāria emam. Namque plūrīs amīcōs ad cēnam vocāvimus et multīs rēbus6 egēmus. Ea hortātur ut quam prīmum proficīscāmur.” “Libenter, mī pater,” inquit Pūblius. “Tēcum esse mihi semper est grātum; nec Pompēiōs umquam vīdī. Sine morā proficīscī parātus sum.” Tum celeriter currum cōnscendērunt et ad urbis mūrōs vectī sunt. Stabiānā portā7 urbem ingressī sunt. Pūblius strātās viās mīrātur et saxa altiōra quae in mediō disposita erant et altās orbitās quās rotae inter haec saxa fēcerant. Etiam strepitum mīrātur, multitūdinem, carrōs, fontīs, domōs, tabernās, forum8 cum statuīs, templīs, reliquīsque aedificiīs pūblicīs.

1. Misenum had an excellent harbor, and under the emperor Augustus became the chief naval station of the Roman fleet. See map of Italy.
2. Why is the infinitive used with cessāvērunt?
3. See Plate I, Frontispiece.
4. Observe that these words are exclamatory.
5. What construction follows suādeō? § 501. 41.
6. rēbus, § 501. 32.
7. This is the abl. of the way by which motion takes place, sometimes called the abl. of route. The construction comes under the general head of the abl. of means. For the scene here described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice especially the stepping-stones for crossing the street (saxa quae in mediō disposita erant).
8. The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public halls, and markets of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map.
LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII

Apud forum ē currū dēscendērunt et Lentulus dīxit, “Hīc sunt multa tabernārum genera, mī Pūblī. Ecce, trāns viam est popīna! 1Hoc genus tabernārum cibāria vēndit. Frūctūs quoque ante iānuam stant. Ibi cibāria mea emam.” “Optimē,” respondit Pūblius. “At ubi, mī pater, crūstula emere possumus? Namque māter nōbīs imperāvit 2ut haec quoque parārēmus. Timeō ut3 ista popīna vēndat crūstula.” “Bene dīcis,” inquit Lentulus. “At nōnne vidēs illum fontem ā dextrā ubi aqua per leōnis caput fluit? In illō ipsō locō est taberna pīstōris quī sine dubiō vēndit crūstula.”

Brevī tempore4 omnia erant parāta, iamque 5quīnta hōra erat. Deinde Lentulus et fīlius ad caupōnam properāvērunt, quod famē6 et 209 sitī7 urgēbantur. Ibi sub arboris umbrā sēdērunt et puerō imperāvērunt ut sibi8 cibum et vīnum daret. Huic imperiō9 puer celeriter pāruit. Tum laetī sē10 ex labōre refēcērunt.

Post prandium prefectī sunt ut alia urbis spectācula vidērent. Illō tempore fuērunt Pompēiīs11 multa templa, duo theātra, thermae magnumque amphitheātrum, quae omnia post paucōs annōs flammīs atque incendiīs Vesuvī et terrae mōtū dēlēta sunt. Ante hanc calamitātem autem hominēs 1nihil dē monte veritī sunt. In amphitheātrō quidem Pūblius morārī cupīvit ut spectācula gladiātōria vidēret, quae in13 illum ipsum diem prōscrīpta erant et iam 15rē vērā incēperant. Sed Lentulus dīxit, “Morārī, Pūblī, 16vereor ut possīmus. Iam decima hōra est et via est longa. Tempus suādet ut quam prīmum domum revertāmur.” Itaque servō imperāvit ut equōs iungeret, et sōlis occāsū16 ad vīllam pervēnērunt.

1. We say, this kind of shop; Latin, this kind of shops.
2. ut ... parārēmus, § 501. 41.
3. How is ut translated after a verb of fearing? How ? Cf. § 501. 42.
4. tempore, § 501. 35.
5. quīnta hōra. The Romans numbered the hours of the day consecutively from sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long or short, into twelve equal parts.
6. famē shows a slight irregularity in that the abl. ending -e is long.
7. sitis, thirst, has -im in the acc. sing., in the abl. sing., and no plural.
8. Observe that the reflexive pronoun sibi does not here refer to the subject of the subordinate clause in which it stands, but to the subject of the main clause. This so-called indirect use of the reflexive is often found in object clauses of purpose.
9. What case? Cf. § 501. 14.
10. , cf. p. 205, l. 7, and note.
11. Pompēiīs, § 501. 36. 1.
12. nihil ... veritī sunt, had no fears of the mountain.
13. in, for.
14. rē vērā, in fact.
15. vereor ut, § 501. 42.
16. occāsū, § 501. 35.
LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON

Ā prīmīs annīs quidem Iūlia ipsa fīlium suum docuerat, et Pūblius nōn sōlum 1pūrē et Latīnē loquī poterat sed etiam commodē legēbat et scrībēbat. Iam Ennium2 aliōsque poētās lēgerat. Nunc vērō Pūblius 3duodecim annōs habēbat; itaque eī pater bonum magistrum, 4virum omnī doctrīnā et virtūte ōrnātissimum, parāvit, 5quī Graeca, mūsicam, aliāsque artīs docēret. 6Namque illīs temporibus omnēs ferē gentēs Graecē loquēbantur. Cum Pūbliō aliī puerī, Lentulī amīcōrum 210 fīliī,7 discēbant. Nam saepe apud Rōmānōs mōs erat 8nōn in lūdum fīliōs mittere sed domī per magistrum docēre. Cotīdiē discipulī cum magistrō in peristȳlō9 Mārcī domūs sedēbant. Omnēs puerī bullam auream, orīginis honestae signum, in collō gerēbant, et omnēs togā praetextā amictī erant, 10quod nōndum sēdecim annōs11 nātī sunt.

1. pūrē ... poterat, freely, could speak Latin well. What is the literal translation?
2. Ennium, the father of Latin poetry.
3. duodecim ... habēbat, cf. p. 206, l. 8, and note.
4. virum, etc., a very well-educated and worthy man. Observe the Latin equivalent.
5. quī ... docēret, a relative clause of purpose. Cf. §§ 349, 350.
6. In Cæsar’s time Greek was spoken more widely in the Roman world than any other language.
7. fīliī, in apposition with puerī.
8. nōn ... mittere. This infinitive clause is the subject of erat. Cf. § 216. The same construction is repeated in the next clause, domī ... docēre. The object of docēre is fīliōs understood.
9. The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a colonnade.
10. At the age of sixteen a boy laid aside the bulla and the toga praetexta and assumed toga virīlis or manly gown.
11. annōs, § 501. 21. The expression nōndum sēdecim annōs nātī sunt means literally, they were born not yet sixteen years. This is the usual expression for age. What is the English equivalent?
SCENE IN SCHOOL · AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION

woman with tablet and stylus
TABULA ET STILUS

Discipulī. Salvē, magister.

Magister. Vōs quoque omnēs, salvēte. 1Tabulāsne portāvistis et stilōs?

D. Portāvimus.

M. Iam fābulam Aesōpī2 discēmus. Ego legam, vōs in tabulīs scrībite. Et tū, Pūblī, dā mihi ē capsā3 Aesōpī volūmen.4 Iam audīte omnēs: Vulpēs et Ūva.

Vulpēs ōlim famē coācta ūvam dēpendentem vīdit. Ad ūvam saliēbat, sūmere cōnāns. Frūstrā diū cōnāta, tandem īrāta erat et salīre cessāns dīxit: “Illa ūva est acerba; acerbam ūvam 5nihil moror.”

Omnia´ne scrīpsistis, puerī?

D. Omnia, magister.

1. Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The writing was done with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil, made of bone or metal, with a knob at the other end. The knob was used to smooth over the wax in making erasures and corrections.
2. Aesōpī, the famous Greek to whom are ascribed most of the fables current in the ancient world.
3. A cylindrical box for holding books and papers, shaped like a hatbox.
4. Ancient books were written on rolls made of papy´rus.
5. nihil moror, I care nothing for.
211
LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION

Iamque Pūblius, 1quīndecim annōs nātus, 2prīmīs litterārum elementīs cōnfectīs, Rōmam petere voluit ut scholās grammaticōrum et philosophōrum frequentāret. Et facillimē patrī3 suō, qui ipse philosophiae studiō tenēbātur, persuāsit. Itaque 4omnibus rēbus ad profectiōnem comparātīs, pater fīliusque equīs animōsīs vectī5 ad magnam urbem profectī sunt. Eōs proficīscentīs Iūlia tōtaque familia vōtīs precibusque prōsecūtae sunt. Tum per loca6 plāna et collis silvīs vestītōs viam ingressī sunt ad Nōlam, quod oppidum eōs hospitiō modicō excēpit. Nōlae7 duās hōrās morātī sunt, quod sōl merīdiānus ārdēbat. Tum rēctā viā8 circiter vīgintī mīlia9 passuum9 Capuam,9 ad īnsignem Campāniae urbem, contendērunt. Eō10 multā nocte dēfessī pervēnērunt. 11Postrīdiē eius diēī, somnō et cibō recreātī, Capuā discessērunt et 13viam Appiam ingressī, quae Capuam tangit et ūsque ad urbem Rōmam dūcit, ante merīdiem Sinuessam pervēnērunt, quod oppidum tangit mare. Inde prīmā lūce proficīscentēs Formiās13 properāvērunt, ubi Cicerō, ōrātor clarissimus, quī forte apud vīllam suam erat, eōs benignē excēpit. Hinc 14itinere vīgintī quīnque mīlium passuum factō, Tarracīnam, oppidum in saxīs altissimīs situm, vīdērunt. Iamque nōn longē aberant palūdēs magnae, quae multa mīlia passuum undique patent. Per eās pedestris via est gravis et in nāve viātōrēs vehuntur. Itaque 15equīs relictīs Lentulus et Pūblius nāvem cōnscendērunt, et, ūnā nocte in trānsitū cōnsūmptā, Forum Appī vēnērunt. Tum brevī tempore Arīcia eōs excēpit. Hoc oppidum, in colle 212 situm, ab urbe Romā sēdecim mīlia passuum abest. Inde dēclivis via ūsque ad latum campum dūcit ubi Rōma stat. Quem ad locum ubi Pūblius vēnit et Rōmam adhūc remōtam, maximam tōtīus orbis terrārum urbem, cōnspēxit, summā admīrātiōne et gaudiō adfectus est. Sine morā dēscendērunt, et, mediō intervāllō quam celerrimē superātō, urbem portā Capēnā ingressī sunt.

1. quīndecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
2. prīmīs ... cōnfectīs, abl. abs. Cf. § 501. 28.
3. patrī, dat. with persuāsit.
4. omnibus ... comparātīs, cf. note 2.
5. vectī, perf. pass. part. of vehō.
6. What is there peculiar about the gender of this word?
7. Nōlae, locative case, § 501. 36.2.
8. viā, cf. portā, p. 208, l. 7, and note.
9. What construction?
10. , adv. there.
11. Postrīdiē eius diēī, on the next day.
12. viam Appiam, the most famous of all Roman roads, the great highway from Rome to Tarentum and Brundisium, with numerous branches. Locate on the map the various towns that are mentioned in the lines that follow.
13. Formiās, Formiæ, one of the most beautiful spots on this coast, and a favorite site for the villas of rich Romans.
14. itinere ... factō, abl. abs. The gen. mīlium modifies itinere.
15. equīs relictīs. What construction? Point out a similar one in the next line.
LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS

Bulla
BULLA

Pūblius iam tōtum annum Rōmae morābātur1 multaque urbis spectācula vīderat et multōs sibi2 amīcōs parāverat. Eī3 omnēs favēbant; 4dē eō omnēs bene spērāre poterant. Cotīdiē Pūblius scholas philosophōrum et grammaticōrum tantō studiō frequentābat 5ut aliīs clārum exemplum praebēret. Saepe erat cum patre in cūriā6; quae rēs effēcit 7ut summōs reī pūblicae virōs et audīret et vidēret. Ubi 8sēdecim annōs natus est, bullam9 auream et togam praetextam mōre Rōmānō dēposuit atque virīlem togam sūmpsit. Virīlis autem toga erat omnīnō alba, sed praetexta clāvum purpureum in margine habēbat. 10Dēpōnere togam praetextam et sūmere togam virīlem erat rēs grātissima puerō Rōmānō, quod posteā vir et cīvis Rōmānus habēbātur.

11Hīs rēbus gestīs Lentulus ad uxōrem suam hās litterās scrīpsit:

12“Mārcus Iūliae suae salūtem dīcit. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō. Accēpī tuās litterās. Hās nunc Rōmā per servum fidēlissimum mittō ut dē Pūbliō nostrō quam celerrimē sciās. Nam hodiē eī togam virīlem dedī. Ante lucem surrēxī13 et prīmum bullam auream dē collō eius 213 remōvī. Hāc Laribus14 cōnsecrātā et sacrīs factīs, eum togā virīlī vestīvī. Interim plūrēs amīcī cum multitūdine optimōrum cīvium et honestōrum clientium pervēnerant 15quī Pūblium domō in forum dēdūcerent. Ibi in cīvitātem receptus est et nōmen, Pūblius Cornēlius Lentulus, apud cīvīs Rōmānōs ascrīptum est. Omnēs eī amīcissimī fuērunt et magna16 de eō praedīcunt. Sapientior enim aequālibus17 est et magnum ingenium habet. 18Cūrā ut valeās.”

1. morābātur, translate as if pluperfect.
2. sibi, for himself.
3. , why dat.?
4. dē ... poterant, in English, all regarded him as a very promising youth; but what does the Latin say?
5. ut ... praebēret, § 501. 43.
6. cūriā, a famous building near the Roman Forum.
7. ut ... audīret et vidēret, § 501. 44.
8. sēdecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
9. bullam, cf. p. 210, l. 3, and note 4.
10. These infinitive clauses are the subject of erat. Cf. § 216.
11. Hīs rēbus gestīs, i.e. the assumption of the toga virilis and attendant ceremonies.
12. Compare the beginning of this letter with the one on page 206.
13. surrēxī, from surgō.
14. The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were worshiped as household gods. All that the house contained was confided to their care, and sacrifices were made to them daily.
15. quī ... dēdūcerent, § 350.
16. magna, great things, a neuter adj. used as a noun.
17. aequālibus, § 501. 34.
18. Cūrā ut valeās, take good care of your health. How does the Latin express this idea?
LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CÆSAR’S ARMY IN GAUL

Pūblius iam adulēscēns postquam togam virīlem sūmpsit, aliīs rēbus studēre incēpit et praesertim ūsū1 armōrum sē2 dīligenter exercuit. Magis magisque amāvit illās artīs quae mīlitārem animum dēlectant. Iamque erant 3quī eī cursum mīlitārem praedīcerent. Nec sine causā, quod certē patris īsigne exemplum 4ita multum trahēbat. 5Paucīs ante annīs C. Iūlius Caesar, ducum Rōmānōrum maximus, cōnsul creātus erat et hōc tempore in Galliā bellum grave gerēbat. Atque in exercitū eius plūrēs adulēscentēs mīlitābant, apud quōs erat amīcus quīdam Pūblī. Ille Pūblium crēbrīs litterīs vehementer hortābātur 6ut iter in Galliam faceret. Neque Pūblius recūsāvit, et, multīs amīcīs ad portam urbis prōsequentibus, ad Caesaris castra profectus est. Quārtō diē postquam iter ingressus est, ad Alpīs, montīs altissimōs, pervēnit. Hīs summā difficultāte superātīs, tandem Gallōrum in fīnibus erat. Prīmō autem veritus est ut7 castrīs Rōmānīs adpropinquāre posset, quod Gallī, maximīs cōpiīs coāctīs, Rōmānōs obsidēbant et viās omnīs iam clauserant. Hīs rēbus commōtus Pūblius vestem Gallicam induit nē ā Gallīs caperētur, et ita per hostium cōpiās incolumis ad castra 214 pervenīre potuit. Intrā mūnītiōnes acceptus, ā Caesare benignē exceptus est. Imperātor fortem adulēscentem amplissimīs verbīs laudāvit et eum 8tribūnum mīlītum creāvit.

1. Abl. of means.
2. , reflexive object of exercuit.
3. quī ... praedīcerent, § 501. 45.
4. ita multum trahēbat, had a great influence in that direction.
5. Paucīs ante annīs, a few years before; in Latin, before by a few years, ante being an adverb and annīs abl. of degree of difference.
6. ut ... faceret, § 501. 41.
7. ut, how translated here? See § 501. 42.
8. The military tribune was a commissioned officer nearly corresponding to our rank of colonel. The tribunes were often inexperienced men, so Cæsar did not allow them much responsibility.

military baggage
IMPEDIMENTA

HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED

Exercitus quī in hostium fīnibus bellum genit multīs perīcuīs circumdatus est. 1Quae perīcula ut vītāret, Rōmāni summam cūram adhībēre solēbant. Adpropinquanteēs cōpiīs hostium agmen ita dispōnēbant 2ut imperātor ipse cum plāribus legiōnibus expedītīs3 prīmum agmen dūceret. Post eās cōpiās impedīmenta4 tōtīus exercitūs 215 conlocābant. 5Tum legiōnēs quae proximē cōnscrīptae erant tōtum agmen claudēbant. Equitēs quoque in omnīs partīs dīmittēbantur quī loca explōrārent; et centuriōnēs praemittēbantur ut locum castrīs idōneum dēligerent. Locus habēbatur idōneus castrīs 6quī facile dēfendī posset et prope aquam esset. Quā dē causā castra7 in colle ab utrāque parte arduō, ā fronte lēniter dēclīvī saepe pōnēbantur; vel locus palūdibus cīnctus vel in flūminis rīpīs situs dēligēbātur. Ad locum postquam exercitus pervēnit, aliī mīlitum 8in armīs erant, aliī castra mūnīre incipiēbant. Nam 9quō tūtiōrēs ab hostibus mīlitēs essent, nēve incautī et imparātī opprimerentur, castra fossā lātā et vāllō altō mūniēbant. In castrīs portae quattuor erant ut ēruptiō mīlitum omnīs in partīs fierī posset. In angulīs castrōrum erant turrēs dē quibus tēla in hostīs coniciēbantur. 10Tālibus in castrīs quālia dēscrīpsimus Pūblius ā Caesare exceptus est.

1. Quae perīcula, object of vītārent. It is placed first to make a proper connection with the preceding sentence.
2. ut ... dūceret, § 501. 43.
3. expedītīs, i.e. without baggage and ready for action.
4. impedīmenta. Much of the baggage was carried in carts and on beasts of burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each soldier (unless expedītus) carried a heavy pack. See also picture, p. 159.
5. The newest legions were placed in the rear, because they were the least reliable.
6. quī ... posset ... esset, § 501. 45.
7. castra, subject of pōnēbantur.
8. in armīs erant, stood under arms.
9. quō ... essent. When is quō used to introduce a purpose clause? See § 350. I.
10. Tālibus in castrīs quālia, in such a camp as. It is important to remember the correlatives tālis ... quālis, such ... as.
LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS

centurion
CENTURIO

Illīs in castrīs erant duo centuriōnēs,1 fortissimī virī, T. Pullō et L. Vorēnus, quōrum neuter alterī virtūte2 cēdere volēbat. Inter eōs iam multōs annōs īnfēnsum certāmen gerēbātur. Tum dēmum fīnis contrōversiae hōc modō3 factus est. Diē tertiō postquam Pūblius pervēnit, hostēs, maiōribus cōpiīs coāctīs, ācerrimum impetum in castra fēcērunt. Tum Pullō, 4cum Rōmānī tardiōrēs5 vidērentur, “Cūr dubitās,” inquit, “Vorēne? Quam commodiōrem occāsiōnem exspectās? Hic diēs dē virtūte nostrā iūdicābit.” Haec6 cum dīxisset, 216 extrā mūnītiōnēs prōcessit et in eam hostium partem quae cōfertissima 7vidēbātur inrūpit. Neque Vorēnus quidem tum vāllō8 sēsē continet, sed Pullōnem subsequitur. Tum Pullō pīlum in hostīs immittit atque ūnum ex multitūdine prōcurrentem trāicit. Hunc percussum et exanimātum hostēs scūtīs prōtegunt et in Pullōnem omnēs tēla coniciunt. Eius scūtum trānsfīgitur et tēlum in balteō dēfīgitur. Hic cāsus vāgīnam āvertit et dextram manum eius gladium ēdūcere cōnantis9 morātur. Eum ita impedītum hostēs circumsistunt.

Tum vēro 10eī labōrantī Vorēnus, cum sit inimīcus, tamen auxilium dat. Ad hunc cōnfestim 11ā Pullōne omnis multitūdō sē convertit. Gladiō comminus pugnat Vorēnus, atque, ūnō interfectō, reliquōs paulum prōpellit. Sed īnstāns cupidius12 īnfēlīx, 13pede sē fallente, concidit.

Huic rūrsus circumventō auxilium dat Pullō, atque ambō incolumēs, plūribus interfectīs, summā cum laude intrā mūnītiōnēs sē recipiunt. Sic inimīcōrum alter alterī auxilium dedit nec de eōrum virtūte quisquam iūdicāre potuit.

1. A centurion commanded a company of about sixty men. He was a common soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for his courage and fighting qualities. The centurions were the real leaders of the men in battle. There were sixty of them in a legion. The centurion in the picture (p. 216) has in his hand a staff with a crook at one end, the symbol of his authority.
2. virtūte, § 501. 30.
3. Abl. of manner.
4. cum ... vidērentur, § 501. 46.
5. tardiōrēs, too slow, a not infrequent translation of the comparative degree.
6. Haec, obj. of dīxisset. It is placed before cum to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. What is the construction of dīxisset?
7. vidēbatur, inrūpit. Why is the imperfect used in one case and the perfect in the other? Cf. § 190.
8. vāllō, abl. of means, but in English we should say within the rampart. Cf. ingentī stabulō, p. 201, l. 13, and note.
9. cōnantis, pres. part. agreeing with eius.
10. eī labōrantī, indir. obj. of dat.
11. ā Pullōne, from Pullo, abl. of separation.
12. cupidius, too eagerly.
13. pede sē fallente, lit. the foot deceiving itself; in our idiom, his foot slipping.
LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED

Cum iam sex hōrās pugnatum esset1 ac nōn sōlum vīrēs sed etiam tēla Rōmānōs dēficerent1, atque hostēs ācrius instārent,1 et vāllum scindere fossamque complēre incēpissent,1 Caesar, vir reī mīlitāris perītissimus, 217 suīs imperāvit ut proelium paulisper intermitterent,2 et, signō datō, ex castrīs ērumperent.2 3Quod iussī sunt faciunt, et subitō ex omnibus portīs ērumpunt. Atque tam celeriter mīlitēs concurrērunt et tam propinquī erant hostēs4 ut spatium pīla coniciendī5 nōn darētur. Itaque reiectīs pīlīs 6comminus gladiīs pugnātum est. Diū et audācter hostēs restitērunt et in extrēmā spē salūtis tantam virtūtem praestitērunt ut ā dextrō cornū vehementer 7multitūdine suōrum aciem Rōmanam premerent. 8Id imperātor cum animadvertisset, Pūblium adulēscentem cum equitātū mīsit quī labōrantibus9 auxilium daret. Eius impetum sustinēre nōn potuērunt hostēs10 et omnēs terga vertērunt. Eōs in fugam datōs Pūblius subsecūtus est ūsque ad flūmen Rhēnum, quod ab eō locō quīnque mīlia passuum aberat. Ibi paucī salūtem sibi repperērunt. Omnibus reliquīs interfectīs, Pūblius et equitēs in castra sēsē recēpērunt. Dē hāc calamitāte fīnitimae gentēs cum certiōrēs factae essent, ad Caesarem lēgātōs mīsērunt et sē suaque omnia dēdidērunt.

1. pugnātum esset, dēficerent, īnstārent, incēpissent. These are all subjunctives with cum. Cf. § 501. 46.
2. intermitterent, ērumperent. What use of the subjunctive?
3. Quod, etc., they do as ordered. The antecedent of quod is id understood, which would be the object of faciunt.
4. ut ... darētur. Is this a clause of purpose or of result?
5. coniciendī, § 402.
6. comminus gladiīs pugnātum est, a hand-to-hand conflict was waged with swords.
7. multitūdine suōrum, by their numbers. suōrum is used as a noun. What is the literal translation of this expression?
8. Id imperātor. Id is the obj. and imperātor the subj. of animadvertisset.
9. labōrantibus. This participle agrees with iīs understood, the indir. obj. of daret; qui ... daret is a purpose clause, § 501. 40.
10. hostēs, subj. of potuērunt.
LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY · ITS GREAT FORESTS AND STRANGE ANIMALS

Initā aestāte Caesar litterīs certior fīēbat et per explōrātōrēs cognōscēbat plūrīs cīvitātēs Galliae novīs rēbus studēre,1 et contrā populum Rōmānum coniūrāre1 obsidēsque 2inter sē dare,1 atque cum hīs Germānōs quōsdam quoque sēsē coniūnctūrōs esse.1 Hīs litterīs nūntiīsque commōtus Caesar cōnstituit quam celerrimē in Gallōs proficīscī,3 ut eōs inopīnantīs opprimeret, et Labiēnum lēgātum cum duābus legiōnibus peditum et duōbus mīlibus equitum in Germānōs mittere.3 218 4Itaque rē frūmentāriā comparātā castra mōvit. Ab utrōque5 rēs bene gesta est; nam Caesar tam celeriter in hostium fīnīs pervēnit ut spatium 6cōpiās cōgendī nōn darētur7; et Labiēnus dē Germānīs tam grave supplicium sūmpsit ut nēmō ex eā gente in reliquum tempus Gallīs auxilium dare audēret.7

Hoc iter in Germāniam Pūblius quoque fēcit et, 8cum ibi morārētur, multa mīrābilia vīdit. Praesertim vērō ingentem silvam mīrābātur, quae tantae magnitūdinis esse dīcēbātur 9ut nēmō eam trānsīre posset, nec quisquam scīret aut initium aut fīnem. Quā dē rē plūra cognōverat ā mīlite quōdam quī ōlim captus ā Germānīs multōs annōs ibi incoluit. Ille10 dē silvā dīcēns, “Īnfīnītae magnitūdinis est haec silva,” inquit; “nee quisquam est 11huius Germāniae 12quī initium eius sciat aut ad fīnem adierit. Nāscuntur illīc multa tālia animālium genera quālia reliquīs in locīs nōn inveniuntur. Sunt bovēs quī ūnum13 cornū habent; sunt etiam animālia quae appellantur alcēs. Hae nūllōs crūrum14 articulōs habent. Itaque, sī forte concidērunt, sēsē ērigere nūllō modō possunt. Arborēs habent prō15 cubīlibus; ad eās sē applicant atque ita reclīnātae quiētem capiunt. Tertium est genus eōrum quī ūrī appellantur. Hī sunt paulō minōrēs elephantīs.16 Magna vis eōrum est et magna vēlōcitās. Neque hominī neque ferae parcunt.17

1. Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect statements after certior fīēbat, he was informed, and cognōscēbat, he learned. Cf. § 501.48, 49.
2. inter sē, to each other.
3. proficīscī, mittere. These infinitives depend upon cōnstituit.
4. Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided. Every fifteen days grain was distributed. Each soldier received about two pecks. This he carried in his pack, and this constituted his food, varied occasionally by what he could find by foraging.
5. Abl. of personal agent, § 501. 33.
6. cōpiās cōgendī, § 501. 37. 1.
7. darētur, audēret, § 501. 43. audēret is not from audiō.
8. cum ... morārētur, § 501. 46.
9. ut ... posset, ... scīret, § 501. 43.
10. Ille, subj. of inquit.
11. huius Germāniae, of this part of Germany.
12. quī ... scīat ... adierit, § 501. 45.
13. ūnum, only one.
14. crūrum, from crūs.
15. prō, for, in place of.
16. elephantīs, § 501. 34.
17. parcunt. What case is used with this verb?
LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY

Pūblius plūrīs diēs in Germāniā morātus1 in Galliam rediit, et ad Caesaris castra sē contulit. Ille quia molestē ferēbat Gallōs2 eius regiōnis obsidēs dare recūsāvisse et exercituī frūmentum praebēre 219 nōluisse, cōnstituit eīs3 bellum īnferre. Agrīs vāstātīs, vīcīs incēnsīs, pervēnit ad oppidum validissimum quod et nātūrā et arte mūnītum erat. Cingēbātur mūrō vīgintī quīnque pedēs4 altō. Ā lateribus duōsitum, praeruptō fastīgiō ad plānitiem vergēgat; ā quārtō tantum5 latere aditus erat facilis. Hoc oppidum oppugnāre, 6cum opus esset difficillimum, tamen cōnstituit Caesar. Et castrīs mūnītīs Pūbliō negōtium dedit ut rēs 7ad oppugnandum necessāriās parāret.

siege shed
VINEA

Rōmānōrum autem oppugnātiō est haec.8 Prīmum turrēs aedificantur quibus mīlitēs in summum mūrum ēvādere possint9; vīneae10 fīunt quibus tēctī mīlitēs ad mūrum succēdant; pluteī11 parantur post quōs mīlitēs tormenta12 administrent; sunt quoque arietēs quī mūrum et portās discutiant. Hīs omnibus rēbus comparātīs, deinde 13agger ab eā parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum 220 vīneīs ad ipsum oppidum agitur. Tum turris in aggere prōmovētur; arietibus quī sub vīneīs conlocātī erant mūrus et portae discutiuntur; ballistīs, catapultīs, reliquīsque tormentīs lapidēs et tēla in oppidum coniciuntur. Postrēmō cum iam turris et agger altitūdinem mūrī adaequant et arietēs moenia perfrēgērunt,14 signō datō mīlitēs inruunt et oppidum expugnant.

1. morātus. Is this part. active or passive in meaning?
2. Gallōs, subj. acc. of the infins. recūsāvisse and nōluisse. The indirect statement depends upon molestē ferēbat.
3. eīs, § 501. 15.
4. pedēs, § 501. 21.
5. tantum, adv. only.
6. cum ... esset, a clause of concession, § 501. 46.
7. ad oppugnandum, a gerund expressing purpose.
8. haec, as follows.
9. possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar constructions follow.
10. vīneae. These vīneae were wooden sheds, open in front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a fortification. They were about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers.
11. pluteī, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. These were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving the engines of war.
12. tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the catapult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They had a range of about two thousand feet and were very effective.
13. The agger, or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just out of reach of the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards the point to be attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on a level with the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber, and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram (aries) in the lowest story. (See picture, p. 221.)
14. perfrēgērunt, from perfringō.
LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN · THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED

ballista
BALLISTA

Omnibus rēbus necessāriīs ad oppugnandum ā Pūbliō comparātīs, dēlīberātur in conciliō quod cōnsilium 1oppidī expugnandī ineant.2 Tum ūnus3 ex centuriōnibus, vir reī mīlitāris perītissimus, “Ego suādeō,” inquit, “ut ab eā parte, ubi aditus sit4 facillimus, aggerem exstruāmus5 et turrim prōmoveāmus5 atque ariete admōtō simul mūrum discutere cōnēmur.56Hoc cōnsilium cum omnibus placēret, Caesar concilium dīmīsit. Deinde mīlitēs hortātus ut priōrēs victōriās memoriā7 tenērent, iussit aggerem exstruī, turrim et arietem admovērī. Neque oppidānīs8 cōnsilium dēfuit. Aliī ignem et omne genus tēlōrum dē mūrō in turrim coniēcērunt, aliī ingentia saxa in vīneās et arietem dēvolvērunt. Diū utrimque ācerrimē 221 pugnātum est. Nē vulnerātī quidem pedem rettulērunt. Tandem, 9dē tertiā vigiliā, Pūblius, quem Caesar illī operī10 praefēcerat, nūntiāvit partem11 mūrī ictibus arietis labefactam concidisse. Quā rē audītā Caesar signum dat; mīlitēs inruunt et magnā cum caede hostium oppidum capiunt.

1. oppidī expugnandī. Is this a gerund or a gerundive construction? Cf. § 501. 37.
2. ineant. § 501. 50.
3. ūnus. subj. of inquit.
4. sit. This is a so-called subjunctive by attraction, which means that the clause beginning with ubi stands in such close connection with the subjv. clause beginning with ut, that its verb is attracted into the same mood.
5. All these verbs are in the same construction.
6. Hoc cōnsilium, subj. of placēret. For the order cf. Haec cum, etc., p. 215, l. 22, and note; Id imperātor cum, p. 217, l. 8.
7. memoriā, abl. of means.
8. oppidānīs, § 501. 15.
9. Between twelve and three o’clock in the morning. The night was divided into four watches.
10. operī, § 501. 15.
11. partem, subj. acc. of concidisse.

siege towers, battering rams, siege shed
TURRES, ARIETES, VINEA

Postrīdiē eius diēī, hōc oppidō expugnātō, 12captīvōrum quī nōbilissimī sunt ad imperātōrem ante praetōrium13 addūcuntur. Ipse, lōrīcā aurātā et paludāmentō purpureō īnsignis, captīvōs per interpretem in hunc modum interrogat:14 Vōs quī estis15?

Interpres. Rogat imperātor quī sītis.

Captīvī. Fīliī rēgis sumus.

Interpres. Dīcunt sē fīliōs esse rēgis.

Imperātor. Cūr mihi tantās iniūriās intulistis?

Interpres. Rogat cūr sibi tantās iniūriās intuleritis.

Captīvī. Iniūriās eī nōn intulimus sed prō patriā bellum gessimus. Semper voluimus Rōmānīs esse amīcī, sed Rōmānī sine causā nōs domō patriāque expellere cōnātī sunt.

Interpres. 16Negant sē iniūriās tibi intulisse, sed prō patriā bellum gessisse. 17Semper sē voluisse amīcōs Rōmānīs esse, sed Rōmānōs sine causā sē domō patriāque expellere cōnātōs esse.

222 Imperātor. 18Manēbitisne in reliquum tempus in fidē, hāc rebelliōne condōnātā?

Tum vērō captīvī multīs cum lacrimīs iūrāvērunt sē in fidē mānsūrōs esse, et Caesar eōs incolumīs domum dīmīsit.

12. captīvōrum ... sunt, the noblest of the captives.
13. The general’s headquarters.
14. Study carefully these direct questions, indirect questions, and indirect statements.
15. See Plate III, p. 148.
16. Negant, etc., they say that they have not, etc. Negant is equivalent to dīcunt nōn, and the negative modifies intulisse, but not the remainder of the indirect statement.
17. Semper, etc., that they have always, etc.
18. Manēbitisne in fidē, will you remain loyal?
LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN CÆSAR AND POMPEY · THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA

Nē cōnfectō1 quidem bellō Gallicō, 2bellum cīvīle inter Caesarem et Pompēium exortum est. Nam Pompēius, quī summum imperium petēbat, senātuī persuāserat ut Caesarem reī pūblicae hostem3 iūdicāret et exercitum eius dīmittī iubēret. Quibus cognitīs rēbus Caesar exercitum suum dīmittere recūsāvit, atque, hortātus mīlitēs ut ducem totiēns victōrem ab inimīcōrum iniūriīs dēfenderent, imperāvit ut sē Rōmam sequerentur. Summā cum alacritāte mīlitēs pāruērunt, et trānsitō Rubicōne4 initium bellī cīvīlis factum est.

Italiae urbēs quidem omnēs ferē 5rēbus Caesaris favēbant et eum benignē excēpērunt. Quā rē commōtus Pompēius ante Caesaris adventum Rōmā excessit et Brundisium6 pervēnit, inde 7paucīs post diēbus cum omnibus cōpiīs ad Ēpīrum mare trānsiit. Eum Caesar cum septem legiōnibus et quīngentīs equitibus secūtus est, et īnsignis inter Caesaris comitātum erat Pūblius.

Plūribus leviōribus proeliīs factīs, tandem cōpiae adversae ad Pharsālum8 in Thessaliā sitam castra posuērunt. Cum Pompeī exercitus 223 esset bis tantus quantus Caesaris, tamen erant multī quī veterānās legiōnēs quae Gallōs et Germānōs superāverant vehementer timēbant. Quōs9 10ante proelium commissum Labiēnus11 lēgātus, quī ab Caesare nūper dēfēcerat, ita adlocūtus est: “12Nōlīte exīstimāre hunc esse exercitum veterānōrum mīlitum. Omnibus interfuī proeliīs13 neque temerē incognitam rem prōnūntiō. Perexigua pars illīus exercitūs quī Gallōs superāvit adhūc superest. Magna pars occīsa est, multī domum discessērunt, multī sunt relictī in Italiā. Hae cōpiae quās vidētis in 14citeriōre Galliā nūper cōnscrīptae sunt.” Haec15 cum dīxisset, iūrāvit sē nisi victōrem in castra nōn reversūrum esse. 16Hoc idem Pompēius et omnēs reliquī iūrāvērunt, et magnā spē et laetitiā, sīcut certam ad victōriam, cōpiae ē castrīs exiērunt.

Item Caesar, animō17 ad dīmicandum parātus, exercitum suum ēdūxit et septem cohortibus 18praesidiō castrīs relictīs cōpiās triplicī aciē īnstrūxit. Tum, mīlitibus studiō pugnae ārdentibus, tubā signum dedit. Mīlitēs prōcurrērunt et pīlīs missīs gladiōs strīnxērunt. Neque vērō virtūs hostibus dēfuit. Nam et tēla missa sustinuērunt et impetum gladiōrum excēpērunt et ōrdinēs cōnservāvērunt. Utrimque diū et ācriter pugnātum est nec quisquam pedem rettulit. Tum equitēs Pompēī aciem Caesaris circumīre cōnātī sunt. Quod19 ubi Caesar animadvertit, tertiam aciem,20 quae ad id tempus quiēta fuerat, prōcurrere iussit. Tum vērō integrōrum impetum21 dēfessī hostēs sustinēre nōn potuērunt et omnēs terga vertērunt. Sed Pompēius dē fortūnīs suīs dēspērāns sē in castra equō contulit, inde mox cum paucīs equitibus effūgit.

1. With nē ... quidem the emphatic word stands between the two.
2. The Civil War was caused by the jealousy and rivalry between Cæsar and Pompey. It resulted in the defeat and subsequent death of Pompey and the elevation of Cæsar to the lordship of the Roman world.
3. hostem, predicate accusative, § 501. 22.
4. The Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that marked the boundary of Cæsar’s province. By crossing it with an armed force Cæsar declared war upon Pompey and the existing government. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon early in the year 49 B.C.
5. rēbus Caesaris favēbant, favored Cæsar’s side. In what case is rēbus?
6. Brundisium, a famous port in southern Italy whence ships sailed for Greece and the East. See map.
7. paucīs post diēbus, a few days later; literally, afterguards by a few days. Cf. paucīs ante annīs, p. 213, l. 12, and note.
7. The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C. In importance it ranks as one of the great battles of the world.
8. Quōs, obj. of adlocūtus est.
10. ante proelium commissum, before the beginning of the battle.
11. Labiēnus, Cæsar’s most faithful and skillful lieutenant in the Gallic War. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 49 B.C., he deserted Cæsar and joined Pompey. His defection caused the greatest joy among the Pompeian party; but he disappointed the expectations of his new friends, and never accomplished anything of importance. He fought against his old commander in several battles and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 45 B.C.
12. Nōlīte exīstimāre, don´t think.
13. proeliīs, § 501. 15.
14. citeriōre Galliā. This name is applied to Cisalpine Gaul, or Gaul south of the Alps.
15. Haec, obj. of dīxisset.
16. Hoc idem, obj. of iūrāvērunt.
17. animō, § 501. 30.
18. praesidiō castrīs, § 501. 17.
19. Quod, obj. of animadvertit.
20. aciem, subj. of prōcurrere.
21. impetum, obj. of sustinēre.
224
LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR

standard-bearer
SIGNIFER

Pompēiō amīcīsque eius superātīs atque omnibus hostibus ubīque victīs, Caesar imperātor Rōmam rediit et 1extrā moenia urbis in campō Mārtiō castra posuit. Tum vērō amplissimīs honōribus adfectus est. Dictātor creātus est, et eī triumphus ā senātū est dēcrētus. 2Quō diē de Gallīs triumphum ēgit, tanta multitūdō hominum in urbem undique cōnflūxit 3ut omnia loca essent cōnferta. Templa patēbant, ārae fūmābant, columnae sertīs ōrnātae erant. 4Cum vērō pompa urbem intrāret, quantus hominum fremitus ortus est! Prīmum per portam ingressī sunt senātus et magistrātūs. Secūtī sunt tībīcinēs, signiferī, peditēs laureā corōnātī canentēs: “Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, quī subēgit Galliam,” et “Mīlle, mīlle, mīlle, mīlle Gallōs trucīdāvimus.” Multī praedam captārum urbium portābant, arma, omnia bellī īnstrūmenta. Secūtī sunt equitēs, animōsīs atque splendidissimē ōrnātīs equīs vectī, inter quōs Pūblius adulēscēns fortissimus habēbātur. Addūcēbantur taurī, arietēs, 5quī dīs immortālibus immolārentur. Ita longō agmine prōgrediēns exercitus 6sacrā viā per forum in Capitōlium perrēxit.

lictors with fasces
LICTORES CUM FASCIBUS

Imperātor ipse cum urbem intrāret, undique laetō clāmōre multitūdinis salūtātus est. Stābat in currū aureō quem quattuor albī equī vehēbant. Indūtus 7togā pictā, alterā manū habēnās et lauream 225 tenēbat, alterā eburneum scēptrum. Post eum servus in currū stāns auream corōnam super caput eius tenēbat. Ante currum miserrimī captīvī, rēgēs prīncipēsque superātārum gentium, catēnīs vīnctī, prōgrediēbantur; et vīgintī quattuor līctōrēs8 laureatās fascīs ferentēs et signiferī currum Caesaris comitābantur. Conclūdit agmen multitūdō captīvōrum, quī, in servitūtem redāctī,9 dēmissō vultū, vīnctīs10 bracchiīs, sequuntur; quibuscum veniunt longissimō ōrdine mīlitēs, etiam hī praedam vel insignia mīlitāria ferentēs.

Caesar cum Capitōlium ascendisset, in templō Iovī Capitōlīnō sacra fēcit. Simul11 captivōrum quī nōbilissimī erant, abductī in carcerem,12 interfectī sunt. Sacrīs factīs Caesar dē Capitōliō dēscendit et in forō mīitibus suīs honōrēs mīlitārīs dedit eīsque pecūniam ex bellī praedā distribuit.

Hīs omnibus rēbus cōnfectīs, Pūblius Caesarem valēre13 iussit et quam celerrimē ad vīllam contendit ut patrem mātremque salūtāret.

15Dē rēbus gestīs P. Cornēlī Lentulī hāctenus.

1. A victorious general with his army was not allowed to enter the city until the day of his triumph. A triumph was the greatest of all military honors.
2. Quō diē, on the day that, abl. of time.
3. ut ... essent, § 501. 43.
4. Cum ... intrāret, § 501. 46.
5. quī ... immolārentur, § 501. 40.
6. The Sacred Way was a noted street running along one side of the Forum to the base of the Capitoline Hill, on whose summit stood the magnificent temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This route was always followed by triumphal processions.
7. The toga picta worn by a general in his triumph was a splendid robe of Tyrian purple covered with golden stars. See Plate IV, p. 213.
8. The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the higher magistrates and made a way for them through the streets. On their shoulders they carried the fasces, a bundle of rods with an ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of the law.
9. dēmissō vultū, with downcast countenance.
10. vīnctīs, from vinciō.
12. Simul, etc., At the same time those of the captives who were the noblest.
12. The prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of the Capitoline Hill.
13. valēre iussit, bade farewell to.
14. This sentence marks the end of the story.
226

APPENDIX I

DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC.

NOUNS

460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive singular.

First Declension—Ā-stems, Gen. Sing. -ae

Second Declension—O-stems, Gen. Sing.

Third Declension—Consonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing. -is

Fourth Declension—U-stems, Gen. Sing. -ūs

Fifth Declension—Ē-stems, Gen. Sing. -ē̆ī

461. FIRST DECLENSION. Ā-STEMS

domina, lady   Stem dominā-   Base domin-
SingularPlural
TERMINATIONSTERMINATIONS
Nom.domina-adominae-ae
Gen.dominae-aedominārum-ārum
Dat.dominae-aedominīs-īs
Acc.dominam-amdominās-ās
Abl.dominādominīs-īs

a. Dea and fīlia have the termination -ābus in the dative and ablative plural.

227 462. SECOND DECLENSION. O-STEMS

a. Masculines in -us

dominus, master   Stem domino-   Base domin-
SingularPlural
TERMINATIONSTERMINATIONS
Nom.dominus-usdominī
Gen.dominīdominōrum-ōrum
Dat.dominōdominīs-īs
Acc.dominum-umdominōs-ōs
Abl.dominōdominīs-īs

1. Nouns in -us of the second declension have the termination -e´ in the vocative singular, as domine.

2. Proper names in -ius, and filius, end in in the vocative singular, and the accent rests on the penult, as Vergi´lī, fīlī.

b. Neuters in -um

pīlum, spear   Stem   pīlo- Base pīl-
SingularPlural
TERMINATIONSTERMINATIONS
Nom.pīlum-umpīla-a
Gen.pīlīpīlōrum-ōrum
Dat.pīlōpīlīs-īs
Acc.pīlum-umpīla-a
Abl.pīlōpīlīs-īs

1. Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in in the genitive singular, not in -iī, and the accent rests on the penult.

c. Masculines in -er AND -ir

puer, boyager, fieldvir, man
Stemspuero-agro-viro-
Basespuer-agr-vir-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.pueragervir
Gen.puerīagrīvirī
Dat.puerōagrōvirō
Acc.puerumagrumvirum-um
Abl.puerōagrōvirō
228 Plural
Nom.puerīagrīvirī
Gen.puerōrumagrōrumvirōrumrum
Dat.puerīsagrīsvirīss
Acc.puerōsagrōsvirōss
Abl.puerīsagrīsvirīss

463. THIRD DECLENSION.

CLASSIFICATION I. Consonant Stems

1. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only.

2. Stems that add no termination in the nominitive singular: a. masculines and feminines; b. neuters.

II. I-Stems.Masculines, feminines, and neuters.

464. I. CONSONANT STEMS

1. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only

prīnceps, m., chiefmīles, m., soldierlapis, m., stone
Bases or
Stems
prīncip-mīlit-lapid-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.prīncepsmīleslapis-s
Gen.prīn´cipismīlitislapidis-is
Dat.prīn´cipīmīlitīlapidī
Acc.prīn´cipemmīlitemlapidem-em
Abl.prīn´cipemīlitelapide-e
Plural
Nom.prīn´cipēsmīlitēslapidēs-ēs
Gen.prīn´cipummīlitumlapidum-um
Dat.prīnci´pibusmīlitibuslapidibus-ibus
Acc.prīn´cipēsmīlitēslapidēs-ēs
Abl.prīnci´pibusmīlitibuslapidibus-ibus
 
rēx, m., kingiūdex, m., judgevirtūs, f., manliness
Bases or
Stems
rēg-iūdic-virtūt-
Nom.rēxiūdexvirtūs-s
Gen.rēgisiūdicisvirtū´tis-is
Dat.rēgīiūdicīvirtū´tī
Acc.rēgemiūdicemvirtū´tem-em
Abl.rēgeiūdicevirtū´te-e
Plural
Nom.rēgēsiūdicēsvirtū´tēs-ēs
Gen.rēgumiūdicumvirtū´tum-um
Dat.rēgibusiūdicibusvirtū´tibus-ibus
Acc.rēgēsiūdicēsvirtū´tēs-ēs
Abl.rēgibusiūdicibusvirtū´tibus-ibus

Note. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 233. 3.

2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular

a. Masculines and Feminines

cōnsul, m., consullegiō, f., legionōrdō, m., rowpater, m., father
Bases or
Stems
cōnsul-legiōn-ōrdin-patr-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.cōnsullegiōōrdōpater
Gen.cōnsulislegiōnisōrdinispatris-is
Dat.cōnsulīlegiōnīōrdinīpatrī
Acc.cōnsulemlegiōnemōrdinempatrem-em
Abl.cōnsulelegiōneōrdinepatre-e
Plural
Nom.cōnsulēslegiōnēsōrdinēspatrēs-ēs
Gen.cōnsulumlegiōnumōrdinumpatrum-um
Dat.cōnsulibuslegiōnibusōrdinibuspatribus-ibus
Acc.cōnsulēslegiōnēsōrdinēspatrēs-ēs
Abl.cōnsulibuslegiōnibusōrdinibuspatribus-ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 236. 1-3.

230 b. Neuters

flūmen, n., rivertempus, n., timeopus, n., workcaput, n., head
Bases or
Stems
flūmin-tempor-oper-capit-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.flūmentempusopuscaput
Gen.flūministemporisoperiscapitis -is-is
Dat.flūminītemperīoperīcapitī
Acc.flūmentempusopuscaput
Abl.flūminetemporeoperecapite-e
Plural
Nom.flūminatemporaoperacapita-a
Gen.flūminumtemporumoperumcapitum-um
Dat.flūminibustemporibusoperibuscapitibus-ibus
Acc.flūminatemporaoperacapita-a
Abl.flūminibustemporibusoperibuscapitibus-ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 238. 2, 3.

465. II. I-STEMS

a. Masculines and Feminines

caedēs, f., slaughterhostis, m., enemyurbs, f., citycliēns, m., retainer
Stemscaedi-hosti-urbi-clienti-
Basescaed-host-urb-client-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.caedēshostisurbscliēns-s, -is, or -ēs
Gen.caedishostisurbisclientis-is
Dat.caedīhostīurbīclientī
Acc.caedemhostemurbemclientem-em (-im)
Abl.caedehosteurbecliente-e ()
Plural
Nom.caedēshostēsurbēsclientēs-ēs
Gen.caediumhostiumurbiumclientium-ium
Dat.caedibushostibusurbibusclientibus-ibus
Acc.caedīs, -ēshostīs, -ēsurbīs, -ēsclientīs, -ēs-īs, -ēs
Abl.caedibushostibusurbibusclientibus-ibus

1. Avis, cīvis, fīnis, ignis, nāvis, have the abl. sing. in or -e.

2. Turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrī or turre.

231 b. Neuters

īnsigne, n., decorationanimal, n., animalcalcar, n., spur
Stemsīnsigni-animāli-calcāri-
Basesīnsign-animāl-calcār-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.īnsigneanimalcalcar-e or
Gen.īnsignisanimāliscalcāris-is
Dat.īnsignīanimālīcalcārī
Acc.īnsigneanimalcalcar-e or
Abl.īnsignīanimālīcalcārī
Plural
Nom.īnsigniaanimāliacalcāria-ia
Gen.īnsigniumanimāliumcalcārium-ium
Dat.īnsignibusanimālibuscalcāribus-ibus
Acc.īnsigniaanimāliacalcāria-ia
Abl.īnsignibusanimālibuscalcāribus-ibus

466. THE FOURTH DECLENSION. U-STEMS

adventus, m., arrivalcornū, n., horn
Stemsadventu-cornu-
Basesadvent-corn-
SingularTERMINATIONS
MASC.NEUT.
Nom.adventuscornū-us
Gen.adventūscornūs-ūs-ūs
Dat.advent (ū)cornū-uī (ū)
Acc.adventumcornū-um
Abl.adventūcornū
Plural
Nom.adventūscornua-ūs-ua
Gen.adventuumcornuum-uum-uum
Dat.adventibuscornibus-ibus-ibus
Acc.adventūscornua-ūs-ua
Abl.adventibuscornibus-ibus-ibus

232 467. THE FIFTH DECLENSION. Ē-STEMS

diēs, m., dayrēs, f. thing
Stemsdiē-rē-
Basesdi-r-
SingularTERMINATIONS
Nom.diēsrēs-ēs
Gen.diēīr-ē̆ī
Dat.diēīr-ē̆ī
Acc.diemrem-em
Abl.diērē
Plural
Nom.diēsrēs-ēs
Gen.diērumrērum-ērum
Dat.diēbusrēbus-ēbus
Acc.diēsrēs-ēs
Abl.diēbusrēbus-ēbus

468. SPECIAL PARADIGMS

deus, m., goddomus, f., housevīs, f., strengthiter, n., way
Stemsdeo-domu-vī- and vīri-iter- and itiner-
Basesde-dom-v- and vīr-iter- and itiner-
Singular
Nom.deusdomusvīsiter
Gen.deīdomūsvīs (rare)itineris
Dat.deōdomuī, -ōvī (rare)itinerī
Acc.deumdomumvimiter
Abl.deōdomō, -ūvīitinere
Plural
Nom.deī, dīdomūsvīrēsitinera
Gen.deōrum, deumdomuum, -ōrumvīriumitinerum
Dat.deīs, dīsdomibusvīribusitineribus
Acc.deōsdomōs, -ūsvīrīs, -ēsitinera
Abl.deīs, dīsdomibusvīribusitineribus

a. The vocative singular of deus is like the nominative.

b. The locative of domus is domī.

233
ADJECTIVES

469. FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. O- AND Ā-STEMS

a. Adjectives in -us

bonus, good   Stems bono- m. and n., bona- f.   Base bon-
Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.bonusbonabonum
Gen.bonībonaebonī
Dat.bonōbonaebonō
Acc.bonumbonambonum
Abl.bonōbonābonō
Plural
Nom.bonībonaebona
Gen.bonōrumbonārumbonōrum
Dat.bonīsbonīsbonīs
Acc.bonōsbonāsbona
Abl.bonīsbonīsbonīs

b. Adjectives in -er

līber, free   Stems lībero- m. and n., līberā- f.   Base līber-
Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.līberlīberalīberum
Gen.līberīlīberaelīberī
Dat.līberōlīberaelīberō
Acc.līberumlīberamlīberum
Abl.līberōlīberālīberō
Plural
Nom.līberīlīberaelībera
Gen.līberōrumlīberārumlīberōrum
Dat.līberīslīberīslīberīs
Acc.līberōslīberāslībera
Abl.līberīslīberīslīberīs
234
pulcher, pretty   Stems pulchro- m. and n., pulchrā- f.   Base pulchr-
Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.pulcherpulchrapulchrum
Gen.pulchrīpulchraepulchrī
Dat.pulchrōpulchraepulchrō
Acc.pulchrumpulchrampulchrum
Abl.pulchrōpulchrāpulchrō
Plural
Nom.pulchrīpulchraepulchra
Gen.pulchrōrumpulchrārumpulchrōrum
Dat.pulchrīspulchrīspulchrīs
Acc.pulchrōspulchrāspulchra
Abl.pulchrīspulchrīspulchrīs

470. THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

alius, another   Stems alio- m. and n., aliā- f.   Base ali-
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.aliusaliaaliudaliīaliaealia
Gen.alīusalīusalīusaliōrumaliārumaliōrum
Dat.aliīaliīaliīaliīsaliīsaliīs
Acc.aliumaliamaliudaliōsaliāsalia
Abl.aliōaliāaliōaliīsaliīsaliīs
 
ūnus, one, only   Stems ūno- m. and n., ūnā- f.   Base ūn-
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.ūnusūnaūnumūnīūnaeūna
Gen.ūnīusūnīusūnīusūnōrumūnārumūnōrum
Dat.ūnīūnīūnīūnīsūnīsūnīs
Acc.ūnumūnamūnumūnōsūnāsūna
Abl.ūnōūnāūnōūnīsūnīsūnīs

a. For the complete list see § 108.

235 471. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. I-STEMS

I. THREE ENDINGS
ācer, ācris, ācre, keen, eager Stem ācri-   Base ācr-
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.ācerācrisācreācrēsācrēsācria
Gen.ācrisācrisācrisācriumācriumācrium
Dat.ācrīācrīācrīācribusācribusācribus
Acc.ācremācremācreācrīs, -ēsācrīs, -ēsācria
Abl.ācrīācrīācrīācribusācribusācribus
II. TWO ENDINGS
omnis, omne, every, all Stem omni-   Base omn-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.omnisomneomnēsomnia
Gen.omnisomnisomniumomnium
Dat.omnīomnīomnibusomnibus
Acc.omnemomneomnīs, -ēsomnia
Abl.omnīomnīomnibusomnibus
III. ONE ENDING
pār, equal   Stem pari-   Base par-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.pārpārparēsparia
Gen.parisparispariumparium
Dat.parīparīparibusparibus
Acc.parempārparīs, -ēsparia
Abl.parīparīparibusparibus

1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular.

This sentence appears to be a footnote, but there is no footnote tag on the page.

236 472. PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

amāns, loving   Stem amanti-   Base amant-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.amānsamānsamantēsamantia
Gen.amantisamantisamantiumamantium
Dat.amantīamantīamantibusamantibus
Acc.amantemamānsamantīs, -ēsamantia
Abl.amante, -īamante, -īamantibusamantibus
 
iēns, going   Stem ienti-, eunti-   Base ient-, eunt-
Nom.iēnsiēnseuntēseuntia
Gen.euntiseuntiseuntiumeuntium
Dat.euntīeuntīeuntibuseuntibus
Acc.euntemiēnseuntīs, -ēseuntia
Abl.eunte, -īeunte, -īeuntibuseuntibus

473. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
MASC.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
altus (alto-)altioraltiusaltissimus-a-um
līber (lībero-)līberiorlīberiuslīberrimus-a-um
pulcher (pulchro-)pulchriorpulchriuspulcherrimus-a-um
audāx (audāci-)audācioraudāciusaudācissimus-a-um
brevis (brevi-)breviorbreviusbrevissimus-a-um
ācer (ācri-)ācriorācriusācerrimus-a-um

474. DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

altior, higher
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.altioraltiusaltiōrēsaltiōra
Gen.altiōrisaltiōrisaltiōrumaltiōrum
Dat.altiōrīaltiōrīaltiōribusaltiōribus
Acc.altiōremaltiusaltiōrēsaltiōra
Abl.altiōrealtiōrealtiōribusaltiōribus
237
plūs, more
Nom.——plūsplūrēsplūra
Gen.——plūrisplūriumplūrium
Dat.————plūribusplūribus
Acc.——plūsplūrīs (-ēs)plūra
Abl.——plūreplūribusplūribus

475. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
bonus, -a, -um, goodmelior, melius, betteroptimus, -a, -um, best
malus, -a, -um, badpeior, peius, worsepessimus, -a, -um, worst
magnus, -a, -um, greatmaior, maius, greatermaximus, -a, -um, greatest
multus, -a, -um, much——, plūs, moreplūrimus, -a, -um, most
parvus, -a, -um, smallminor, minus, smallerminimus, -a, -um, smallest
senex, senis, oldseniormaximus nātū
iuvenis, -e, youngiūniorminimus nātū
vetus, veteris, oldvetustior, -iusveterrimus, -a, -um
facilis, -e, easyfacilior, -iusfacillimus, -a, -um
difficilis, -e, difficultdifficilior, -iusdifficillimus, -a, -um
similis, -e, similarsimilior, -iussimillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, -e, dissimilardissimilior, -iusdissimillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e, lowhumilior, -iushumillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e, slendergracilior, -iusgracillimus, -a, -um
exterus, outwardexterior, outer, exteriorextrēmus
extimus
outermost, last
īnferus, belowīnferior, lowerīnfimus
īmus
lowest
posterus, followingposterior, laterpostrēmus
postumus
last
superus, abovesuperior, highersuprēmus
summus
highest
[cis, citrā, on this side]citerior, hithercitimus, hithermost
[in, intrā, in, within]interior, innerintimus, inmost
[prae, prō, before]prior, formerprīmus, first
[prope, near]propior, nearerproximus, next
[ultrā, beyond]ulterior, furtherultimus, furthest
238

476. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
cārē (cārus), dearlycāriuscārissimē
miserē (miser), wretchedlymiseriusmiserrimē
ācriter (ācer), sharplyācriusācerrimē
facile (facilis), easilyfaciliusfacillimē

477. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
diū, long, a long timediūtiusdiūtissimē
bene (bonus), wellmelius, betteroptimē, best
male (malus), illpeius, worsepessimē, worst
magnopere, greatlymagis, moremaximē, most
multum (multus), muchplūs, moreplūrimum, most
parum, littleminus, lessminimē, least
saepe, oftensaepīussaepissimē

478. NUMERALS

The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting ūnus, duo, trēs, the hundreds above one hundred, and mīlle used as a noun. The ordinals are declined like bonus, -a, -um.

CardinalsOrdinals
(How many) (In what order)
1,ūnus, -a, -um,oneprīmus, -a, -umfirst
2,duo, duae, duotwosecundus (or alter)second
3,trēs, triathree,tertiusthird,
4,quattuoretc.quārtusetc.
5,quīnquequīntus
6,sexsextus
7,septemseptimus
8,octōoctāvus
9,novemnōnus
10,decemdecimus
11,ūndecimūndecimus
12,duodecimduodecimus
13,tredecim (decem (et) trēs)tertius decimus
14,quattuordecimquārtus decimus
15, 239 quīndecimquīntus decimus
16,sēdecimsextus decimus
17,septendecimseptimus decimus
18,duodēvīgintī (octōdecim)duodēvīcēnsimus
19,ūndēvīgintī (novendecim)ūndēvīcēnsimus
20,vīgintīvīcēnsimus
21,vīgintī ūnus or
ūnus et vīgintī, etc.
vīcēnsimus prīmus or
ūnus et vīcēnsimus, etc.
30,trīgintātrīcēnsimus
40,quadrāgintāquadrāgēnsimus
50,quīnquāgintāquīnquāgēnsimus
60,sexāgintāsexāgēnsimus
70,septuāgintāseptuāgēnsimus
80,octōgintāoctōgēnsimus
90,nōnāgintānōnāgēnsimus
100,centumcentum
101,centum (et) ūnus, etc.centum (et) ūnus, etc.
120,centum (et) vīgintīcentum (et) vīgintī
121,centum (et) vīgintī ūnus, etc.centum (et) vīgintī ūnus, etc.
200,ducentī, -ae, -aducentī, -ae, -a
300,trecentītrecentī
400,quadringentīquadringentī
500,quīngentīquīngentī
600,sescentīsescentī
700,septingentīseptingentī
800,octingentīoctingentī
900,nōngentīnōngentī
1000,mīllemīlle

479. Declension of duo, two, trēs, three, and mīlle, a thousand.

Masc.Fem.Neut.M. and F.Neut.Sing.Plur.
N.duoduaeduotrēstrīamīllemīlia
G.duōrumduārumduōrumtriumtriummīllemīlium
D.duōbusduābusduōbustribustribusmīllemīlibus
A.duōs or duoduāsduotrīs or trēstriamīllemīlia
A.duōbusduābusduōbustribustribusmīllemīlibus

Note. Mīlle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the declension of ūnus cf. § 470.

240
PRONOUNS

480. PERSONAL

ego, I, yousuī, of himself, etc.
Sing.Plur.Sing.Plur.Sing.Plur.
Nom.egonōsvōs————
Gen.meīnostrum, -trītuīvestrum, -trīsuīsuī
Dat.mihinōbīstibivōbīssibisibi
Acc.nōsvōssē, sēsēsē, sēsē
Abl.nōbīsvōbīssē, sēsēsē, sēsē

Note that suī is always reflexive.

481. DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the pronominal endings -ī̆us and in the gen. and dat. sing.

ipse, self
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.ipseipsaipsumipsīipsaeipsa
Gen.ipsī´usipsī´usipsī´usipsōrumipsārumipsōrum
Dat.ipsīipsīipsīipsīsipsīsipsīs
Acc.ipsumipsamipsumipsōsipsāsipsa
Abl.ipsōipsāipsōipsīsipsīsipsīs
 
hic, this (here), he
Nom.hichaechochaehaec
Gen.huiushuiushuiushōrumhārumhōrum
Dat.huichuichuichīshīshīs
Acc.hunchanchochōshāshaec
Abl.hōchāchōchīshīshīs
 
iste, this, that (of yours), he
Nom.isteistaistudistīistaeista
Gen.istī´usistī´usistī´usistōrumistārumistōrum
Dat.istīistīistīistīsistīsistīs
Acc.istumistamistudistōsistāsista
Abl.istōistāistōistīsistīsistīs
241
ille, that (yonder), he
Nom.illeillailludillīillaeilla
Gen.illī´usillī´usillī´usillōrumillārumillōrum
Dat.illīillīillīillīsillīsillīs
Acc.illumillamilludillōsillāsilla
Abl.illōillāillōillīsillīsillīs
 
is, this, that, he
Nom.iseaidiī, eīeaeea
Gen.eiuseiuseiuseōrumeārumeōrum
Dat.iīs, eīsiīs, eīsiīs, eīs
Acc.eumeamideōseāsea
Abl.iīs, eīsiīs, eīsiīs, eīs
 
īdem, the same
Nom.īdeme´ademidemiī´dem
eī´dem
eae´deme´adem
Gen.eius´demeius´demeius´demeōrun´demeārun´demeōrun´dem
Dat.eī´demeī´demeī´demiīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
Acc.eun´demean´demidemeōs´demeās´deme´adem
Abl.eō´demeā´demeō´demiīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem

Note. In the plural of is and īdem the forms with two i’s are preferred, the two i’s being pronounced as one.

482. RELATIVE

quī, who, which, that
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quīquaequodquīquaequae
Gen.cuiuscuiuscuiusquōrumquārumquōrum
Dat.cuicuicuiquibusquibusquibus
Acc.quemquamquodquōsquāsquae
Abl.quōquāquōquibusquibusquibus

242 483. INTERROGATIVE

quis, substantive, who, what
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quisquidquiquaequae
Gen.cuiuscuiusquōrumquārumquōrum
Dat.cuicuiquibusquibusquibus
Acc.quemquidquōsquāsquae
Abl.quōquōquibusquibusquibus

The interrogative adjective quī, quae, quod, is declined like the relative.

484. INDEFINITES

quis and quī, as declined above,1 are used also as indefinites (some, any). The other indefinites are compounds of quis and quī.

quisque, each
SubstantiveAdjective
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quisquequidquequisquequaequequodque
Gen.cuius´quecuius´quecuius´quecuius´quecuius´que
Dat.cuiquecuiquecuiquecuiquecuique
Acc.quemquequidquequemquequamquequodque
Abl.quōquequōquequōquequāquequōque
1. qua is generally used instead of quae in the feminine nominative singular and in the neuter nominative and accusative plural.

485. quīdam, a certain one, a certain

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has quoddam and the substantive quiddam.

Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quīdamquaedamquoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Gen.cuius´damcuius´damcuius´dam
Dat.cuidamcuidamcuidam
Acc.quendamquandamquoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Abl.quōdamquādamquōdam
243 Plural
Nom.quīdamquaedamquaedam
Gen.quōrun´damquārun´damquōrun´dam
Dat.quibus´damquibus´damquibus´dam
Acc.quōsdamquāsdamquaedam
Abl.quibus´damquibus´damquibus´dam

486. quisquam, substantive, any one (at all)

MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quisquamquicquam (quidquam)
Gen.cuius´quamcuius´quam
Dat.cuiquamcuiquam
Acc.quemquamquicquam (quidquam)
Abl.quōquamquōquam

487. aliquis, substantive, some one.   aliquī, adjective, some

Singular
SubstantiveAdjective
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.aliquisaliquidaliquīaliquaaliquod
Gen.alicu´iusalicu´iusalicu´iusalicu´iusalicu´ius
Dat.alicuialicuialicuialicuialicui
Acc.aliquemaliquidaliquemaliquamaliquod
Abl.aliquōaliquōaliquōaliquāaliquō
Plural for both Substantive and Adjective
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.aliquīaliquaealiqua
Gen.aliquō´rumaliquā´rumaliquō´rum
Dat.ali´quibusali´quibusali´quibus
Acc.aliquōsaliquāsaliqua
Abl.ali´quibusali´quibusali´quibus

a. quis (quī), any one, any, is the least definite (§ 297. b). aliquis (aliquī), some one, some, is more definite than quis. quisquam, any one (at all), and its adjective ūllus, any, occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses of comparison.

244
REGULAR VERBS

488. FIRST CONJUGATION. Ā-VERBS. AMŌ

Principal Parts amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus
Pres. Stem amā-   Perf. Stem amāv-   Part. Stem amāt-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I love, am loving, do love, etc.I am loved, etc.
amōamāmusamoramāmur
amāsamātisamāris, -reamāminī
amatamantamāturamantur
IMPERFECT
I loved, was loving, did love, etc.I was loved, etc.
amābamamābāmusamābaramābāmur
amābāsamābātisamābāris, -reamābāminī
amābatamābantamābāturamābantur
FUTURE
I shall love, etc.I shall be loved, etc.
amāamābimusamāboramābimur
amābisamābitisamāberis, -reamābiminī
amābitamābuntamābituramābuntur
PERFECT
I have loved, loved, did love, etc.I have been (was) loved, etc.
amāviamāvimusamātus, -a, -umsumamātī, -ae, -asumus
amāvistīamāvistisesestis
amāvitamāvērunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had loved, etc.I had been loved, etc.
amāveramamāverāmusamātus, -a, -umeramamātī, -ae, -aerāmus
amāverāsamāverātiserāserātis
amāveratamāveranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have loved, etc.I shall have been loved, etc.
amāverōamāverimusamātus, -a, -umerōamātī, -ae, -aerimus
amāverisamāveritiseriseritis
amāveritamāverinteriterunt
245 SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
amemamēmusameramēmur
amēsamētisamēris, -reamēminī
ametamentamēturamentur
IMPERFECT
amāremamāremusamāreramārēmur
amārēsamārētisamārēris, -reamārēminī
amāretamārentamārēturamārentur
PERFECT
amāverimamāverimusamātus, -a, -umsimamātī, -ae, -asīmus
amāverisamāveritissīssītis
amāveritamāverintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
amāvissemamāvissēmusamātus, -a, -umessemamātī, -ae, -aessēmus
amāvissēsamāvissētisessēsessētis
amāvissetamāvissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
amā, love thouamāre, be thou loved
amāte, love yeamāminī, be ye loved
FUTURE
amā, thou shalt loveamātor, thou shalt be loved
amā, he shall loveamātor, he shall be loved
amātōte, you shall love——
amantō, they shall loveamantor, they shall be loved
INFINITIVE
Pres. amāre, to loveamā, to be loved
Perf. amāvisse, to have lovedamātus, -a, -um esse, to have been loved
Fut. amātūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to love[amātum īrī], to be about to be loved
PARTICIPLES
Pres. amāns, -antis, lovingPres. ——
Fut. amātūrus, -a, -um, about to loveGerundive1 amandus, -a, -um, to be loved
Perf. ——Perf. amātus, -a, -um, having been loved, loved
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. amandī, of loving Acc. [amātum], to love
Dat. amandō, for loving Abl. [amā], to love, in the loving
Acc. amandum, loving
Abl. amandō, by loving
1. Sometimes called the future passive participle.

246 489. SECOND CONJUGATION. Ē-VERBS. MONEŌ

Principal Parts moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus
Pres. Stem monē-   Perf. Stem monu-   Part. Stem monit-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I advise, etc.,I am advised, etc.
moneōmonēmusmoneormonēmur
monēsmonētismonēris, -remonēminī
monetmonentmonēturmonentur
IMPERFECT
I was advising, etc.,I was advised, etc.
monēbammonēbāmusmonēbarmonēbāmur
monēbāsmonēbātismonēbāris, -remonēbāminī
monēbatmonēbantmonēbāturmonēbāntur
FUTURE
I shall advise, etc.,I shall be advised, etc.
monēmonēbimusmonēbormonēbimur
monēbismonēbitismonēberis, -remonēbiminī
monēbitmonēbuntmonēbiturmonēbuntur
PERFECT
I have advised, I advised, etc.I have been (was) advised, etc.
monuīmonuimusmonitus, -a, -umsummonitī, -ae, -asumus
monuistīmonuistisesestis
monuitmonuērunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had advised, etc.,I had been advised, etc.
monuerammonuerāmusmonitus, -a, -umerammonitī, -ae, -aerāmus
monuerāsmonuerātiseraseratis
monueratmonueranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have advised, etc.I shall have been advised, etc.
monuerōmonuerimusmonitus, -a, -umerōmonitī, -ae, -aerimus
monuerismonuerītiseriseritis
monueritmonuerīnteriterunt
247 SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
moneammoneāmusmonearmoneāmur
moneāsmoneātismoneāris, -remoneāminī
moneatmoneantmoneāturmoneantur
IMPERFECT
monēremmonērēmusmonērermonērēmur
monērēsmonērētismonērēris, -remonērēminī
monēretmonērentmonērēturmonērentur
PERFECT
monuerimmonuerimusmonitus, -a, -umsimmonitī, -ae, -asīmus
monuerismonueritissīssītis
monueritmonuerintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
monuissemmonuissēmusmonitus, -a, -umessemmonitī, -ae, -aessēmus
monuissēsmonuissētisessēsessētis
monuissetmonuissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
monē, advise thoumonēre, be thou advised
monēte, advise yemonēminī, be ye advised
FUTURE
monē, thou shall advisemonētor, thou shalt be advised
monē, he shall advisemonētor, he shall be advised
monētōte, you shall advise——
monentō, they shall advisemonentor, they shall be advised
INFINITIVE
Pres. monēre, to advisemonē, to be advised
Perf. monuisse, to have advisedmonitus, -a, -um esse, to have been advised
Fut. monitūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to advise[monitum īrī], to be about to be advised
PARTICIPLES
Pres. monēns, -entis, advisingPres. ——
Fut. monitūrus, -a, -um, about to adviseGer. monendus, -a, -um, to be advised
Perf. ——Perf. monitus, -a, -um, having been advised, advised
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. monendī, of advisingAcc. [monitum], to advise
Dat. monendō, for advisingAbl. [monitū], to advise, in the advising
Acc. monendum, advising
Abl. monendō, by advising

248 490. THIRD CONJUGATION. Ĕ-VERBS. REGŌ

Principal Parts regō, regere, rexī, rēctus
Pres. Stem rege-   Perf. Stem rēx-   Part. Stem rēct-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I rule, etc.I am ruled, etc.
regōregimusre´gorre´gimur
regisregitisre´geris, -reregi´minī
regitreguntre´giturregun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was ruling, etc.I was ruled, etc.
regēbamregēbāmusregē´barregēbā´mur
regēbāsregēbātisregēbā´ris, -reregēbā´minī
regēbatregēbantregēbā´turregēban´tur
FUTURE
I shall rule, etc.I shall be ruled, etc.
regamregēmusre´garregē´mur
regēsregētisregē´ris, -reregē´minī
regetregentregē´turregen´tur
PERFECT
I have ruled, etc.I have been ruled, etc.
rēxīrēximusrēctus, -a, -umsumrēctī, -ae, -asumus
rēxistīrēxistisesestis
rēxitrēxērunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had ruled, etc.I had been ruled, etc.
rēxeramrēxerāmusrēctus, -a, -umeramrēctī, -ae, -aerāmus
rēxerāsrēxerātiserāserātis
rēxeratrēxeranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have ruled, etc.I shall have been ruled, etc.
rēxerōrēxerimusrēctus, -a, -umerōrēctī, -ae, -aerimus
rēxerisrēxeritiseriseritis
rēxeritrēxerinteriterunt
249 SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
regamregāmusregarregāmur
regāsregātisregāris, -reregāminī
regatregantregāturregantur
IMPERFECT
regeremregerēmusregererregerēmur
regerēsregerētisregerēris, -reregerēminī
regeretregerentregerēturregerentur
PERFECT
rēxerimrēxerimusrēctus, -a, -umsimrēctī, -ae, -asīmus
rēxerisrēxeritissīssītis
rēxeritrēxerintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
rēxissemrēxissēmusrēctus, -a, -umessemrēctī, -ae, -aessēmus
rēxissēsrēxissētisessēsessētis
rēxissetrēxissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
rege, rule thouregere, be thou ruled
regite, rule yeregiminī, be ye ruled
FUTURE
regitō, thou shalt ruleregitor, thou shalt be ruled
regitō he shall ruleregitor, he shall be ruled
regitōte, ye shall rule——
reguntō, they shall rulereguntor, they shall be ruled
INFINITIVE
Pres. regere, to ruleregī, to be ruled
Perf. rēxisse, to have ruledrēctus, -a, -um esse, to have been ruled
Fut.rēctūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to rule[rēctum īrī], to be about to be ruled
PARTICIPLES
Pres. regēns, -entis, rulingPres. ——
Fut. rēctūrus, -a, -um, about to ruleGer. regendus, -a, -um, to be ruled
Perf. ——Perf. rēctus, -a, -um, having been ruled, ruled
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. regendī, of rulingAcc [rēctum], to rule
Dat. regendō, for rulingAbl. [rēctū], to rule, in the ruling
Acc. regendum, ruling
Abl. regendō, by ruling

250 491. FOURTH CONJUGATION. Ī-VERBS. AUDIŌ

Principal Parts audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus
Pres. Stem audī-   Perf. Stem audīv-   Part. Stem audīt-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I hear, etc.I am heard, etc.
audiōaudīmusau´dioraudī´mur
audīsaudītisaudī´ris, -reaudī´minī
auditaudiuntaudī´turaudiun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was hearing, etc.I was heard, etc.
audiēbamaudiēbāmusaudiē´baraudiēbā´mur
audiēbāsaudiēbātisaudiēbā´ris, -reaudiēbā´minī
audiēbataudiēbantaudiēbā´turaudiēban´tur
FUTURE
I shall hear, etc.I shall be heard, etc.
audiamaudiēmusau´diaraudiē´mur
audiēsaudiētisaudiē´ris, -reaudiē´minī
audietaudientaudiē´turaudien´tur
PERFECT
I have heard, etc.I have been heard, etc.
audīvīaudīvimusaudītus, -a, -umsumaudītī, -ae, -asumus
audīvistīaudīvistisesestis
audīvitaudīvērunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had heard, etc.I had been heard, etc.
audīveramaudīverāmusaudītus, -a, -umeramaudītī, -ae, -aerāmus
audīverāsaudīverātiserāserātis
audīverataudīveranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have heard, etc.I shall have been heard, etc.
audīverōaudīverimusaudītus, -a, -umerōaudītī, -ae, -aerimus
audīverisaudīveritiseriseritis
audīveritaudīverinteriterunt
251 SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
audiamaudiāmusaudiaraudiāmur
audiāsaudiātisaudiāris, -reaudiāminī
audiataudiantaudiāturaudiantur
IMPERFECT
audīremaudīrēmusaudīreraudīrēmur
audīrēsaudīrētisaudīrēris, -reaudīrēminī
audīretaudīrentaudīrēturaudīrentur
PERFECT
audīverimaudiverimusaudītus, -a, -umsimaudītī, -ae, -asīmus
audīverisaudiveritissīssītis
audīveritaudīverintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
audīvissemaudīvissēmusaudītus, -a, -umessemaudītī, -ae, -aessēmus
audīvissēsaudīvissētisessēsessētis
audīvissetaudīvissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
audī, hear thouaudīre, be thou heard
audīte, hear yeaudīminī, be ye heard
FUTURE
audī, thou shalt hearaudītor, thou shalt be heard
audī, he shall hearaudītor, he shall be heard
audītōte, ye shall hear——
audiuntō, they shall hearaudiuntor, they shall be heard
INFINITIVE
Pres. audīre, to hearaudī, to be heard
audīvisse, to have heardaudītus, -a, -um esse, to have been heard
audītūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to hear[audītum īrī, to be about to be heard
PARTICIPLES
Pres. audiēns, -entis, hearingPres. ——
Fut. audītūrus, -a, -um, about to hearGer. audiendus, -a, -um to be heard
Perf. ——Perf. audītus, -a, -um, having been heard, heard
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. audiendī, of hearingAcc. [audītum], to hear
Dat. audiendō, for hearingAbl. [audītu], to hear, in the hearing
Acc. audiendum, hearing
Abl. audiendō, by hearing

252 492. THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN -IŌ. CAPIŌ

Principal Parts capiō, capere, cēpī, captus
Pres. Stem cape-   Perf. Stem cēp-   Part. Stem capt-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
capiōcapimusca´piorca´pimur
capiscapitisca´peris, -recapi´minī
capitcapiuntca´piturcapiun´tur
IMPERFECT
capiēbamcapiebamuscapiē´barcapiēbā´mur
capiēbascapiēbātiscapiēba´ris, -recapiēbā´minī
capiēbatcapiēbantcapiēbā´turcapieban´tur
FUTURE
capiamcapiēmusca´piarcapiē´mur
capiēscapiētiscapiē´ris, -recapiē´minī
capietcapientcapiē´turcapien´tur
PERFECT
cēpī, cēpistī, cēpit, etc.captus, -a, -um   sum, es, est, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cēperam, cēperās, cēperat, etc.captus, -a, -um   eram, erās, erat, etc.
FUTURE PERFECT
cēperō, cēperis, cēperit, etc.captus, -a, -um   erō, eris, erit, etc.
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
capiam, capiās, capiat, etc.capiar, -iāris, -re, -iātur, etc.
IMPERFECT
caperem, caperēs, caperet, etc.caperer, -erēris, -re, -erētur, etc.
PERFECT
cēperim, cēperis, cēperit, etc.captus, -a, -um   sim, sīs, sit, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cēpissem, cēpissēs, cēpisset, etc.captus,-a, -um   essem, essēs, esset, etc.
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
2d Pers. capecapitecaperecapiminī
253 FUTURE
2d Pers. capicapitōtecapitor——
3rd Pers. capicapiuntōcapitorcapiuntor
INFINITIVE
Pres. caperecapī
Perf. cēpissecaptus, -a, -um esse
Fut. captūrus, -a, -um esse[captum īrī]
PARTICIPLES
Pres. capiēns, -ientisPres. ——
Fut. captūrus, -a, -umGer. capiendus, -a, -um
Perf. ——Perf. captus, -a, -um
GERUNDSUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. capiendīAcc. [captum]
etc.Abl. [captū]

493. DEPONENT VERBS

Principal PartsI.hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum, urge
II.vereor, verērī, veritus sum, fear
III.sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow
IV.partior, partīrī, partītus sum, share, divide

Note. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -iō verbs of the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capiō.

Indicative
Pres.hortorvereorsequorpartior
hortāris, -reverēris, -resequeris, -repartīris, -re
hortāturverētursequiturpartītur
hortāmurverēmursequimurpartīmur
hortāminīverēminīsequiminīpartīminī
hortanturverentursequunturpartiuntur
Impf.hortābarverēbarsequēbarpartiēbar
Fut.hortāborverēborsequarpartiar
Perf.hortātus sumveritus sumsecūtus sumpartītus sum
Plup.hortātus eramveritus eramsecūtus erampartītus eram
F. P.hortātus erōveritus erōsecūtus erōpartītus erō
254 Subjunctive
Pres.horterverearsequarpartiar
Impf.hortārerverērersequererpartīrer
Perf.hortātus simveritus simsecūtus simpartītus sim
Plup.hortātus essemveritus essemsecūtus essempartītus essem
Imperative
Pres.hortāreverēresequerepartīre
Fut.hortātorverētorsequitorpartītor
Infinitive
Pres.hortārīverērīsequīpartīrī
Perf.hortātus esseveritus essesecūtus essepartītus esse
Fut.*hortātūrus esse*veritūrus esse*secūtūrus esse*partītūrus esse
Participles
Pres.*hortāns*verēns*sequēns*partiēns
Fut.*hortāturus*veritūrus*secūtūrus*partītūrus
Perf.hortātusveritussecūtuspartītus
Ger.hortandusverendussequenduspartiendus
Gerund
*hortandī, etc.*verendī, etc.*sequendī, etc.*partiendī, etc.
Supine
*[hortātus, -tū]*[veritum, -tū]*[secūtum, -tū]*[partītum, -tū]
IRREGULAR VERBS

494. sum, am, be

Principal Parts sum, esse, fuī, futūrus
Pres. Stem es-   Perf. Stem fu-   Part. Stem fut-  
Indicative
Present
SINGULARPLURAL
sum, I amsumus, we are
es, thou artestis, you are
est, he (she, it) issunt, they are
Imperfect
eram, I waserāmus, we were
erās, thou wasterātis, you were
erat, he waserant, they were
255 Future
erō, I shall beerimus, we shall be
eris, thou wilt beeritis, you will be
erit, he will beerunt, they will be
Perfect
fuī, I have been, wasfuimus, we have been, were
fuistī, thou hast been, wastfuistis, you have been, were
fuit, he has been, wasfuērunt, fuēre, they have been, were
Pluperfect
fueram, I had beenfuerāmus, we had been
fuerās, thou hadst beenfuerātis, you had been
fuerat, he had beenfuerant, they had been
Future Perfect
fuerō, I shall have beenfuerimus, we shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have beenfueritis, you will have been
fuerit, he will have beenfuerint, they will have been
Subjunctive
PresentImperfect
SINGULARPLURALSINGULARPLURAL
simsīmusessemessēmus
sīssītisessēsessētis
sitsintessetessent
PerfectPluperfect
fuerimfuerimusfuissemfuissēmus
fuerisfueritisfuissēsfuissētis
fueritfuerintfuissetfuissent
Imperative
PRESENTFUTURE
2d Pers. Sing. es, be thou2d Pers. Sing. es, thou shalt be
2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye3d Pers. Sing. es, he shall be

2d Pers. Plur. estōte, ye shall be

3d Pers. Plur. suntō, they shall be

InfinitiveParticiple
Pres. esse, to be
Perf. fuisse, to have been

Fut. futūrus, -a, -um esse or fore,
to be about to be

futūrus, -a, -um, about to be

256 495. possum, be able, can

Principal Parts possum, posse, potuī, ——
IndicativeSubjunctive
SINGULARPLURALSINGULARPLURAL
Pres.possumpos´sumuspossimpossī´mus
potespotes´tispossīspossī´tis
potestpossuntpossitpossint
Impf.poterampoterāmuspossempossē´mus
Fut.poterōpoterimus————
Perf.potuīpotuimuspotuerimpotuerimus
Plup.potuerampotuerāmuspotuissempotuissēmus
F. P.potuerōpotuerimus————
Infinitive
Pres. possePerf. potuisse
Participle
Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful

496. prōsum, benefit

Principal Parts prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī, prōfutūrus
Pres. Stem prōdes-   Perf. Stem prōfu-   Part. Stem prōfut-  
IndicativeSubjunctive
SINGULARPLURALSINGULARPLURAL
Pres.prōsumprō´sumusprōsimprōsī´mus
prōdesprōdes´tisprōsīsprōsī´tis
prōdestprōsuntprōsitprōsint
Impf.prōderamprōderāmusprōdessemprodessē´mus
Fut.prōderōprōderimus————
Perf.prōfuīprōfuimusprōfuerimprōfuerimus
Plup.prōfueramprōfuerāmusprōfuissemprōfuissēmus
F. P.prōfuerōprōfuerimus————
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. prōdes, prōdesteFut. 2d Pers. prōdestō, prōdestōte
Infinitive
Pres. prōdessePerf. prōfuisseFut. prōfutūrus, -a, -um esse
Future Participle prōfutūrus, -a, -um

257 497.

Principal
Parts

volō, velle, voluī, ——, be willing, will, wish

nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ——, be unwilling, will not

mālō, mālle, māluī, ——, be more willing, prefer

Nōlō and mālō are compounds of volō. Nōlō is for ne (not) + volō, and mālō for (from magis, more) + volō. The second person vīs is from a different root.

Indicative
SINGULAR
Pres.volōnōlōmālō
vīsnōn vismāvīs
vultnōn vultmāvult
PLURAL
volumusnōlumusmālumus
vultisnōn vultismāvul´tis
voluntnōluntmālunt
Impf.volēbamnōlēbammālēbam
Fut.volam, volēs, etc.nōlam, nōlēs, etc.mālam, mālēs, etc.
Perf.voluīnōluīmāluī
Plup.volueramnōluerammālueram
F. P.voluerōnōluerōmāluerō
Subjunctive
SINGULAR
Pres.velimnōlimmālim
velīsnōlīsmālīs
velitnōlitmālit
PLURAL
velī´musnōlī´musmālī´mus
velī´tisnōlī´tismālī´tis
velintnōlintmālint
Impf.vellemnōllemmāllem
Perf.voluerimnōluerimmāluerim
Plup.voluissemnōluissemmāluissem
Imperative
Pres.——

nōlī
nōlīte

——
Fut.——nōlītō, etc.——
258 Infinitive
Pres.vellenōllemālle
Perf.voluissenōluissemāluisse
Participle
Pres.volēns, -entisnōlēns, -entis——

498. ferō, bear, carry, endure

Principal Parts ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus
Pres. Stem fer-   Perf. Stem tul-   Part. Stem lāt-  
Indicative
ACTIVEPASSIVE
Pres.ferōferimusferorferimur
fersfertīsferris, -referimimī
fertferuntferturferuntur
Impf.ferēbamferēbar
Fut.feram, ferēs, etc.ferar, ferēris, etc.
Perf.tulīlātus, -a, -um sum
Plup.tuleramlātus, -a, -um eram
F. P.tulerōlātus, -a, -um erō
Subjunctive
Pres.feram, ferās, etc.ferar, ferāris, etc.
Impf.ferremferrer
Perf.tulerimlātus, -a, -um sim
Plup.tulissemlātus, -a, -um essem
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. ferferteferreferiminī
Fut. 2d Pers. fertōfertōtefertor
3d Pers. fertōferuntofertorferuntor
Infinitive
Pres.ferreferrī
Perf.tulisselātus, -a, -um esse
Fut.lātūrus, -a, -um esse——
Participles
Pres.ferēns, -entisPres. ——
Fut.lātūrus, -a, -umGer. ferendus, -a, -um
Perf.——Perf. lātus, -a, -um
259 GerundSupine (Active Voice)
Gen. ferendīAcc. ferendumAcc. [lātum]
Dat. ferendōAbl. ferendōAbl. [lātū]

499. , go

Principal Parts eō, īre, iī (īvī), ĭtum (n. perf. part.)
Pres. Stem ī-   Perf. Stem ī- or īv-   Part. Stem it-
IndicativeSubjunctiveImperative
SING.PLUR.
Pres.
īs
it
īmus
ītis
eunt
eam2d Pers. īīte
Impf.ībamīrem
Fut.ībō——2d Pers. ītō
3d Pers. ītō
ītōte
euntō
Perf.iī (īvī)ierim (īverim)
Plup.ieram (īveram)īssem (īvissem)
F. P.ierō (īverō)
InfinitiveParticiples
Pres.īrePres. iēns, gen. euntis (§ 472)
Perf.īsse (īvisse)Fut. itūrus, -a, -um
Fut.itūrus, -a, -um esseGer. eundum
GerundSupine
Gen. eundīAcc. [itum]
Dat. eundōAbl. [itū]
Acc. eundum
Abl. eundō

a. The verb is used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive, as ītur, itum est, etc.

b. In the perfect system the forms with v are very rare.

500. fīō, passive of faciō; be made, become, happen

Principal Parts fīō, fierī, factus sum
IndicativeSubjunctiveImperative
Pres.fīō
fīs
fit
——
——
fīunt
fīam2d Pers.fīte
Impf.fīēbamfierem
Fut.fīam——
260 Perf.factus, -a, -um sumfactus, -a, -um sim
Plup.factus, -a, -um eramfactus, -a, -um essem
F. P.factus, -a, -um erō
InfinitiveParticiples
Pres.fierīPerf. factus, -a, -um
Perf.factus, -a, -um esseGer. faciendus, -a, -um
Fut.[factum īrī]

Fortification protected by a wall and a ditch
CASTRA MURO FOSSAQUE MUNIUNTUR

261

APPENDIX II

501. RULES OF SYNTAX

Note. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. The number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end of each.

Nominative Case

1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the question Who? or What? § 36.

Agreement

2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject. § 28.

3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. § 76.

4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. § 81.

5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. § 65.

6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. § 215. a.

7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. § 224.

Prepositions

8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or ablative case. § 52.

Genitive Case

9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive and answers the question Whose? § 38.

10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. § 409.

11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive. § 331.

12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective. § 443.

262 Dative Case

13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. § 45.

14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crēdō, faveō, noceō, pāreō, persuādeō, resistō, studeō, and others of like meaning. § 154.

15. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative. § 426.

16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. § 143.

17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which; often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected. § 437.

Accusative Case

18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and answers the question Whom? or What? § 37.

19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. § 214.

20. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 263, 266.

21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative. § 336.

22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives. § 392.

Ablative Case

23. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what? § 102.

24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? or With what? § 103.

25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom? § 104.

26. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? or In what manner? § 105.

27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference. § 317.

263 28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called the ablative absolute. § 381.

29. 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 444.

2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 445.

30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. § 398.

31. The place from which is expressed by ā or ab, , ē or ex with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 264, 266.

32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. § 180.

33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition ā or ab. This is called the ablative of the personal agent. § 181.

34. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative. § 309.

35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. § 275.

36. 1. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where? Before names of towns, small islands, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 265, 266.

2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or second declension, and the word domus express the place in which by the locative. § 268.

Gerund and Gerundive

37. 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns. § 406. 1.

2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual. § 406. 2.

38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causā, is used to express purpose. § 407.

264 Moods and Tenses of Verbs

39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by secondary. § 358.

40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause. § 349.

41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as object with verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive. § 366.

42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest). § 372.

43. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nōn, and have the verb in the subjunctive. § 385.

44. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nōn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about. § 386.

45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. § 390.

46. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place. § 396.

47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive. § 416.

48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. § 419.

49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive. § 418.

50. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence. § 432.

seated lady
DOMINA

265

APPENDIX III

REVIEWS1

1. It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned for a written test.
I. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR THROUGH LESSON VIII

502. Give the English of the following words:1

Nouns

agricola
ancilla
aqua
casa
causa
cēna
corōna

dea
domina
fābula
fera
fīlia
fortūna
fuga

gallīna
iniūria
īnsula
lūna
nauta
pecūnia
puella

pugna
sagitta
silva
terra
tuba
via
victōria

Adjectives

alta
bona

clāra
grāta

lāta
longa

magna
mala

nova
parva

pulchra
sōla

Verbs

amat
dat

est
habitat

labōrat
laudat

nārrat
necat

nūntiat
parat

portat
pugnat

sunt
vocat

PrepositionsPronounsAdverbsConjunctionsInterrogative
Particle

ā or ab
ad
cum

ē or ex
in

mea
tua
quis
cuius
cui
quem
quid

cūr
deinde
nōn
ubi

et
quia
quod

-ne

1. Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in the reviews. Words used in Cassar’s “Gallic War” are in heavy type.

266 503. Give the Latin of the following words:1

Underline the words you do not remember. Do not look up a single word till you have gone through the entire list. Then drill on the words you have underlined.

flight
story
new
lives (verb)
away from
who
why
forest
wreath
deep, high
dinner
famous
cottage

battle (noun)

trumpet
lady, mistress
whom
island

wide
tells
money
calls
with
your

then, in the
next place

daughter
to whom
fortune
out from

labors (verb)

gives
small
in
and
sailor
farmer

goddess
wild beast

praises (verb)

alone
pleasing
prepares
are
to
because
arrow
my
kills
girl

fights (verb)

carries
chicken
victory
land

what
way
bad
loves
pretty
water
great
is
announces

injury, wrong

where
not
good
maid
down from
long
cause
whose

1. The translations of words used in Cæsar are in italics.

504. Review Questions. How many syllables has a Latin word? How are words divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the antepenult? When is a syllable short? When is a syllable long? What is the law of Latin accent? Define the subject of a sentence; the predicate; the object; the copula. What is inflection? declension? conjugation? What is the ending of the verb in the third person singular, and what in the plural? What does the form of a noun show? Name the Latin cases. What case is used for the subject? the direct object? the possessor? What relation is expressed by the dative case? Give the rule for the indirect object. How are questions answered in Latin? What is a predicate adjective? an attributive adjective? What is meant by agreement? Give the rule for the agreement of the adjective. What are the three relations expressed by the ablative? What can you say of the position of the possessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the adjective? What is the base? What is grammatical gender? What is the rule for gender in the first declension? What are the general principles of Latin word order?

267

505. Fill out the following summary of the first declension:

The First or Ā-Declension1. Ending in the nominative singular
2. Rule for gender
3. Case terminationsa. Singular
b. Plural
4. Irregular nouns
Go on to Lesson IX
II. REVIEW OF LESSONS IX-XVII

506. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension

agrī cultūra
cōnstantia

cōpia
dīligentia

fāma
fēmina

galea
inopia

lacrima
lōrīca

patria
praeda

Nouns of the Second Declension

ager
amīcus
arma (plural)
auxilium
bellum
carrus
castrum

cibus
cōnsilium
domicilium
dominus
equus
fīlius
fluvius

frūmentum
gladius
lēgātus
līberī
magister
mūrus
numerus

oppidānus
oppidum
pīlum
populus
praemium
proelium
puer

scūtum
servus
studium
tēlum
vīcus
vir

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensons

aeger, aegra, aegrum
alius, alia, aliud
alter, altera, alterum
armātus, -a, -um
crēber, crēbra, crēbrum
dūrus, -a, -um
fīnitimus, -a, -um
īnfīrmus, -a, -um
legiōnārius, -a, -um
līber, lībera, līberum
mātūrus, -a, -um
meus, -a, -um
miser, misera, miserum
multus, -a, -um

neuter, neutra, neutrum
noster, nostra, nostrum
alter, altera, alterum
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
sōlus, -a, -um
suus, -a, -um
fīnitimus, -a, -um
tuus, -a, -um
ūllus, -a, -um
ūnus, -a, -um
uter, utra, utrum
validus, -a, -um
vester, vestra, vestrum

268 VerbsDemonstrative
Pronoun
Adverbs

arat
cūrat
dēsīderat
mātūrat
properat

is, ea, id

Conjunctions

an
-que
sed

iam
quō
saepe

Preposition

apud

507. Give the Latin of the following words:

sword
corselet
man

your (plural)

hasten
but
among
tear (noun)
village
strong
long for
and (enclitic)
often
want (noun)
which (of two)
care for

or (in a question)

whither
wagon
townsman
wretched
ripe

war
number
my
free (adj.)
children
wall
grain
weapon
one
plow (verb)
this or that
already
helmet
river
zeal
any
he
son
slave

your (singular)

she
woman
horse

shield (noun)
whole
it
aid (noun)
legionary
weak
arms

master
(of school)

friend
neighboring
sick
lieutenant
field
report, rumor
abode
boy
his own
alone
prize (noun)

master (owner)

carefulness
plenty
troops

plan (noun)
people
beautiful
no (adj.)
our
battle
spear
food
steadiness
fatherland
town
fort
camp

neither (of two)

much
agriculture
other

the other (of two)

hard
booty
frequent
armed

508. Review Questions. How many declensions are there? What three things must be known about a noun before it can be declined? What three cases of neuter nouns are always alike, and in what do they end in the plural? What two plural cases are always alike? When is the vocative singular not like the nominative? What is a predicate noun? With what does it agree? What is an appositive? Give the rule for the agreement of an appositive. How can we tell whether a noun in -er is declined like puer or like ager? 269 Decline bonus, līber, pulcher. How can we tell whether an adjective in -er is declined like līber or like pulcher? Why must we say nauta bonus and not nauta bona? Name the Latin possessive pronouns. How are they declined? With what does the possessive pronoun agree? When do we use tuus and when vester? Why is suus called a reflexive possessive? What is the non-reflexive possessive of the third person? When are possessives omitted? What four uses of the ablative case are covered by the relations expressed in English by with? Give an illustration in Latin of the ablative of manner; of the ablative of cause; of the ablative of means; of the ablative of accompaniment. What ablative regularly has cum? What ablative sometimes has cum? What uses of the ablative never have cum? Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline alius, nūllus. Decline is. What does is mean as a demonstrative adjective or pronoun? What other important use has it?

509. Fill out the following summary of the second declension:

The Second or
O-Declension
1. Endings in the nominative
2. Rule for gender
3. Case terminations of nouns in -usa. Singular
b. Plural
a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us
4. Case terminations of nouns in -uma. Singular
b. Plural
5. Peculiarities of nouns in -er and -ir
6. Peculiarities of nouns in -ius and -ium
Go on to Lesson XVIII
III. REVIEW OF LESSONS XVIII-XXVI

510. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension

disciplīna
fōrma

poena
potentia

rēgīna
superbia

trīstitia
Nouns of the Second Declension
lūdusōrnāmentumsacrumsociusverbum
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

amīcus
antīquus
fīnitimus

grātus
idōneus
inimīcus

interfectus
īrātus
laetus

molestus
perpetuus
proximus

septem
superbus

270 AdverbsConjunctionsPersonal Pronoun

hodiē
ibi
maximē

mox
nunc
nūper

etiam
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam

ego

Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. IICONJ. IIICONJ. IV

volō, -āre



IRREGULAR VERB
sum, esse

dēleō, -ēre
doceō, -ēre
faveō, -ēre
habeō, -ēre
iubeō, -ēre
moneō, -ēre
moveō, -ēre
noceō, -ēre
pāreō, -ēre
persuādeō, -ēre
sedeō, -ēre
studeō, -ēre
videō, -ēre

agō, -ere
capiō, -ere
crēdō, -ere
dīcō, -ere
dūcō, -ere
faciō, -ere
fugiō, -ere
iaciō, -ere
mittō, -ere
rapiō, -ere
regō, -ere
resistō, -ere

audiō, -īre
mūniō, -īre
reperiō, -īre
veniō, -īre

511. Give the Latin of the following words. In the case of verbs always give the first form and the present infinitive.

ancient
come
resist
see
be
fly
I
proud
word
sadness
find
rule (verb)
be eager for

not only ...
but also

seven
ally, companion
pride
fortify
send
sit
also
school
hear
hurl
persuade
only

nearest
sacred rite
queen
flee
obey
lately
constant
ornament
power
make, do
injure
now
annoying
lead

move
soon
glad
punishment
believe
advise

especially,
most of all

angry
beauty
say
command (verb)
there
slain

training
take
have
to-day
unfriendly
drive
favor (verb)
suitable
pleasing
teach
neighboring
destroy
friendly
seize

512. Review Questions. What is conjugation? Name two important differences between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense? 271 What is mood? What are the Latin moods? When do we use the indicative mood? Name the six tenses of the indicative. What are personal endings? Name those you have had. Inflect sum in the three tenses you have learned. How many regular conjugations are there? How are they distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are formed from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What is the meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in the first two conjugations? in the last two? Before what letters is a final long vowel of the stem shortened? What are the three possible translations of a present, as of pugnō? Inflect arō, sedeō, mittō, faciō, and veniō, in the present, imperfect, and future active. What forms of -iō verbs of the third conjugation are like audiō? what like regō? Give the rule for the dative with adjectives. Name the special intransitive verbs that govern the dative. What does the imperative mood express? How is the present active imperative formed in the singular? in the plural? What three verbs have a shortened present active imperative? Give the present active imperative of portō, dēleō, agō, faciō, mūniō.

Go on to Lesson XXVII
IV. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVII-XXXVI

513. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension
ālacūramoraportaprōvinciavīta
Nouns of the Second Declension

animus
aurum

bracchium
deus

locus
mōnstrum

nāvigium
ōrāculum

perīculum
ventus

vīnum

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

adversus
attentus
cārus

commōtus
dēfessus
dexter

dubius
maximus
perfidus

plēnus
saevus
sinister

Adverbs

anteā
celeriter
dēnique

diū
frūstrā
graviter

ita
longē
semper

subitō
tamen
tum

Conjunctions
autemubi
272 Prepositions
perprōsine
Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. II

adpropinquō
nāvigō
occupō
postulō

recūsō
reportō
servō
stō

superō
temptō
vāstō
vulnerō

contineō
egeō
prohibeō
respondeō
teneō

CONJ. IIIIRREGULAR VERB
discēdōgerōinterficiōabsum

514. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

be away
wind
through
if
savage
wound (verb)
wine
delay
faithless
right
seize
quickly

before, in behalf of

battle

down from or concerning

moreover
greatest
oracle
danger
lay waste
gate
doubtful

opposite, adverse

demand
finally
attentive

then, at that time

weary

overcome,
conquer

boat, ship
sail (verb)
life
save
full
refuse
heavily
monster
approach
nevertheless
place

be without,
lack

moved
gold

restrain, keep from

without
hold
suddenly
dear
always
god

hold in, keep

afar

thus, so,
as follows

arm (noun)
when
in vain
stand

bring back, win

before,
previously

depart,
go away

province
care, trouble
kill

reply (verb)

wing
mind, heart
left (adj.)
bear, carry on
try

for a long time

515. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs:

sum

teneō
iubeō
agō
mittō
mūniō

moveō
crēdō
rapiō
reperiō
dēleō
resistō
audiō

moneō
capiō
doceō
regō
faveō
noceō
dīcō

pāreō
dūcō
faciō
persuādeō
sedeō
studeō
fugiō

veniō
iaciō
videō
absum
egeō
gerō
stō

273 516. Review Questions. What are the personal endings in the passive voice? What is the letter -r sometimes called? What are the distinguishing vowels of the four conjugations? What forms constitute the principal parts? What are the three different conjugation stems? How may they be found? What are the tenses of the indicative? of the infinitive? What tense of the imperative have you learned? What forms are built on the present stem? on the perfect stem? on the participial stem? What are the endings of the perfect active indicative? What is the tense sign of the pluperfect active? of the future perfect active? How is the present active infinitive formed? the present passive infinitive? How is the present active imperative formed? the present passive imperative? How is the perfect active infinitive formed? the perfect passive infinitive? How is the future active infinitive formed? What is a participle? How are participles in -us declined? Give the rule for the agreement of the participle. How are the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive indicative formed? Conjugate the verb sum in all moods and tenses as far as you have learned it (§ 494). What is meant by the separative ablative? How is the place from which expressed in Latin? Give the rule for the ablative of separation; for the ablative of the personal agent. How can we distinguish between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect definite? the perfect indefinite? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect indefinite and the imperfect? What two cases in Latin may be governed by a preposition? Name the prepositions that govern the ablative. What does the preposition in mean when it governs the ablative? the accusative? What are the three interrogatives used to introduce yes-and-no questions? Explain the force of each. What words are sometimes used for yes and no? What are the different meanings and uses of ubi?

Go on to Lesson XXXVII
V. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXVII-XLIV

517. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSIONSECOND DECLENSION
rīpa

barbarī
captīvus

castellum
impedīmentum

THIRD DECLENSION

animal
arbor
avis
caedēs
274 calamitās
calcar
caput
cīvis
cliēns

collis
cōnsul
dēns
dux
eques
fīnis
flūmen
fōns
frāter

homō
hostīs
ignis
imperātor
īnsigne
iter
iūdex
labor
lapis

legiō
mare
māter
mēnsis
mīles
mōns
nāvis
opus
ōrātor

ōrdō
pater
pedes
pēs
pōns
prīnceps
rēx
salūs
sanguis

soror
tempus
terror
turris
urbs
victor
virtūs
vīs

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions
barbarusdextersinistersummus
PrepositionsAdverbsConjunctions

in with the abl.
in with the acc.
trāns

cotīdiē
numquam

nec, neque

nec ... nec, or neque ... neque

Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. III

cessō
confirmō

oppugnō
vetō

accipiō
incipiō

petō
ponō

vincō
vivō

518. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

forbid
rank, row
brother
force
across
savages
horseman
never
mountain

manliness,
courage

leader
put, place
time

savage,
barbarous

sister
seek
captive

hindrance,
baggage

man-of-war
judge

defeat, disaster

fire
tree
foot soldier
receive
general
highest
fountain
orator

neither ... nor

and not
left
tooth
soldier
month
city
victor
daily
live (verb)

conquer
consul
mother
retainer
citizen
head
safety

assail, storm

begin
march
decoration
bridge
bird
cease
man
river

work (noun)

and
ship
bank

redoubt, fort
sea
tower

drill (verb)

legion
terror

into, to

right (adj.)
in
stone
blood

labor (noun)

king
spur
chief
slaughter
strengthen
foot
enemy
animal
father

275 519. Review Questions. Give the conjugation of possum. What is an infinitive? What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the English? What is the case of the subject of the infinitive? What is meant by a complementary infinitive? In the sentence The bad boy cannot be happy, what is the case of happy? Give the rule. Decline quī. Give the rule for the agreement of the relative. What are the two uses of the interrogative? Decline quis. What is the base of a noun? How is the stem formed from the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same? How many declensions of nouns are there? Name them. What are the two chief divisions of the third declension? How are the consonant stems classified? Explain the formation of lapis from the stem lapid-, mīles from mīlit-, rēx from rēg-. What nouns have i-stems? What peculiarities of form do i-stems have,—masc., fem., and neut.? Name the five nouns that have and -e in the abl. Decline turris. Give the rules for gender in the third declension. Decline mīles, lapis, rēx, virtūs, cōnsul, legiō, homō, pater, flūmen, opus, tempus, caput, caedēs, urbs, hostis, mare, animal, vīs, iter.

520. Fill out the following scheme:

The Third DeclensionGender EndingsMasculine
Feminine
Neuter
Case TerminationsI. Consonant Stemsa. Masc. and fem.
b. Neuters
II. I-Stemsa. Masc. and fem.
b. Neuters
Irregular Nouns
Go on to Lesson XLV
VI. REVIEW OF LESSONS XLV-LII

521. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSIONSECOND DECLENSION

amīcitia
hōra
littera

annus
modus
nūntius
oculus

rēgnum
signum

supplicium,
supplicium dare
supplicium sūmere dē

tergum,
tergum vertere

vestīgium

276 THIRD DECLENSIONFOURTH DECLENSION

aestās
corpus
hiems
lībertās

lūx,
prīma lūx

nōmen

nox
pars
pāx
rūs
sōl
vōx
vulnus

adventus
cornū
domus
equitātus
exercitus
fluctus

impetus
lacus
manus
metus
portus

FIFTH DECLENSIONINDECLINABLE NOUN

aciēs
diēs

fidēs,
in fidem venīre

rēs,
rēs gestae
rēs adversae
rēs pūblica
rēs secundae

spēs nihil
Adjectives
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONSTHIRD DECLENSION

dēnsus
invīsus
mīrus
paucī
prīmus

prīstinus
pūblicus
secundus
tantus
vērus

ācer, ācris, ācre
brevis, breve
difficilis, difficile
facīlis, facile
fortis, forte

gravis, grave
incolumis, incolume
omnis, omne
pār, pār
vēlōx, vēlōx

Pronouns
PERSONALDEMONSTRATIVEINTENSIVEINDEFINITE

ego
nōs
suī

vōs

hic
īdem
ille
iste

ipse

aliquis, aliquī
quīdam
quis, quī
quisquam
quisque

AdverbsConjunctionsPrepositions

nē ... quidem
ōlim

paene
quoque

satis
vērō

itaque
nisi

ante
post
propter

Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. IICONJ. IIICONJ. IV

conlocō
convocō
cremō
dēmōnstrō
mandō

dēbeō
exerceō
maneō
placeō
sustineō

committō,
committere proelium

dēcidō
ēripiō

sūmō,
sūmere supplicium dē

trādūcō
vertō

dēsiliō

277 522. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

if not, unless

on account of

unharmed
public
commonwealth

leap down, dismount

lead across
remain

call together

friendship

footprint, trace

each

fear (noun)

hope
therefore

behind, after

so great
equal

in truth, indeed

that (yonder)

a certain
fall down
owe, ought

measure, mode

eye
name
wave, billow

thing, matter

exploits
republic
prosperity

adversity

former, old-time

all, every

any one (at all)

this (of mine)

heavy, serious

hateful, detested

true
burn
snatch from
letter
punishment

inflict
punishment on

suffer punishment
liberty
sun
sustain

take up, assume

hour
reign, realm
messenger

part, direction

body
harbor

faith, protection

of himself
also, too
sufficiently

burn

that (of yours)

before
you (plur.)
light
daybreak
winter
attack

line of battle

army
drill, train
join battle
house, home
midday
wonderful
brave
almost
the same
some, any

if any one

self, very
not even
easy
dense

point out, explain

difficult
first

arrange, station

please
year

peace
back

turn the back, retreat

night

hand, force

lake
day

commit, intrust

a few only

sharp, eager

we
turn
you (sing.)
I
signal
summer
cavalry
wound
horn, wing
country

second, favorable

short
voice

formerly, once

arrival

come under the
protection of

swift
nothing

523. Review Questions. By what declensions are Latin adjectives declined? What can you say about the stem of adjectives of the third declension? Into what classes are these adjectives divided? How can you tell to which of the classes an adjective belongs? Decline ācer, omnis, pār. What are the nominative endings and genders of nouns of the fourth 278 or u-declension? What nouns are feminine by exception? Decline adventus, lacus, cornū, domus. Give the rules for the ordinary expression of the place to which, the place from which, the place in which. What special rules apply to names of towns, small islands, and rūs? What is the locative case? What words have a locative case? What is the form of the locative case? Translate Galba lives at home, Galba lives at Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii. What is the rule for gender in the fifth or ē-declension? Decline diēs, rēs. When is the long ē shortened? What can you say about the plural of the fifth declension? Decline tuba, servus, pīlum, ager, puer, mīles, cōnsul, flūmen, caedēs, animal. How is the time when expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. Decline ego, tū, is. What are the reflexives of the first and second persons? What is the reflexive of the third person? Decline it. Translate I see myself, he sees himself, he sees him. Decline ipse. How is ipse used? Decline īdem. Decline hic, iste, ille. Explain the use of these words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns. Decline aliquis, quisquam, quīdam, quisque.

Go on to Lesson LIII
VII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LIII-LX

524. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSIONSECOND DECLENSION

aquila
fossa

aedificium
captīvus
concilium

imperium
negōtium

spatium
vāllum

THIRD DECLENSION

agmen
celeritās
cīvitās
clāmor
cohors
difficultās
explōrātor

gēns
lātitūdō
longitūdō
magnitūdō
mēns
mercātor
mīlle

mors
mulier
multitūdō
mūnītiō
nēmō
obses
opīniō

regiō
rūmor
scelus
servitūs
timor
vallēs

FOURTH DECLENSIONFIFTH DECLENSION

aditus
commeātus

passus rēs frūmentāria
279 Adjectives
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

aequus
bīnī
ducentī
duo
exterus
īnferus

maximus
medius
minimus
opportūnus
optimus
pessimus

plūrimus
posterus
prīmus
reliquus
secundus

singulī
superus
tardus
ternī
ūnus

THIRD DECLENSION

alacer, alacris, alacre
audāx, audāx
celer, celeris, celere
citerior, citerius
difficilis, difficile
dissimilis, dissimile
facilis, facile
gracilis, gracile

humilis, humile
ingēns, ingēns
interior, interius
lēnis, lēne
maior, maius
melior, melius
minor, minus
nōbilis, nōbile

peior, peius
——, plūs
prior, prius
recēns, recēns
similis, simile
trēs, tria
ulterior, ulterius

Adverbs

ācriter
audācter
bene
facile
ferē
fortiter

magis
magnopere
maximē
melius
minimē
multum

optimē
parum
paulō
plūrimum
prope
propius

proximē
quam
statim
tam
undique

ConjunctionsPrepositions

atque, ac
aut
aut ... aut
et ... et
nam

quā dē causā
quam ob rem

simul atque or
simul ac

circum
contrā
inter
ob
trāns

Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. II

cōnor
hortor

moror
vexō

obtineō
perterreō

valeō
vereor

CONJ. III

abdō
cadō
cognōscō
cōnsequor
contendō
cupiō
currō

dēdō
dēfendō
ēgredior
incendō
incolō
īnsequor
occīdō

patior
premō
proficīscor
prōgredior
quaerō
recipiō
relinquō

revertor
sequor
statuō
subsequor
suscipiō
trādō
trahō

CONJ. III
oriorperveniō

280 525. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

on account of
nearly

keenly, sharply

thousand
two
opportune
remaining
above (adj.)
next

grain supply

pace
shout (noun)

from all sides

against
around
three
further

line of march

manor
region
fortification
eagle
almost
boldly
bravely
across

between, among

hither (adj.)
so
less
more
most
worst
difficulty
hostage
death

command, power

captive
or
and
arrive

attempt, try

length

width
scout
cohort

tribe, nation

business

by a little

somewhat
crime
difficult
equal

move forward,
advance

multitude
woman
desire (verb)

give over,
surrender

kill
overtake

hasten, strive

hide
one
first

second, favorable

two hundred
former
inner
middle
low
outward

three by three

provisions
speed
ditch

wherefore or
therefore

for this reason
fear (noun)
return
inquire
set out

move out, disembark

fear (verb)
worse

greater, larger

two by two

least (adv.)

opinion,
expectation

approach, entrance

trader

magnitude, size

council, assembly

space, room

either ... or

rise, arise

suffer, allow

press hard

fall
surrender

set fire to

defend

possess, hold

delay (verb)

nearest (adv.)

nearer (adv.)

better (adj.)

well known, noble

mild, gentle

swift
eager
low (adj.)
slender

one by one

no one

least (adv.)

little (adv.)

learn, know

drag
undertake
run
fix, decide

leave
abandon
be strong

receive, recover

terrify, frighten

dwell

state, citizenship

valley
slavery
greatly

best of all (adv.)

better (adv.)
well (adv.)
very much
much
unlike
like (adj.)
slow

very greatly,
exceedingly

building
mind (noun)
easily
easy
recent
huge, great
bold
immediately
as soon as
for
than
best (adj.)
greatest
follow close
encourage

annoy, ravage

hide
follow
pursue

both ... and

rampart

281 526. Review Questions. What is meant by comparison? In what two ways may adjectives be compared? Compare clārus, brevis, vēlōx, and explain the formation of the comparative and the superlative. What are the adverbs used in comparison? Compare brevis by adverbs. Decline the comparative of vēlōx. How are adjectives in -er compared? Compare ācer, pulcher, liber. What are possible translations for the comparative and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the superlative in -limus. Translate in two ways Nothing is brighter than the sun. Give the rule for the ablative with comparatives. Compare bonus, magnus, malus, multus, parvus, exterus, īnferus, posterus, superus. Decline plūs. Compare citerior, interior, propior, ulterior. Translate That route to Italy is much shorter. Give the rule for the expression of measure of difference. Name five words that are especially common in this construction. How are adverbs usually formed from adjectives of the first and second declensions? from adjectives of the third declension? Compare the adverbs cārē, līberē, fortiter, audācter. What cases of adjectives are sometimes used as adverbs? What are the adverbs from facilis? multus? prīmus? plūrimus? bonus? magnus? parvus? Compare prope, saepe, magnopere. How are numerals classified? Give the first twenty cardinals. Decline ūnus, duo, trēs, mīlle. How are the hundreds declined? What is meant by the partitive genitive? Give the rule for the partitive genitive. What sort of words are commonly used with this construction? What construction is used with quīdam and cardinal numbers excepting mīlle? Give the first twenty ordinals. How are they declined? How are the distributives declined? Give the rule for the expression of duration of time and extent of space. What is the difference between the ablative of time and the accusative of time? What is a deponent verb? Give the synopsis of one. What form always has a passive meaning? Conjugate amō, moneō, regō, capiō, audiō, in the active and passive.

Go on to Lesson LXI
VIII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LXI-LXIX

527. Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See §§ 502, 503, 506, 507.

528. Review Questions. Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What time is denoted by these tenses? What are the mood signs of the present subjunctive? How may the imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do the perfect subjunctive and the future perfect indicative active differ in form? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active formed? Inflect the subjunctive active and passive of cūrō, dēleō, vincō, rapiō, mūniō. Inflect the 282 subjunctive tenses of sum; of possum. What are the tenses of the participles in the active? What in the passive? Give the active and passive participles of amō, moneō, regō, capiō, audiō. Decline regēns. What participles do deponent verbs have? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect participle of a deponent verb and of one not deponent? Give the participles of vereor. How should participles usually be translated? Conjugate volō, nolō, mālō, fīō.

What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their fundamental ideas? How is purpose usually expressed in English? How is it expressed in Latin? By what words is a Latin purpose clause introduced? When should quō be used? What is meant by sequence of tenses? Name the primary tenses of the indicative and of the subjunctive; the secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly followed by substantive clauses of purpose? What construction follows iubeō? What construction follows verbs of fearing? How is consequence or result expressed in Latin? How is a result clause introduced? What words are often found in the principal clause foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may negative purpose be distinguished from negative result? What is meant by the subjunctive of characteristic or description? How are such clauses introduced? Explain the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. After what verbs are two accusatives commonly found? What do these accusatives become when the verb is passive?

Go on to Lesson LXX

coin showing general commanding soldiers
IMPERATOR MILITES HORTATUR

283

SPECIAL VOCABULARIES

The words in heavy type are used in Cæsar’s “Gallic War.”
LESSON IV, § 39
Nouns
dea, goddess (deity)
Diā´na, Diana
fera, a wild beast (fierce)
Lātō´na, Latona
sagit´ta, arrow
Verbs
est, he (she, it) is; sunt, they are
necat, he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill
Conjunction1
et, and
Pronouns
quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who?
cuius (pronounced co͝oi´yo͝os, two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.
LESSON V, § 47
Nouns
corō´na, wreath, garland, crown
fā´bula, story (fable)
pecū´nia, money (pecuniary)
pugna, battle (pugnacious)
victō´ria, victory
Verbs
dat, he (she, it) gives
nārrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)
Conjunction1
quia or quod, because
Pronoun
cui (pronounced co͝oi, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom? for whom?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.
LESSON VI, § 56
Adjectives
bona, good
grāta, pleasing
magna, large, great
mala, bad, wicked
parva, small, little
pulchra, beautiful, pretty
sōla, alone
284
Nouns
ancil´la, maidservant
Iūlia, Julia
Adverbs1
cūr, why
nōn, not
Pronouns
mea, my; tua, thy, your (possesives)
quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., what?
-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (§ 16) added to the first word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat, he loves, but amat´ne? does he love? est, he is; estne? is he? Of course -ne is not used when the sentence contains quis, cūr, or some other interrogative word.
1. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.
LESSON VII, § 62
Nouns
casa, -ae, f., cottage
cēna, -ae, f., dinner
gallī´na, -ae, f., hen, chicken
īn´sula, ae, f., island (pen-insula)
Adverbs
de-in´de, then, in the next place
ubi, where
Preposition
ad, to, with acc. to express motion toward
Verbs
ha´bitat, he (she, it) lives, is living, does live (inhabit)
laudat, he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise (laud)
parat, he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare
vocat, he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites, is inviting, does invite (vocation)
Pronoun
quem, interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., whom?
LESSON VIII, § 69
Nouns
Italia, -ae, f., Italy
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily
tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube)
via, -ae, f., way, road, street (viaduct)
Adjectives
alta, high, deep (altitude)
clāra, clear, bright; famous
lāta, wide (latitude)
longa, long (longitude)
nova, new (novelty)
285
LESSON IX, § 77
Nouns
bellum, -ī, n., war (re-bel)
cōnstantia, -ae, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness
dominus, -ī, m., master, lord (dominate)
equus, -ī, m., horse (equine)
frūmentum, -ī, n., grain
lēgātus, -ī, m., lieutenant, ambassador (legate)
Mārcus, -ī, m., Marcus, Mark
mūrus, -ī, m., wall (mural)
oppidānus, -ī, m., townsman
oppidum, -ī, n., town
pīlum, -ī, n., spear (pile driver)
servus, -ī, m., slave, servant
Sextus, -ī, m., Sextus
Verbs
cūrat, he (she, it) cares for, with acc.
properat, he (she, it) hastens
LESSON X, § 82
Nouns
amīcus, -ī, m., friend (amicable)
Germānia, -ae, f., Germany
patria, -ae, f., fatherland
populus, -ī, m., people
Rhēnus, -ī, m., the Rhine
vīcus, -ī, m., village
LESSON XI, § 86
Nouns
arma, armōrum, n., plur., arms, especially defensive weapons
fāma, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, fame
galea, -ae, f., helmet
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (predatory)
tēlum, -ī, n., weapon of offense, spear
Adjectives
dūrus, -a, -um, hard, rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome (durable)
Rōmānus, -a, -um, Roman. As a noun, Rōmānus, -ī, m., a Roman
LESSON XII, § 90
Nouns
fīlius, fīlī, m., son (filial)
fluvius, fluvī, m., river (fluent)
gladius, gladī, m., sword (gladiator)
praesidium, praesi´dī, n., garrison, guard, protection
proelium, proelī, n., battle
Adjectives
fīnitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, neighboring, near to. As a noun, fīnitimī, -ōrum, m., plur., neighbors
Germānus, -a, -um, German. As a noun, Germānus, -ī, m., a German
multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many
Adverb
saepe, often
286
LESSON XIII, § 95
Nouns
ager, agrī, m., field (acre)
cōpia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (copious); plur., troops, forces
Cornēlius, Cornē´lī, m., Cornelius
lōrī´ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, corselet
praemium, praemī, n., reward, prize (premium)
puer, puerī, m., boy (puerile)
Rōma, -ae, f., Rome
scūtum, -ī, n., shield (escutcheon)
vir, virī, m., man, hero (virile)
Adjectives
legiōnārius, -a, -um,1 legionary, belonging to the legion. As a noun, legiōnāriī, -ōrum, m., plur., legionary soldiers
līber, lībera, līberum, free (liberty) As a noun. līberī, -ōrum, m., plur., children (lit. the freeborn)
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, beautiful
Preposition
apud, among, with acc.
Conjunction
sed, but
1. The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -iī and the vocative in -ie; not in , as in nouns.
LESSON XIV, § 99
Nouns
auxilium, auxi´lī, n., help, aid (auxiliary)
castrum, -ī, n., fort (castle); plur., camp (lit. forts)
cibus, -ī, m., food
cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī, n., plan (counsel)
dīligentia, -ae, f., diligence, industry
magister, magistrī, m., master, teacher1
Adjectives
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick
crēber, crēbra, crēbrum, frequent
miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate (miser)
1. Observe that dominus, as distinguished from magister, means master in the sense of owner.
LESSON XV, § 107
Nouns
carrus, -ī, m., cart, wagon
inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the opposite of cōpia
studium, studī, n., zeal, eagerness (study)
Verb
mātūrat, he (she, it) hastens. Cf. properat
287
Adjectives
armātus, -a, -um, armed
īnfīrmus, -a, -um, week, feeble (infirm)
vali´dus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy
Adverb
iam, already, now
-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. § 16) and always added to the second of two words to be connected, as arma tēla´que, arms and weapons.
LESSON XVII, § 117
Nouns
agrī cultūra, -ae, f., agriculture
domicilīum, domīci´lī, n., dwelling place (domicile) abode
fēmina, -ae, f., woman (female)
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul
Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul
lacrima, -ae, f., tear
numerus, -ī, m., number (numeral)
Adjective
mātūrus, -a, -um, ripe, mature
Verbs
arat, he (she, it) plows (arable)
dēsīderat, he (she, it) misses, longs for (desire), with acc.
Adverb
quō, whither
Conjunction
an, or, introducing the second half of a double question, as Is he a Roman or a Gaul, Estne Romanus an Gallus?
LESSON XVIII, § 124
Nouns
lūdus, -ī, m.,school
socius, socī, m., companion, ally (social)
Adjectives
īrātus, -a, -um, angry, furious (irate)
laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad (social)
Adverbs
hodiē, to-day
ibi, there, in that place
mox, presently, soon, of the immediate future
nunc, now, the present moment
nūper, lately, recently, of the immediate past
LESSON XX, § 136
Nouns
fōrma, -ae, f., form, beauty
poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty
potentia, -ae, f., power (potent)
regīna, -ae, f., queen (regal)
superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness
trīstītīa, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow
Adjectives
septem, indeclinable, seven
superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty (superb)
Conjunctions
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
288
LESSON XXI, § 140
Nouns
sacrum, -ī, n., sacrifice, offering, rite
verbum, -ī, n., word (verb)
Verbs
sedeō, -ēre, sit (sediment)
volō, -āre, fly (volatile)
Adjectives
interfectus, -a, -um, slain
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying (molest)
perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual, continuous
ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative.
LESSON XXII, § 146
Nouns
disciplīna, -ae, f., training, culture, discipline
ōrnāmentum, -ī, n., ornament, jewel
Gāius, Gāī, m., Caius, a Roman first name
Tiberius, Tibe´rī, m., Tiberius, a Roman first name
Verb
doceō, -ēre, teach (doctrine)
Adverb
maximē, most of all, especially
Adjective
antīquus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)
LESSON XXVII, § 168
Nouns
āla, -ae, f., wing
deus, -ī, m., god (deity)1
monstrum, -ī, n., omen, prodigy; monster
ōrāculum, -ī, n., oracle
Verb
vāstō, -āre, lay waste, devastate
Adjectives
commōtus, -a, -um, moved, excited
maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maximum)
saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage
Adverbs
ita, thus, in this way, as follows
tum, then, at that time
1. For the declension of deus, see § 468
LESSON XXVIII, § 171
Verbs
respondeō, -ēre, respond, reply
servō, -āre, save, preserve
Adjective
cārus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)
Conjunction
autem, but, moreover, now. Usually
stands second, never first
Noun
vīta, -ae, f., life (vital)
289
LESSON XXIX, § 176
Verb
superō, -āre, conquer, overcome (insuperable)
Nouns
cūra, -ae, f., care, trouble
locus, -ī, m., place, spot (location). Locus is neuter in the plural and is declined loca, -ōrum, etc.
perīculum, -ī, n., danger, peril
Adverbs
semper, always
tamen, yet, nevertheless
Prepositions
, with abl., down from; concerning
per, with acc., through
Conjunction
si, if
LESSON XXX, § 182
Verbs
absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be absent, be distant, with separative abl.
adpropinquō, -āre, draw near, approach (propinquity), with dative1
contineō, -ēre, hold together, hem in, keep (contain)
discēdō, -ere, depart, go away, leave, with separative abl.
egeō, -ēre, lack, need, be without, with separative abl.
interficiō, -ere, kill
prohibeō, -ēre, restrain, keep from (prohibit)
vulnerō, -āre, wound (vulnerable)
Nouns
prōvincia, -ae, f., province
vīnum, -ī, n., wine
Adjective
dēfessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out
Adverb
longē, far, by far, far away
1. This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used with ad and the accusative.
LESSON XXXI, § 188
Nouns
aurum, -ī, n., gold (oriole)
mora, -ae, f., delay
nāvigium, nāvi´gī, n., boat, ship
ventus, -ī, m., wind (ventilate)
Verb
nāvigō, -āre, sail (navigate)
Adjectives
attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious)
perfidus, -a, -um, faithless, treacherous (perfidy)
Adverb
anteā, before, previously
Preposition
sine, with abl., without
290
LESSON XXXII, § 193
Nouns
animus, -ī, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling (animate)
bracchium, bracchī, n., forearm, arm
porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)
Adjectives
adversus, -a, -um, opposite; adverse, contrary
plēnus, -a, -um, full (plenty)
Preposition
prō, with abl., before; in behalf of; instead of
Adverb
diū, for a long time, long
LESSON XXXIV, § 200
Adverbs
celeriter, quickly (celerity)
dēnique, finally
graviter, heavily, severely (gravity)
subitō, suddenly
Verb
reportō, -āre, -āvī, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)
LESSON XXXVI, § 211
dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dextrous)
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left
frūstrā, adv., in vain (frustrate)
gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; bellum gerere, to wage war
occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus, seize, take possession of (occupy)
postulō, postulāre, postulāvī, postulātus, demand (ex-postulate)
recūsō, recūsāre, recūsāvī, recūsātus, refuse
stō, stāre, stetī, status, stand
temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus, try, tempt, test; attempt
teneō, tenēre, tenuī, ——, keep, hold (tenacious)

The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:
1. ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as,
Ubi mōnstrum audīvērunt, fūgērunt, when they heard the monster, they fled
2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as,
Videō oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba lives
Ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place in which.
291
LESSON XXXVII, § 217
neque or nec, conj., neither, nor, and ... not; neque ... neque, neither ... nor
castellum, -ī, n., redoubt, fort (castle)
cotīdiē, adv., daily
cessō, cessāre, cessāvī, cessātus, cease, with the infin.
incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin.
oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātus, storm, assail
petō, petere, petivi or petiī, petītus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, ask (petition)
pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus, place, put (position); castra pōnere, to pitch camp
possum, posse, potuī, ——, be able, can (potent), with the infin.
vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitus, forbid (veto), vith the infin.; opposite of iubeō, command
vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus, conquer (in-vincible)
vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, ——, live, be alive (re-vive)
LESSON XXXIX, § 234
barbarus, -a, -um, strange, foreign, barbarous. As a noun, barbarī, -ōrum, m., plur., savages, barbarians
dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. the verb dūcō
eques, equitis, m., horseman, cavalryman (equestrian)
iūdex, iūdicis, m., judge
lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary)
mīles, mīlitis, m., soldier (militia)
pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier (pedestrian)
pēs, pedis,1 m., foot (pedal)
prīnceps, prīncipis, m., chief (principal)
rēx, rēgis, m., king (regal)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
virtūs, virtūtis, f., manliness, courage (virtue)
1. Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.
LESSON XL, § 237
Caesar, -aris, m., Cæsar
captīvus, -ī, m., captive, prisoner
cōnsul, -is, m., consul
frāter, frātris, m., brother (fraternity)
homō, hominis, m., man, human being
impedīmentum, -ī, n., hindrance (impediment); plur. impedīmenta, -ōrum, baggage
292
imperātor, imperātōris, m., commander in chief, general (emperor)
legiō, legiōnis, f., legion
māter, mātris, f., mother (maternal)
ōrdō, ōrdinis, m., row, rank (order)
pater, patris, m., father (paternal)
salūs, salūtis, f., safety (salutary)
soror, sorōris, f., sister (sorority)
LESSON XLI, § 239
calamitās, calamitātis, f., loss, disaster, defeat (calamity)
caput, capitis, n., head (capital)
flūmen, flūminis, n., river (flume)
labor, labōris, m., labor, toil
opus, operis, n., work, task
ōrātor, ōrātōris, m., orator
rīpa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream)
tempus, temporis, n., time (temporal)
terror, terrōris, m., terror, fear
victor, victōris, m., victor
accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptus, receive, accept
cōnfirmō, cōnfīrmāre, cōnfīrmāvī, cōnfīrmātus, strengthen, establish, encourage (confirm)
LESSON XLIII, § 245
animal, animālis (-ium1), n., animal
avis, avis (-ium), f., bird (aviation)
caedēs, caedīs (-ium), f., slaughter
calcar, calcāris (-ium), n., spur
cīvis, cīvis (-ium), m. and f., citizen (civic)
cliēns, clientis (-ium), m., retainer, dependent (client)
fīnis, fīnis (-ium), m., end, limit (final); plur., country, territory
hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f., enemy in war (hostile). Distinguish from inimīcus, which means a personal enemy
ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire (ignite)
īnsigne, īnsignis (-ium), n. decoration, badge (ensign)
mare, maris (-ium2), n., sea (marine)
nāvis, nāvis (-ium), f., ship (naval);
nāvis longa, man-of-war
turris, turris (-ium), f., tower (turret)
urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). An urbs is larger than an oppidum.
1. The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.
2. The genitive plural of mare is not in use.
LESSON XLIV, § 249
arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor)
collis, collis (-ium), m., hill
dēns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist)
fōns, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, spring; source
iter, itineris, n., march, journey, route (itinerary)
mēnsis, mēnsis (-ium), m., month
moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls, fortifications. Cf. mūrus
mōns, montis (-ium), m., mountain;
summus mōns, top of the mountain
numquam, adv., never
pōns, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon)
293
sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (sanguinary)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
trāns, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic)
vīs (vīs), gen. plur. virium, f. strength, force, violence (vim)
LESSON XLV, § 258
ācer, ācris, ācre, sharp, keen, eager (acrid)
brevis, breve, short, brief
difficilis, difficile, difficult
facilis, facile, facile, easy
fortis, forte, brave (fortitude)
gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious (grave)
omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus)
pār, gen. paris, equal (par)
paucī, -ae, -a, few, only a few (paucity)
secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, opposite of adversus
signum, -ī, n., signal, sign, standard
vēlōx, gen. vēlōcis, swift (velocity)
conlocō, conlocāre, conlocāvī, conlocātus, arrange, station, place (collocation)
dēmōnstrō, dēmōnstrāre, dēmōnstrāvī, dēmōnstrātus, point out, explain (demonstrate)
mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus, commit, intrust (mandate)
LESSON XLVI, § 261
adventus, -ūs, m., approach, arrival (advent)
ante, prep, with acc., before (ante-date)
cornū, -ūs, n., horn, wing of an army (cornucopia);
ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing;
ā sinistrō cornū, on the left wing
equitātus, -ūs, m., cavalry
exercitus, -ūs, m., army
impetus, -ūs, m., attack (impetus); impetum facere in, with acc., to make an attack on
lacus, -ūs, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus, m., lake
manus, -ūs, f., hand; band, force (manual)
portus, -ūs, m., harbor (port)
post, prep, with acc., behind, after (post-mortem)
cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātus, burn (cremate)
exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise)
LESSON XLVII, § 270
Athēnae, -ārum, f., plur., Athens
Corinthus, -ī, f., Corinth
domus, -ūs, locative domī, f., house, home (dome). Cf. domicilium
Genāva, -ae, f., Geneva
Pompēii, -ōrum, m., plur., Pompeii, a city in Campania. See map
294
propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of
rūs, rūris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. rūra, n., country (rustic)
tergum, tergī, n., back; ā tergō, behind, in the rear
vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vulnerable)
committō, committere, commīsī, commissus, intrust, commit; proelium committere, join battle
convocō, convocāre, convocāvī, convocātus, call together, summon (convoke)
timeō, timēre, timuī, ——, fear; be afraid (timid)
vertō, vertere, vertī, versus, turn, change (convert); terga vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat
LESSON XLVIII, § 276
aciēs, -ēī, f., line of battle
aestās, aestātis, f., summer
annus, -ī, m., year (annual)
diēs, diēī, m., day (diary)
fidēs, fideī, no plur., f., faith, trust; promise, word; protection; in fidem venīre, to come under the protection
fluctus, -ūs, m. wave, billow (fluctuate)
hiems, hiemis, f., winter
hōra, -ae, f., hour
lūx, lūcis, f., light (lucid); prīma lux, daybreak
merīdiēs, acc. -em, abl. , no plur., m., midday (meridian)
nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (nocturnal)
prīmus, -a, -um, first (prime)
rēs, reī, f., thing, matter (real);
rēs gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things performed); rēs adversae, adversity; rēs secundae, prosperity
spēs, speī, f., hope
LESSON XLIX, § 283
amīcitia, -ae, f., friendship (amicable)
itaque, conj., and so, therefore, accordingly
littera, -ae, f., a letter of the alphabet;
plur., a letter, an epistle
metus, metūs, m., fear
nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing (nihilist)
nūntius, nūntī, m., messenger. Cf. nūntiō
pāx, pācis, f., peace (pacify)
rēgnum, -ī, n., reign, sovereignty, kingdom
supplicum, suppli´cī, n., punishment;
supplicum sūmere dē, with abl., inflict punishment on;
supplicum dare, suffer punishment. Cf. poena
placeō, placēre, placuī, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf. § 154
sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsī, sūmptus, take up, assume
sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentus, sustain
295
LESSON L, § 288
corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal)
dēnsus, -a, -um, dense
īdem, e´adem, idem, demonstrative pronoun, the same (identity)
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, self; even, very
mīrus, -a, -um, wonderful, marvelous (miracle)
ōlim, adv., formerly, once upon a time
pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, direction
quoque, adv., also. Stands after the word which it emphasizes
sōl, sōlis, m., sun (solar)
vērus, -a, -um, true, real (verity)
dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus, owe, ought (debt)
ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus, snatch from
LESSON LI, § 294
hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative pronoun, this (of mine); he, she, it
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative pronoun that (yonder); he, she, it
invīsus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, with dative Cf. § 143
iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours); he, she, it
lībertās, -ātis, f., liberty
modus, -ī, m., measure; manner, way, mode
nōmen, nōminis, n., name (nominate)
oculus, -ī, m., eye (oculist)
prīstinus, -a, -um, former, old-time (pristine)
pūblicus, -a, -um, public, belonging to the state; rēs pūblica, reī pūblicae, f., the commonwealth, the state, the republic
vestīgium, vestī´gī, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige
vōx, vōcis, f., voice
LESSON LII, § 298
incolumis, -e, unharmed
nē ... quidem, adv., not even. The emphatic word stands between and quidem
nisi, conj., unless, if ... not
paene, adv., almost (pen-insula)
satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satisfaction)
tantus, -a, -um, so great
vērō, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. As a conj. but, however, usually stands second, never first.
dēcidō, dēcidere, dēcidī, ——, fall down (deciduous)
dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī, dēsultus, leap down, dismount
maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsūrus, remain
trādūcō, trādūcere, trādūxī, trāductus, lead across
296
LESSON LIII, § 306
aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline)
audāx, gen. audācis, adj., bold, audacious
celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick (celerity). Cf. vēlōx
explōratōr, -ōris, m., scout, spy (explorer)
ingēns, gen. ingentis, adj., huge, vast
medius, -a, -um, middle, middle part of (medium)
mēns, mentis (-ium), f., mind (mental). Cf. animus
opportūnus, -a, -um, opportune
quam, adv., than. With the superlative quam gives the force of as possible, as quam audācissimī virī, men as bold as possible
recens, gen. recentis, adj., recent
tam, adv., so. Always with an adjective or adverb, while ita is generally used with a verb
quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītus, ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf. petō
LESSON LIV, § 310
alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, excited (alacrity)
celeritās, -ātis, f., speed (celerity)
clāmor, clāmōris, m., shout, clamor
lēnis, lēne, mild, gentle (lenient)
mulier, muli´eris, f., woman
multitūdō, multitūdinis, f., multitude
nēmŏ, dat. nēminī, acc. nēminem (gen. nūllīus, abl. nūllō, from nūllus), no plur., m. and f., no one
nōbilis, nōbile, well known, noble
noctū, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal)
statim, adv., immediately, at once
subitō, adv., suddenly
tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy)
cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītus, desire, wish (cupidity)
LESSON LV, § 314
aedificium, aedifi´cī, n., building, dwelling (edifice)
imperium, impe´rī, n., command, chief power; empire
mors, mortis (-ium), f., death (mortal)
reliquus, -a, -um, remaining, rest of. As a noun, m. and n. plur., the rest (relic)
scelus, sceleris, n., crime
servitūs, -ūtis, f., slavery (servitude)
vallēs, vallis (-ium), f., valley
abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus, hide
contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend)
occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus, cut down, kill. Cf. necō, interficiō
perterreō, perterrēre, perterruī, perterritus, terrify, frighten
recipiō, recipere, recēpī, receptus, receive, recover; sē recipere, betake one’s self, withdraw, retreat
trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor)
297
LESSON LVI, § 318
aditus, -ūs, m., approach, access; entrance
cīvitās, cīvitātis, f., citizenship; body of citizens, state (city)
inter, prep, with acc., between, among (interstate commerce)
nam, conj., for
obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage
paulō, adv. (abl. n. of paulus), by a little, somewhat
incolō, incolere, incoluī, ——, transitive, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf.
habitō, vīvō
relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquish)
statuō, statuere, statuī, statūtus, fix, decide (statute), usually with infin.
LESSON LVII, § 326
aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal
cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus, run (course)
difficultās, -ātis, f., difficulty
fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse)
gēns, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, nation (Gentile)
negōtium, negōtī, n., business, affair, matter (negotiate)
regiō, -ōnis, f., region, district
rūmor, rūmōris, m., rumor, report. Cf. fāma
simul atque, conj., as soon as
suscipiō, suscipere, suscēpī, susceptus, undertake
trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus, drag, draw (ex-tract)
valeō, valēre, valuī, valitūrus, be strong; plūrimum valēre, to be most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf. validus
LESSON LVIII, § 332
commeātus, -ūs, m.. provisions
lātitūdō, -inis, f., width (latitude)
longitūdō, -inis, f., length (longitude)
magnitūdō, -inis, f., size, magnitude
mercātor, mercātōris, m., trader, merchant
mūnītiō, -ōnis, f., fortification (munition)
spatium, spatī, n., room, space, distance; time
cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know (re-cognize)
cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus, collect; compel (cogent)
dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsus, defend
298
incendō, incendere, incendī, incēnsus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). Cf. cremō
obtineō, obtinēre, obtinuī, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain)
perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventus, come through, arrive
LESSON LIX, § 337
agmen, agminis, n., line of march, column; prīmum agmen, the van; novissimum agmen, the rear
atque, ac, conj., and; atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac before consonants only. Cf. et and -que
concilium, conci´lī, n., council, assembly
Helvētiī, -ōrum, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
passus, passūs, m., a pace, five Roman feet; mīlle passuum, a thousand (of) paces, a Roman mile
quā dē causā, for this reason, for what reason
vāllum, -ī, n., earth-works, rampart
cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsūrus, fall (decadence)
dēdō, dēdere, dēdidī, dēditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one’s self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object
premō, premere, pressī, pressus, press hard, harass
vexō, vexāre, vexāvī, vexātus, annoy, ravage (vex)
LESSON LX, § 341
aut, conj., or; aut ... aut, either ... or
causā, abl. of causa, for the sake of, because of. Always stands after the gen. which modifies it
ferē, adv., nearly, almost
opīniō, -ōnis, f., opinion, supposition, expectation
rēs frūmentāria, reī frūmentāriae, f. (lit. the grain affair), grain supply
timor, -ōris, m., fear. Cf. timeō
undique, adv., from all sides
cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum, attempt, try
ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum, move out, disembark; prōgredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress)
moror, morārī, morātus sum, delay
orior, orirī, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from) (origin)
proficīscor, proficīscī, profectus sum, set out
revertor, revertī, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., revertī
sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following compounds of sequor and the force of the different prefixes: cōnsequor (follow with), overtake; īnsequor (follow against), pursue; subsequor (follow under), follow close after
299

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such; they are inserted to show etymological meanings.

The “parentheses” are shown in square brackets [ ], as in the original.
A
ā or ab, prep. with abl. from, by, off. Translated on in ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing; ā fronte, on the front or in front; ā dextrā, on the right; ā latere, on the side; etc.
ab-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, hide, conceal
ab-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, lead off, lead away
abs-cīdō, -ere, -cīdī,-cīsus [ab(s), off, + caedō, cut], cut off
ab-sum, -esse, āfuī, āfutūrus, be away, be absent, be distant, be off; with ā or ab and abl., § 501.32
ac, conj., see atque
ac-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [ad, to, + capiō, take], receive, accept
ācer, ācris, ācre, adj. sharp; figuratively, keen, active, eager (§ 471)
acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter, sour
aciēs, -ēī, f. [ācer, sharp], edge; line of battle
ācriter, adv. [ācer, sharp], compared ācrius, ācerrimē, sharply, fiercely
ad, prep. with acc. to, towards, near. With the gerund or gerundive, to, for
ad-aequō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make equal, make level with
ad-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, lead to; move, induce
ad-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus, go to, approach, draw near, visit, with acc. (§ 413)
ad-ferō, ad-ferre, at-tulī, ad-lātus, bring, convey; report, announce; render, give (§ 426)
ad-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [ad, to, + faciō, do], affect, visit
adflīctātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of adflīctō, shatter], shattered
ad-flīgō, -ere, -flīxī, -flīctus, dash upon, strike upon; harass, distress
ad-hibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [ad, to, + habeō, hold], apply, employ, use
ad-hūc, adv. hitherto, as yet, thus far
aditus, -ūs, m. [adeō, approach], approach, access; entrance. Cf. adventus
ad-ligō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, bind to, fasten
ad-loquor, -loquī, -locūtus sum, dep. verb [ad, to, + loquor, speak], speak to, address, with acc.
ad-ministrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, manage, direct
admīrātiō, -ōnis, f. [admīror, wonder at], admiration, astonishment
ad-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus, move to; apply, employ
ad-propinquō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, come near, approach, with dat.
ad-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūres, be present; assist; with dat., § 426
adulēscēns, -entis, m. and f. [part. of adolēscō, grow], a youth, young man, young person
300
adventus, -ūs, m. [ad, to, + veniō, come], approach, arrival (§ 466)
adversus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of advertō, turn to], turned towards, facing; contrary, adverse.
rēs adversae, adversity
aedificium, aedifi´cī, n. [aedificō, build], building, edifice
aedificō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus [aedēs, house, + faciō, make], build
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, feeble
aequālis, -e, adj. equal, like. As a noun, aequālis, -is, m. or f. one of the same age
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, level; equal
Aesōpus, -ī, m. Æsop, a writer of fables
aestās, -ātis, f. summer, initā aestāte, at the beginning of summer
aetās, -ātis, f. age
Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a country in Africa
Āfrica, -ae, f. Africa
Āfricānus, -a, -um, adj. of Africa. A name given to Scipio for his victories in Africa
ager, agrī, m. field, farm, land (§ 462. c)
agger, -eris, m. mound
agmen, -inis, n. [agō, drive], an army on the march, column.
prīmum agmen, the van
agō, -ere, ēgī, āctus, drive, lead; do, perform.
vītam agere, pass life
agricola, -ae, m. [ager, field, + colō, cultivate], farmer
agrī cultūra, -ae, f. agriculture
āla, -ae, f. wing
alacer, -cris, -cre, adj. active, eager. Cf. ācer
alacritās, -ātis, f. [alacer, active], eagerness, alacrity
alacriter, adv. [alacer, active], comp alacrius, alacerrimē, actively, eagerly
albus, -a, -um, adj., white
alcēs, -is, f. elk
Alcmēna, -ae, f. Alcme´na, the mother of Hercules
aliquis (-quī), -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. pron. some one, some (§ 487)
alius, -a, -ud (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. another, other.
alius ... alius, one ... another.
aliī ... aliī, some ... others (§ 110)
Alpēs, -ium, f. plur. the Alps
alter, -era, -erum (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. the one, the other (of two).
alter ... alter, the one ... the other (§ 110)
altitūdō, -inis, f. [altus, high], height
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall, deep
Amāzonēs, -um, f. plur. Amazons, a fabled tribe of warlike women
ambō, -ae, -ō, adj. (decl. like duo), both
amīcē, adv. [amīcus, friendly], superl. amīcissimē, in a friendly manner
amiciō, -īre, ——, -ictus [am-, about, + iaciō, throw], throw around, wrap about, clothe
amīcitia, -ae, f. [amīcus, friend], friendship
amīcus, -a, -um, adj. [amō, love], friendly. As a noun, amīcus, -ī, m. friend
ā-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, send away; lose
amō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, love, like, be fond of (§ 488)
amphitheātrum, -ī, n. amphitheater
amplus, -a, -um, adj. large, ample; honorable, noble
an, conj. or, introducing the second part of a double question
ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant
301
ancora, -ae, f. anchor
Andromeda, -ae, f. Androm´eda, daughter of Cepheus and wife of Perseus
angulus, -ī, m. angle, corner
anim-advertō, -ere, -tī, -sus [animus, mind, + advertō, turn to], turn the mind to, notice
animal, -ālis, n. [anima, breath], animal (§ 465. b)
animōsus, -a, -um, adj. spirited
animus, -ī, m. [anima, breath], mind, heart; spirit, courage, feeling; in this sense often plural
annus, -i, m. year
ante, prep, with acc. before
anteā, adv. [ante], before, formerly
antīquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante, before], former, ancient, old
aper, aprī, m. wild boar
Apollō, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, brother of Diana
ap-pāreō, -ēre, -uī, —— [ad + pāreō, appear], appear
ap-pellō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, call by name, name. Cf. nōminō, vocō
Appius, -a, -um, adj. Appian
ap-plicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, apply, direct, turn
apud, prep, with acc. among; at, at the house of
aqua, -ae, f. water
aquila, -ae, f. eagle
āra, -ae, f. altar
arbitror, -ārī, -ātus sum, think, suppose (§ 420. c). Cf. exīstimō, putō
arbor, -oris, f. tree (§ 247. 1. a)
Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a district in southern Greece
ārdeō, -ēre, ārsī, ārsūrus, be on fire, blaze, burn
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep
Arīcia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on the Appian Way, near Rome
ariēs, -etis, m. battering-ram (p. 221)
arma, -ōrum, n. plur. arms, weapons. Cf. tēlum
armātus, -a, -um, adj. [armō, arm], armed, equipped
arō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, plow, till
ars, artis, f. art, skill
articulus, -ī, m. joint
ascrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [ad, in addition, + scrībō, write], enroll, enlist
Āsia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia Minor
at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed
Athēnae, -ārum, f. plur. Athens
Atlās, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan who was said to hold up the sky
at-que, ac, conj. and, and also, and what is more. atque may be used before either vowels or consonants, ac before consonants only
attentus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of attendō, direct (the mind) toward], attentive, intent on, careful
at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj. thunderstruck, astounded
audācia, -ae, f. [audāx, bold], boldness, audacity
audācter, adv. [audāx, bold], compared audācius, audācissimē, boldly
audāx, -ācis, adj. bold, daring
audeō, -ēre, ausus sum, dare
audiō, -īre, -īvī or -īī, -ītus, hear, listen to (§§ 420.d; 491)
Augēās, -ae, m. Auge´as, a king whose stables Hercules cleaned
aura, -ae, f. air, breeze
aurātus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], adorned with gold
302
aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], golden
aurum, -ī, n. gold
aut, conj. or.
aut ... aut, either ... or
autem, conj., usually second, never first, in the clause, but, moreover, however, now. Cf. at, sed
auxilium, auxi´lī, n. help, aid, assistance; plur. auxiliaries
ā-vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus, turn away, turn aside
avis, -is, f. bird (§ 243. 1)
B
ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an engine for hurling missiles (p. 220)
balteus, -ī, m. belt, sword belt
barbarus, -ī, m. barbarian, savage
bellum, -ī, n. war.
bellum īnferre, with dat. make war upon
bene, adv. [for bonē, from bonus], compared melius, optimē, well
benignē, adv. [benignus, kind], compared benignius, benignissimē, kindly
benignus, -a, -um, adj. good-natured, kind, often used with dat.
bīnī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. two each, two at a time (§ 334)
bis, adv. twice
bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared melior, optimus, good, kind (§ 469. a)
bōs, bovis (gen. plur. boum or bovum, dat. and abl. plur. bōbus or būbus), m. and f. ox, cow
bracchium, bracchī, n. arm
brevis, -e, adj. short
Brundisium, -ī, n. Brundisium, a seaport in southern Italy. See map
bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket made of small concave plates of gold fastened by a spring (p. 212)
C
C. abbreviation for Gāius, Eng. Caius
cadō, -ere, ce´cidī, cāsūrus, fall
caedēs, -is, f. [caedō, cut], (a cutting down), slaughter, carnage (§ 465. a)
caelum, -ī, n. sky, heavens
Caesar, -aris, m. Cæsar, the famous general, statesman, and writer
calamitās, -ātis, f. loss, calamity, defeat, disaster
calcar, -āris, n. spur (§ 465. b)
Campānia, -ae, f. Campania., a district of central Italy. See map
Campānus, -a, -um, adj. of Campania
campus, -ī, m. plain, field, esp. the Campus Martius, along the Tiber just outside the walls of Rome
canis, -is, m. and f. dog
canō, -ere, ce´cinī, ——, sing
cantō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus [canō, sing], sing
Capēnus, -a, -um, adj. of Capena, esp. the Porta Cape´na, the gate at Rome leading to the Appian Way
capiō, -ere, cēpī, captus, take, seize, capture (§ 492)
Capitōlīnus, -a, -um, adj. belonging to the Capitol, Capitoline
Capitōlium, Capitō´lī, n. [caput, head], the Capitol, the hill at Rome on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and the citadel
capsa, -ae, f. box for books
captīvus, -ī, m. [capiō, take], captive
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large city of Campania. See map
caput, -itis, n. head (§ 464. 2. b)
carcer, -eris, m. prison, jail
carrus, -ī, m. cart, wagon
cārus, -a, -um, adj. dear; precious
casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage
303
castellum, -ī, n. [dim. of castrum, fort], redoubt, fort
castrum, -ī, n. fort. Usually in the plural, castra, -ōrum, a military camp.
castra pōnere, to pitch camp
cāsus, -us, m. [cadō, fall], chance; misfortune, loss
catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an engine for hurling stones
catēna, -ae, f. chain
caupōna, -ae, f. inn
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason, quā dē causā, for this reason
cēdō, -ere, cessī, cessūrus, give way, retire
celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet
celeritās, -ātis, f. [celer, swift], swiftness, speed
celeriter, adv. [celer, swift], compared celerius, celerrimē, swiftly
cēna, -ae, f. dinner
centum, indecl. numeral adj. hundred
centuriō, -ōnis, m. centurion, captain
Cēpheus (dissyl.), -eī (acc. Cēphea), m. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda
Cerberus, -ī, m. Cerberus, the fabled three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades
certāmen, -inis, n. [certō, struggle], struggle, contest, rivalry
certē, adv. [certus, sure], compared certius, certissimē, surely, certainly
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, certain, sure.
aliquem certiōrem facere (to make some one more certain), to inform some one
cervus, -ī, m. stag, deer
cessō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, delay, cease
cibāria, -ōrum, n. plur. food, provisions
cibus, -ī, m. food, victuals
Cimbrī, -ōrum, m. plur. the Cimbri
Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj. Cimbrian
cīnctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of cingō, surround], girt, surrounded
cingō, -ere, cīnxī, cīnctus, gird, surround
circiter, adv. about
circum, prep, with acc. around
circum´-dō, -dare, -dedī, -datus, place around, surround, inclose
circum´-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus, go around
circum-sistō, -ere, circum´stetī, ——, stand around, surround
circum-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus (come around), surround
citerior, -ius, adj. in comp., superl. citimus, hither, nearer (§ 475)
cīvīlis, -e, adj. [cīvis], civil
cīvis, -is, m. and f. citizen (§ 243. 1)
cīvitās, -ātis, f. [cīvis, citizen], (body of citizens), state; citizenship
clāmor, -ōris, m. shout, cry
clārus, -a, -um, adj. clear; famous, renowned; bright, shining
classis, -is, f. fleet
claudō, -ere, -sī, -sus, shut, close
clavus, -ī, m. stripe
cliēns, -entis, m. dependent, retainer, client (§ 465. a)
Cocles, -itis, m. (blind in one eye), Cocles, the surname of Horatius
co-gnōscō, -ere, -gnōvī, -gnītus, learn, know, understand. Cf. sciō (§ 420. b)
cōgō, -ere, coēgī, coāctus [co(m)-, together, + agō, drive], (drive together), collect; compel, drive
cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
collis, -is, m. hill, in summō colle, on top of the hill (§ 247. 2. a)
collum, -ī, n. neck
304
colō, -ere, coluī, cultus, cultivate, till; honor, worship; devote one’s self to
columna, -ae, f. column, pillar
com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a prefix, together, with, or intensifying the meaning of the root word
coma, -ae, f. hair
comes, -itis, m. and f. [com-, together, + , go], companion, comrade
comitātus, -ūs, m. [comitor, accompany], escort, company
comitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [comes, companion], accompany
com-meātus, -ūs, m. supplies
com-minus, adv. [com-, together, + manus, hand], hand to hand
com-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, join together; commit, intrust.
proelium committere, join battle.
sē committere with dat, trust one’s self to
commodē, adv. [commodus, fit], compared commodius, commodissimē, conveniently, fitly
commodus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
com-mōtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of commoveō, move], aroused, moved
com-parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + parō, prepare], prepare; provide, get
com-pleō, -ēre, -plēvī, -plētus [com-, intensive, + pleō, fill], fill up
complexus, -ūs, m. embrace
com-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus [com-, together, + premō, press], press together, grasp, seize
con-cidō, -ere, -cidī, —— [com-, intensive, + cadō, fall], fall down
concilium, conci´lī, n. meeting, council
con-clūdō, -ere, -clūsī, -clūsus [com-, intensive, + claudō, close], shut up, close; end, finish
con-currō, -ere, -currī, -cursus [com-, together, + currō, run], run together; rally, gather
condiciō, -ōnis, f. [com-, together, + dicō, talk], agreement, condition, terms
con-dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, pardon
con-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, hire
cōn-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus, bring together.
sē cōnferre, betake one’s self
cōn-fertus, -a, -um, adj. crowded, thick
cōnfestim, adv. immediately
cōn-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [com-, completely, + faciō, do], make, complete, accomplish, finish
cōn-fīrmō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make firm, establish, strengthen, affirm, assert
cōn-fluō, -ere, -flūxī, ——, flow together
cōn-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus, flee for refuge, flee
con-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [com-, intensive, + iaciō, throw], hurl
con-iungō, -ere, -iūnxī, -iūnctus [com-, together, + iungō, join], join together, unite
con-iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + iūrō, swear], unite by oath, conspire
con-locō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + locō, place], arrange, place, station
conloquium, conlo´quī, n. [com-, together, + loquor, speak], conversation, conference
cōnor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, endeavor, attempt, try
cōn-scendō, -ere, -scendī, -scēnsus [com-, intensive, + scandō, climb], climb up, ascend.
nāvem cōnscendere, embark, go on board
305
cōn-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [com-, together, + scrībō, write], (write together), enroll, enlist
cōn-secrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + sacrō, consecrate], consecrate, devote
cōn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + sequor, follow], pursue; overtake; win
cōn-servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + servō, save], preserve, save
cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī, n. plan, purpose, design; wisdom
cōn-sistō, -ere, -stitī, -stitus [com-, intensive, + sistō, cause to stand], stand firmly, halt, take one’s stand
cōn-spiciō, -ere, -spēxī, -spectus [com-, intensive, + spiciō, spy], look at attentively, perceive, see
cōnstantia, -ae, f. firmness, steadiness, perseverance
cōn-stituō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus [com-, intensive, + statuō, set], establish, determine, resolve
cōn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stātūrus [com-, together, + stō, stand], agree; be certain ; consist of
cōnsul, -ulis, m. consul (§ 464. 2. a)
cōn-sūmō, -ere, -sūmpsī, -sūmptus [com-, intensive, + sumō, take], consume, use up
con-tendō, -ere, -dī, -tus, strain; hasten; fight, contend, struggle
con-tineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus [com-, together, + teneō, hold], hold together, hem in, contain; restrain
contrā, prep, with acc. against, contrary to
con-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus [com-, together, + trahō, draw], draw together; of sails, shorten, furl
contrōversia, -ae, f. dispute, quarrel
con-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus [com-, together, + veniō, come], come together, meet, assemble
con-vertō, -ere, -vertī, -versus [com-, intensive, + vertō, turn], turn
con-vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + vocō, call], call together
co-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + orior, rise], rise, break forth
cōpia, -ae, f. [com-, intensive, + ops, wealth], abundance, wealth, plenty. Plur. cōpiae, -ārum, troops
coquō, -ere, coxī, coctus, cook
Corinthus, -ī, f. Corinth, the famous city on the Isthmus of Corinth
Cornēlia, -ae, f. Cornelia, daughter of Scipio and mother of the Gracchi
Cornēlius, Cornē´lī, m. Cornelius, a Roman name
cornū, -ūs, n. horn; wing of an army, ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing (§ 466)
corōna, -ae, f. garland, wreath; crown
corōnātus, -a, -um, adj. crowned
corpus, -oris, n. body
cor-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus [com-, intensive, + rapiō, seize], seize, grasp
cotīdiānus, -a, -um, adj. daily
cotīdiē, adv. daily
crēber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick, crowded, numerous, frequent
crēdō, -ere, -dīdī, -ditus, trust, believe, with dat. (§ 501.14)
cremō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, burn
creō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make; elect, appoint
Creōn, -ontis, m. Creon, a king of Corinth
crēscō, -ere, crēvī, crētus, rise, grow, increase
306
Crēta, -ae, f. Crete, a large island in the Mediterranean
Crētaeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan
crūs, crūris, n. leg
crūstulum, -ī, n. pastry, cake
cubīle, -is, n. bed
cultūra, -ae, f. culture, cultivation
cum, conj. with the indic. or subjv. when; since; although (§ 501.46)
cum, prep, with abl. with (§ 209)
cupidē, adv. [cupidus, desirous], compared cupidius, cupidissimē, eagerly
cupiditās, -ātis, f. [cupidus, desirous], desire, longing
cupiō, -ere, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, desire, wish. Cf. volō
cūr, adv. why, wherefore
cūra, -ae, f. care, pains; anxiety
cūria, -ae, f. senate house
cūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cūra, care], care for, attend to, look after
currō, -ere, cucurrī, cursus, run
currus, -ūs, m. chariot
cursus, -ūs, m. course
custōdiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus [custōs, guard], guard, watch
D
Daedalus, -ī, m. Dæd´alus, the supposed inventor of the first flying machine
Dāvus, -ī, m. Davus, name of a slave
, prep, with abl. down from, from; concerning, about, for (§ 209).
quā dē causā, for this reason, wherefore
dea, -ae, f. goddess (§ 461. a)
dēbeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [, from, + habeō, hold], owe, ought, should
decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten
dē-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus [, from, + cernō, separate], decide, decree
dē-cidō, -ere, -cidī, —— [, down, + cadō, fall], fall down
decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. tenth
dēclīvis, -e, adj. sloping downward
dē-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, give up, surrender, sē dēdere, surrender one’s self
dē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [, down, + dūcō, lead], lead down, escort
dē-fendō, -ere, -dī, -fēnsus, ward off, repel, defend
dē-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus [, down, + ferō, bring], bring down; report, announce (§ 426)
dē-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, weary
dē-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [, from, + faciō, make], fail, be wanting; revolt from
dē-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus [, down, + fīgō, fasten], fasten, fix
dē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [, down, + iaciō, hurl], hurl down; bring down, kill
de-inde, adv. (from thence), then, in the next place
dēlectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, delight
dēleō, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētus, blot out, destroy
dēlīberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, weigh, deliberate, ponder
dē-ligō, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctus [, from, + legō, gather], choose, select
Delphicus, -a, -um, adj. Delphic
dēmissus, -a, -um [part. of dēmittō, send down], downcast, humble
dē-mōnstrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, out, + mōnstrō, point], point out, show
dēmum, adv. at last, not till then.
tum dēmum, then at last
dēnique, adv. at last, finally. Cf. postrēmō
dēns, dentis, m. tooth (§ 247. 2. a)
dēnsus, -a, -um, adj. dense, thick
307
dē-pendeō, -ēre, ——, —— [, down, + pendeō, hang], hang from, hang down
dē-plōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, intensive, + plōrō, wail], bewail, deplore
dē-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus [, down, + pōnō, put], put down
dē-scendō, -ere, -dī, -scēnsus [, down, + scandō, climb], climb down, descend
dē-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [, down, + scrībō, write], write down
dēsīderō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, long for
dē-siliō, -īre, -uī, -sultus [, down, + saliō, leap], leap down
dē-spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, away from, + spērō, hope], despair
dē-spiciō, -ere, -spēxi, -spectus [, down], look down upon, despise
dē-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [, away from, + sum, be], be wanting, lack, with dat. (§ 426)
deus, -ī, m. god (§ 468)
dē-volvō, -ere, -volvī, -volūtus [, down, + volvō, roll], roll down
dē-vorō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, down, + vorō, swallow], devour
dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, -terum), adj. to the right, right.
ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing
Diāna, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the moon and twin sister of Apollo
dīcō, -ere, dīxī, dictus (imv. dīc), say, speak, tell. Usually introduces indirect discourse (§ 420. a)
dictātor, -ōris, m. [dictō, dictate], dictator, a chief magistrate with unlimited power
diēs, -ēi or diē, m., sometimes f. in sing., day (§ 467)
dif-ferō, -ferre, distulī, dīlātus [dis-, apart, + ferō, carry], carry apart; differ.
differre inter sē, differ from each other
dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-, not, + facilis, easy], hard, difficult (§ 307)
difficultās, -ātis, f. [difficilis, hard], difficulty
dīligenter, adv. [dīligēns, careful], compared dīligentius, dīligentissimē, industriously, diligently
dīligentia, -ae, f. [dīligēns, careful], industry, diligence
dī-micō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, fight, struggle
dī-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [dī-, off, + mittō, send], send away, dismiss, disband.
dīmittere animum in, direct one’s mind to, apply one’s self to
Diomēdēs, -is, m. Dī-o-mē´dēs, a name
dis-, dī-, a prefix expressing separation, off, apart, in different directions. Often negatives the meaning
dis-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus [dis-, apart, + cēdō, go], depart from, leave, withdraw, go away
dis-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus [dis-, apart, + cernō, sift], separate; distinguish
disciplīna, -ae, f. instruction, training, discipline
discipulus, -ī, m. [discō, learn], pupil, disciple
discō, -ere, didicī, ——, learn
dis-cutiō, -ere, -cussī, -cussus [dis-, apart, + quatiō, shake], shatter, dash to pieces
dis-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus [dis-, apart, + pōnō, put], put here and there, arrange, station
dis-similis, -e, adj. [dis-, apart, + similis, like], unlike, dissimilar (§ 307)
dis-tribuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus, divide, distribute
308
diū, adv., compared diūtius, diūtissimē, for a long time, long (§ 477)
dō, dare, dedī, datus, give.
in fugam dare, put to flight.
alicui negōtium dare, employ some one
doceō, -ēre, -uī, -tus, teach, show
doctrīna, -ae, f. [doctor, teacher], teaching, learning, wisdom
dolor, -ōris, m. pain, sorrow
domesticus, -a, -um, adj. [domus, house], of the house, domestic
domicilium, domici´lī, n. dwelling; house, abode. Cf. domus
domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the house), lady (§ 461)
dominus, -ī, m. master (of the house), owner, ruler (§ 462)
domus, -ūs, f. house, home.
domī, locative, at home (§ 468)
dormiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, sleep
dracō, -ōnis, m. serpent, dragon
dubitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, hesitate
dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo, two], (moving two ways), doubtful, dubious
du-centī, -ae, -a, numeral adj. two hundred
dūcō, -ere, dūxī, ductus (imv. dūc), lead, conduct
dum, conj. while, as long as
duo, duae, duo, numeral adj. two (§ 479)
duo-decim, indecl. numeral adj. twelve
dūrus, -a, -um, adj. hard, tough; harsh, pitiless, bitter
dux, ducis, m. and f. [cf. dūcō, lead], leader, commander
E
ē or ex, prep, with abl. out of, from, off, of (§ 209)
eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory
ecce, adv. see! behold! there! here!
ē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [ē, out, + dūcō, lead], lead out, draw out
ef-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [ex, thoroughly, + faciō, do], work out; make, cause
ef-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus [ex, from, + fugiō, flee], escape
egeō, -ēre, -uī, ——, be in need of, lack, with abl. (§ 501.32)
ego, pers. pron. I; plur. nōs, we (§ 480)
ē-gredior, -ī, ēgressus sum, dep. verb [ē, out of, + gradior, go], go out, go forth.
ē nāvī ēgredī, disembark
ē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [ē, forth, + iaciō, hurl], hurl forth, expel
elementum, -ī, n., in plur. first principles, rudiments
elephantus, -ī, m. elephant
Ēlis, Ēlidis, f. E´lis, a district of southern Greece
emō, -ere, ēmī, ēmptus, buy, purchase
enim, conj., never standing first, for, in fact, indeed. Cf. nam
Ennius, Ennī, m. Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, born 239 B.C.
eō, īre, iī (īvī), itūrus, go (§ 499)
, adv. to that place, thither
Ēpīrus, -ī, f. Epi´rus, a district in the north of Greece
eques, -itis, m. [equus, horse], horseman, cavalryman
equitātus, -ūs, m. [equitō, ride], cavalry
equus, -ī, m. horse
ē-rigō, -ere, -rēxī, -rēctus [ē, out, + regō, make straight], raise up
ē-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus [ē, out of, + rapiō, seize], seize, rescue
ē-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus [ē, forth, + rumpō, break], burst forth
ēruptiō, -ōnis, f. sally
309
Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj. Erymanthian, of Erymanthus, a district in southern Greece
et, conj. and, also.
et ... et, both ... and. Cf. atque, ac, -que
etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) [et, also, + iam, now], yet, still; also, besides. Cf. quoque.
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
Etrūscī, -ōrum, m. the Etruscans, the people of Etruria. See map of Italy
Eurōpa, -ae, f. Europe
Eurystheus, -ī, m. Eurys´theus, a king of Tiryns, a city in southern Greece
ē-vādō, -ere, -vāsī, -vāsus [ē, out, + vādō, go], go forth, escape
ex, see ē
exanimātus, -a, -um [part. of exanimō, put out of breath (anima)], adj. out of breath, tired; lifeless
ex-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [ex, out, + capiō, take], welcome, receive
exemplum, -ī, n. example, model
ex-eō,-īre,-iī,-itūrus [ex, out, + , go], go out, go forth (§ 413)
ex-erceō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [ex, out, + arceō, shut], (shut out), employ, train, exercise, use
exercitus, -us, m. [exerceō, train], army
ex-īstimō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + aestimō, reckon], estimate; think, judge (§ 420. c). Cf. arbitror, putō
ex-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum, dep. verb [ex, forth, + orior, rise], come forth, rise
expedītus, -a, -um, adj. without baggage
ex-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus [ex, out, + pellō, drive], drive out
ex-piō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, intensive, + pīo, atone for], make amends for, atone for
explōrātor, -ōris, m. [explōrō, investigate], spy, scout
explōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, examine, explore
ex-pugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + pugnō, fight], take by storm, capture
exsilium, exsi´lī, n. [exsul, exile], banishment, exile
ex-spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + spectō, look], expect, wait
ex-struō, -ere, -strūxī, -strūctus [ex, out, + struō, build], build up, erect
exterus, -a, -um, adj., compared exterior, extrēmus or extimus, outside, outer (§ 312)
extrā, prep, with acc. beyond, outside of
ex-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus [ex, out, + trahō, drag], drag out, pull forth
extrēmus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of exterus, utmost, farthest (§ 312)
F
fābula, -ae, f. story, tale, fable
facile, adv. [facilis, easy], compared facilius, facillimē, easily (§ 322)
facilis, -e, adj. [cf. faciō, make], easy, without difficulty (§ 307)
faciō, -ere, fēcī, factus (imv. fac), make, do; cause, bring about.
impetum facere in, make an attack upon.
proelium facere, fight a battle.
iter facere, make a march or journey.
aliquem certiōrem facere, inform some one.
facere verba prō, speak in behalf of.
Passive fīō, fierī, factus sum, be done, happen.
certior fierī, be informed
fallō, -ere, fefellī, falsus, trip, betray, deceive
fāma, -ae, f. report, rumor; renown, fame, reputation
310
famēs, -is (abl. famē), f. hunger
familia, -ae, f. servants, slaves; household, family
fascēs, -ium (plur. of fascis), f. fasces (p. 225)
fastīgium, fastī´gī, n. top; slope, descent
fātum, -ī, n. fate, destiny
faucēs, -ium, f. plur. jaws, throat
faveō, -ēre, fāvī, fautūrus, be favorable to, favor, with dat. (§ 501.14)
fēlīx, -īcis, adj. happy, lucky
fēmina, -ae, f. woman. Cf. mulier
fera, -ae, f. [ferus, wild], wild beast
ferāx, -ācis, adj. fertile
ferē, adv. about, nearly, almost
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, bear.
graviter or molestē ferre, be annoyed (§ 498)
ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [ferrum, iron], made of iron
fidēlis, -e, adj. [fidēs, trust], faithful, true
fidēs, fideī or fidē, trust, faith; promise, word; protection.
in fidem venīre, come under the protection.
in fidē manēre, remain loyal
fīlia, -ae (dat. and abl. plur. fīliābus), f. daughter (§ 461. a)
fīlius, fīlī (voc. sing, fīlī), m. son
fīnis, -is, m. boundary, limit, end; in plur. territory, country (§ 243. 1)
fīnitimus, -a, -um, adj. [fīnis, boundary], adjoining, neighboring. Plur. fīnitimī, -ōrum, m. neighbors
fīō, fierī, factus sum, used as passive of faciō. See faciō (§ 500)
flamma, -ae, f. fire, flame
flōs, flōris, m. flower
fluctus, -ūs, m. [of. fluō, flow], flood, wave, billow
flūmen, -inis, n. [cf. fluō, flow], river (§ 464. 2. b)
fluō, -ere, flūxī, fluxus, flow
fluvius, fluvī, m. [cf. fluō, flow], river
fodiō, -ere, fōdī, fossus, dig
fōns, fontis, m. fountain (§ 247. 2. a)
fōrma, -ae, f. form, shape, appearance; beauty
Formiae, -ārum, f. Formiae, a town of Latium on the Appian Way. See map
forte, adv. [abl. of fors, chance], by chance
fortis, -e, adj. strong; fearless, brave
fortiter, adv. [fortis, strong], compared fortius, fortissimē, strongly; bravely
fortūna, -ae, f. [fors, chance], chance, fate, fortune
forum, -ī, n. market place, esp. the Forum Rōmānum, where the life of Rome centered
Forum Appī, Forum of Appius, a town in Latium on the Appian Way
fossa, -ae, f. [cf. fodiō, dig], ditch
fragor, -ōris, m. [cf. frangō, break], crash, noise
frangō, -ere, frēgī, frāctus, break
frāter, -tris, m. brother
fremitus, -ūs, m. loud noise
frequentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, attend
frētus, -a, -um, adj. supported, trusting. Usually with abl. of means
frōns, frontis, f. front, ā fronte, in front
frūctus, -ūs, m. fruit
frūmentārius, -a, -um, adj. pertaining to grain.
rēs frūmentāria, grain supplies
frūmentum, -ī, n. grain
frūstrā, adv. in vain, vainly
fuga, -ae, f. [cf. fugiō, flee], flight.
in fugam dare, put to flight
311
fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus, flee, run; avoid, shun
fūmō, -are, ——, ——, smoke
fūnis, -is, m. rope
furor, -ōris, m. [furō, rage], madness.
in furōrem incīdere, go mad
G
Gāius, Gāī, m. Gaius, a Roman name, abbreviated C., English form Caius
Galba, -ae, m. Galba, a Roman name
galea, -ae, f. helmet
Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul, the country comprising what is now Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and France
Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. Gallic
gallīna, -ae, f. hen, chicken
Gallus, -ī, m. a Gaul
gaudium, gaudī, n. joy
Genāva, -ae, f. Geneva, a city in Switzerland
gēns, gentis, f. [cf. gignō, beget], race, family; people, nation, tribe
genus, -eris, n. kind, variety
Germānia, -ae, f. Germany
Germānus, -ī, m. a German
gerō, -ere, gessī, gestus, carry, wear; wage.
bellum gerere, wage war.
rēs gestae, exploits.
bene gerere, carry on successfully
gladiātōrius, -a, -um, adj. gladiatorial
gladius, gladī, m. sword
glōria, -ae, f. glory, fame
Gracchus, -ī, m. Gracchus, name of a famous Roman family
gracilis, -e, adj. slender (§ 307)
Graeca, -ōrum, n. plur. Greek writings, Greek literature
Graecē, adv. in Greek
Graecia, -ae, f. Greece
grammaticus, -ī, m. grammarian
grātia, -ae, f. thanks, gratitude
grātus, -a, -um, adj. acceptable, pleasing. Often with dat. (§ 501.16)
gravis, -ē, adj. heavy; disagreeable; serious, dangerous; earnest, weighty
graviter, adv. [gravis, heavy], compared gravius, gravissimē, heavily; greatly, seriously.
graviter ferre, bear ill, take to heart
gubernātor, -ōris, m. [gubernō, pilot], pilot
H
habēna, -ae, f. halter, rein.
habeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, have, hold; regard, consider, deem
habitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cf. habeō, have], dwell, abide, inhabit. Cf. incolō, vīvō
hāc-tenus, adv. thus far
Helvētiī, -ōrum, m. the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
Herculēs, -is, m. Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, and god of strength
Hesperidēs, -um, f. the Hesperides, daughters of Hesperus, who kept the garden of the golden apples
hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative adj. and pron. this (of mine); as pers. pron. he, she, it (§ 481)
hīc, adv. here
hiems, -emis, f. winter
hīnc, adv. [hīc, here], from here, hence
Hippolytē, -ēs, f. Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons
ho-diē, adv. [modified form of hōc diē, on this day], to-day
homō, -inis, m. and f. (human being), man, person
honestus, -a, -um, adv. [honor, honor], respected, honorable
312
honor, -ōris, m. honor
hōra, -ae, f. hour
Horātius, Horā´tī, m. Horatius, a Roman name
horribilis, -e, adj. terrible, horrible
hortor, -āri, -ātus sum, dep. verb, urge, incite, exhort, encourage (§ 493)
hortus, -ī, m. garden
hospitium, hospi´tī, n. [hospes, host], hospitality
hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, foe (§ 465. a)
humilis, -e, adj. low, humble (§ 307)
Hydra, -ae, f. the Hydra, a mythical water snake slain by Hercules
I
iaciō, -ere, iēcī, iactus, throw, hurl
iam, adv. now, already.
nec iam, and no longer
Iāniculum, -ī, n. the Janiculum, one of the hills of Rome
iānua, -ae, f. door
ibi, adv. there, in that place
Īcarus, -ī, m. Ic´arus, the son of Dædalus
ictus, -ūs, m. [cf. īcō, strike], blow
īdem, e´adem, idem, demonstrative pron. [is + dem], same (§ 481)
idōneus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
igitur, conj., seldom the first word, therefore, then. Cf. itaque
ignis, -is, m. fire (§§ 243.1; 247.2.a; 465.1)
ignōtus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + (g)notus, known], unknown, strange
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (yonder); as pers. pron. he, she, it (§ 481)
illīc, adv. [cf. ille], yonder, there
im-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [in, against, + mittō, send], send against; let in
immolō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [in, upon, + mola, meal], sprinkle with sacrificial meal; offer, sacrifice
im-mortālis, -e, adj. [in-, not, + mortalis, mortal], immortal
im-mortālitās, -ātis, f. [immortālis, immortal], immortality
im-parātus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + parātus, prepared], unprepared
impedīmentum, -ī, n. [impediō, hinder], hindrance; in plur. baggage
impedītus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of impediō, hinder], hindered, burdened
im-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus [in, against, + pellō, strike], strike against; impel, drive, propel
imperātor, -ōris, m. [imperō, command], general
imperium, impe´rī, n. [imperō, command], command, order; realm, empire; power, authority
imperō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, command, order. Usually with dat. and an object clause of purpose (§ 501.41). With acc. object, levy, impose
impetus, -ūs, m. attack, impetum facere in, make an attack upon
im-pōnō, -ere, -posui, -positus [in, upon, + pōnō, place], place upon; impose, assign
in, prep, with acc. into, to, against, at, upon, towards; with abl. in, on.
in reliquum tempus, for the future
in-, inseparable prefix. With nouns and adjectives often with a negative force, like English un-, in-
in-cautus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + cautus, careful], off one’s guard
313
incendium, incendī, n. flame, fire. Cf. ignis, flamma
in-cendō, -ere, -dī, -cēnsus, set fire to, burn
in-cidō, -ere, -cidī, ——, [in, in, on, + cadō, fall], fall in, fall on; happen.
in furōrem incidere, go mad
in-cipiō, -ere, -cēpi, -ceptus [in, on, + capiō, take], begin
in-cognitus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + cognitus, known], unknown
in-colō, -ere, -uī, ——, [in, in, + colō, dwell], inhabit; live
incolumis, -e, adj. sound, safe, uninjured, imharmed
in-crēdibilis, -e, adj. [in-, not, + crēdibilis, to be believed], incredible
inde, from that place, thence
induō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus, put on
indūtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of induō, put on], clothed
in-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus [in, into, + , go], go into; enter upon, begin, with acc. (§ 413)
īn-fāns, -fantis, adj. [in-, not, + *fāns, speaking], not speaking. As a noun, m. and f. infant
īn-fēlīx, -īcis, adj. [in-, not, + fēlīx, happy], unhappy, unlucky
īnfēnsus, -a, -um, adj. hostile
īn´-ferō, īnfer´re, in´tulī, inlā´tus [in, against, + ferō, bear], bring against or upon, inflict, with acc. and dat. (§ 501.15).
bellum īnferre, with dat., make war upon
īnferus, -a, -um, adj. low, below (§ 312).
īn-fīnītus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + fīnītus, bounded], boundless, endless
īn-fīrmus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + fīrmus, strong], weak, infirm
ingenium, inge´ni, n. talent, ability
ingēns, -entis, adj. vast, huge, enormous, large. Cf. magnus
in-gredior, -gredī, -gressus sum [in, in, + gradior, walk], advance, enter
inimīcus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + amīcus, friendly], hostile. As a noun, inimīcus, -ī, m. enemy, foe. Cf. hostis
initium, ini´tī, entrance, beginning
initus, -a, -um, part. of ineō.
initā aestāte, at the beginning of summer
iniūria, -ae, f. [in, against, + iūs, law], injustice, wrong, injury.
alicui iniūriās īnferre, inflict wrongs upon some one
inopia, -ae, f. [inops, needy], want, need, lack
in-opīnāns, -antis, adj. [in-, not, + opīnāns, thinking], not expecting, taken by surprise
inquit, said he, said she. Regularly inserted in a direct quotation
in-rigō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, irrigate, water
in-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus [in, into, + rumpō, break], burst in, break in
in-ruō, -ere, -ruī,—— [in, in, + ruō, rush], rush in
īn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [in, on, + sequor, follow], follow on, pursue
īn-signe, -is, n. badge, decoration (§ 465. b)
īnsignis, -e, adj. remarkable, noted
īnstāns, -antis, adj. [part. of īnsto, be at hand], present, immediate
īn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -statūrus [in, upon, + stō, stand], stand upon; be at hand; pursue, press on
īnstrūmentum, -ī, n. instrument
īn-struō, -ere, -strūxī, -strūctus [in, on, + struō, build], draw up
314
īnsula, -ae, f. island
integer, -gra, -grum, untouched, whole; fresh, new
intellegō, -ere, -lēxī, -lēctus [inter, between, +legō, choose], perceive, understand (§ 420. d)
intentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, aim; threaten
inter, prep. with acc. between, among; during, while (§ 340)
interfectus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of inter-ficiō, kill], slain, dead
inter-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [inter, between, + faciō, make], put out of the way, kill. Cf. necō, occīdō, trucīdō
interim, adv. meanwhile
interior, -ius, adj. interior, inner (§ 315)
inter-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, leave off, suspend
interpres, -etis, m. and f. interpreter
inter-rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, question
inter-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [inter, between, +sum, be], be present, take part in, with dat. (§ 501.15)
inter-vāllum, -ī, n. interval, distance
intrā, adv. and prep. with acc. within, in
intrō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus, go into, enter
in-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus [in, upon, +veniō, come], find
invīsus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of invideō, envy], hated, detested
Iolāus, -ī, m. I-o-lā´us, a friend of Hercules
ipse, -a, -um, intensive pron. that very, this very; self, himself, herself, itself, (§ 481)
īra, -ae, f. wrath, anger
īrātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of īrāscor, be angry], angered, enraged
is, ea, id, demonstrative adj. and pron. this, that; he, she, it (§ 481)
iste, -a, -ud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (of yours), he, she, it (§ 481)
ita, adv. so, thus. Cf. sīc and tam
Italia, -ae, f. Italy
ita-que, conj. and so, therefore
item, adv. also
iter, itineris, n. journey, march, route; way, passage (§§ 247.1.a; 468).
iter dare, give a right of way, allow to pass.
iter facere, march (see p. 159)
iubeō, -ēre, iussī, iussus, order, command. Usually with the infin. and subj. acc. (§ 213)
iūdex, -icis, m. and f. judge (§ 464. 1)
iūdicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [iūdex, judge], judge, decide (§ 420. c)
Iūlia, -ae, Julia, a Roman name
Iūlius, Iūlī, m. Julius, a Roman name
iungō, -ēre, iūnxī, iūnctus, join; yoke, harness
Iūnō, -ōnis, f. Juno, the queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter
Iuppiter, Iovis, m. Jupiter, the supreme god
iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, swear, take an oath
iussus, -a, -um, part. of iubeō, ordered
L
L., abbreviation for Lūcius
labefactus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of labefaciō, cause to shake], shaken, weakened, ready to fall
Labiēnus, -ī, m. La-bi-e´nus, one of Cæsar’s lieutenants
labor, -ōris, m. labor, toil
labōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [labor, labor], labor; suffer, be hard pressed
lacrima, -ae, f. tear
lacus, -ūs (dat. and abl. plur. lacubus), m. lake
315
laetē, adv. [laetus, glad], compared laetius, laetissimē, gladly
laetitia, -ae, f. [laetus, glad], joy
laetus, -a, -um, adj. glad, joyful
lapis, -idis, m. stone (§§ 247.2.a; 464.1)
Lār, Laris, m.; plur. Larēs, -um (rarely -ium), the Lares or household, gods
lātē, adv. [lātus, wide], compared lātius, lātissimē, widely
Latinē, adv. in Latin.
Latīnē loquī, to speak Latin
lātitūdō, -inis, f. [lātus, wide], width
Lātōna, -ae, f. Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana
latus, -a, -um, adj. wide
lātus, -eris, n. side, flank.
ab utrōque latere, on each side
laudō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [laus, praise], praise
laurea, -ae, f. laurel
laureātus, -a, -um, adj. crowned with laurel
laus, laudis, f. praise
lectulus, -ī, m. couch, bed
lēgātus, -ī, m. ambassador; lieutenant
legiō, -ōnis, f. [cf. legō, gather], (body of soldiers), legion, about 3600 men (§ 464. 2. a)
legiōnārius, -a, -um, adj. legionary. Plur. legiōnariī, -ōrum, m. the soldiers of the legion
legō, -ere, lēgī, lēctus, read
lēnis, -e, adj. gentle, smooth, mild
lēniter, adv. [lēnis, gentle], compared lēnius, lēnissimē, gently
Lentulus, -i, m. Lentulus, a Roman family name
leō, -ōnis, m. lion
Lernaeus, -a, -um, adj. Lernæean, of Lerna, in southern Greece
Lesbia, -ae, f. Lesbia, a girl’s name
levis, -e, adj. light
lēx, lēgis, f. measure, law
libenter, adv. [libēns, willing], compared libentius, libentissimē, willingly, gladly
līber, -era, -erum, adj. free (§ 469. b)
līberī, -ōrum, m. [līber, free], children
līberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [līber, free], set free, release, liberate
lībertās, -ātis, f. [līber, free], freedom, liberty
līctor, -ōris, m. lictor (p. 225)
līmus, -ī, m. mud
littera, -ae, f. a letter of the alphabet; in plur. a letter, epistle
lītus, -oris, n. seashore, beach
locus, -ī, m. (plur. locī and loca, m. and n.), place, spot
longē, adv. [longus, long], comp. longius, longissimē, a long way off; by far
longinquus, -a, -um, adj. [longus, long], distant, remote
longitūdō, -inis, f. [longus, long], length
longus, -a, -um, adj. long
loquor, loqui, locūtus sum, dep. verb, talk, speak
lōrīca, -ae, f. [lōrum, thong], coat of mail, corselet
lūdō, -ere, lūsī, lūsus, play
lūdus, -ī, m. play; school, the elementary grades. Cf. schola
lūna, -ae, f. moon
lūx, lūcis, f. (no gen. plur.), light.
prīma lūx, daybreak
Lȳdia, -ae, f. Lydia, a girl’s name
M
M., abbreviation for Mārcus
magicus, -a, -um, adj. magic
magis, adv. in comp. degree [magnus, great], more, in a higher degree (§ 323)
316
magister, -trī, m. master, commander; teacher
magistrātus, -ūs, m. [magister, master], magistracy; magistrate
magnitūdō, -inis, f. [magnus, great], greatness, size
magnopere, adv. [abl. of magnum opus], compared magis, maximē, greatly, exceedingly (§ 323)
magnus, -a, -um, adj., compared maior, maximus, great, large; strong, loud (§ 311)
maior, maius, -ōris, adj., comp. of magnus, greater, larger (§ 311)
maiōrēs, -um, m. plur. of maior, ancestors
mālō, mālle, māluī, —— [magis, more, + volō, wish], wish more, prefer (§ 497)
malus, -a, -um, adj., compared peior, pessimus, bad, evil (§ 311)
mandō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [manus, hand, + , put], (put in hand), intrust; order, command
maneō, -ēre, mānsī, mānsūrus, stay, remain, abide
Mānlius, Mānlī, m. Manlius, a Roman name
mānsuētus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of mānsuēscō, tame], tamed
manus, -ūs, f. hand; force, band
Mārcus, -ī, m. Marcus, Mark, a Roman first name
mare, -is, n. (no gen. plur.), sea.
mare tenēre, be out to sea
margō, -inis, m. edge, border
marītus, -ī, m. husband
Marius, Marī, m. Marius, a Roman name, esp. C. Marius, the general
Mārtius, -a, -um, adj. of Mars, esp. the Campus Martius
māter, -tris, f. mother
mātrimōnium, mātrimō´nī, n. marriage.
in mātrimōnium dūcere, marry
mātūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, hasten. Cf. contendō, properō
mātūrus, -a, -um, adj. ripe, mature
maximē, adv. in superl. degree [maximus, greatest], compared magnopere, magis, maximē, especially, very much (§ 323)
maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of magnus, greatest, extreme (§ 311)
medius, -a, -um, adj. middle part; middle, intervening
melior, -ius, -ōris, adj., comp. of bonus, better (§ 311)
melius, adv. in comp. degree, compared bene, melius, optimē, better (§ 323)
memoria, -ae, f. [memor, mindful], memory.
memoriā tenēre, remember
mēns, mentis, f. mind. Cf. animus
mēnsis, -is, m. month (§ 247. 2. a)
mercātor, -ōris, m. [mercor, trade], trader, merchant
merīdiānus, -a, -um, adj. [merīdiēs, noon], of midday
merīdiēs, —— (acc. -em, abl. ), m. [medius, mid, + diēs, day], noon
metus, -ūs, m. fear, dread
meus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. my, mine (§ 98)
mīles, -itis, m. soldier (§ 464. 1)
mīlitāris, -e, adj. [mīles, soldier], military.
rēs mīlitāris, science of war
mīlitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [mīles, soldier], serve as a soldier
mīlle, plur. mīlia, -ium, numeral adj. and subst. thousand (§ 479)
minimē, adv. in superl. degree, compared parum, minus, minimē, least, very little; by no means (§ 323)
317
minimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, least, smallest (§ 311)
minor, minus, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, smaller, less (§ 311)
Mīnōs, -ōis, m. Minos, a king of Crete
minus, adv. in comp. degree, compared parum, minus, minimē, less (§ 323)
Minyae, -ārum, m. the Minyae, a people of Greece
mīrābilis, -e, adj. [mīror, wonder at], wonderful, marvelous
mīror, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [mīrus, wonderful], wonder, marvel, admire
mīrus, -a, -um, adj. wonderful
Mīsēnum, -ī, Mise´num, a promontory and harbor on the coast of Campania. See map
miser, -era, -erum, adj. wretched, unhappy, miserable
missus, -a, -um, part. of mittō, sent
mittō, -ere, mīsī, missus, send
modicus, -a, -um [modus, measure], modest, ordinary
modo, adv. [abl. of modus, measure, with shortened o], only, merely, just now.
modo ... modo, now ... now, sometimes ... sometimes
modus, -ī, m. measure; manner, way; kind
moenia, -ium, n. plur. [cf. mūniō, fortify], walls, ramparts
molestē, adv. [molestus, troublesome], compared molestius, molestissimē, annoyingly.
molestē ferre, to be annoyed
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying, unpleasant (§ 501.16)
moneō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, remind, advise, warn (§ 489)
mōns, montis, m. mountain (§ 247. 2. a)
mōnstrum, -ī, n. monster
mora, -ae, f. delay
moror, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [mora, delay], delay, linger; impede
mors, mortis, f. [cf. morior, die], death
mōs, mōris, m. custom, habit
mōtus, -ūs, m. [cf. moveō, move], motion, movement.
terrae mōtus, earthquake
moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtus, move
mox, adv. soon, presently
mulier, -eris, f. woman
multitūdō, -inis, f. [multus, much], multitude
multum (multō), adv. [multus, much], compared plūs, plūrimum, much (§ 477)
multus, -a, -um, adj., compared plūs, plūrimus, much; plur. many (§ 311)
mūniō, -īre, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, fortify, defend
mūnītiō, -ōnis, f. [mūniō, fortify], defense, fortification
mūrus, -ī, m. wall. Cf. moenia
mūsica, -ae, f. music
N
nam, conj. for. Cf. enim
nam-que, conj., a strengthened nam, introducing a reason or explanation, for, and in fact; seeing that
nārrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, tell, relate
nāscor, nāscī, nātus sum, dep. verb, be born, spring from
nātūra, -ae, f. nature
nātus, part. of nāscor
nauta, -ae, m. [for nāvita, from nāvis, ship], sailor
318
nāvālis, -e, adj. [nāvis, ship], naval
nāvigium, nāvi´gī, n. ship, boat
nāvigō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [nāvis, ship, + agō, drive], sail, cruise
nāvis, -is (abl. -ī or -e), f. ship (§ 243. 1).
nāvem cōnscendere, embark, go on board.
nāvem solvere, set sail.
nāvis longa, man-of-war
, conj. and adv. in order that not, that (with verbs of fearing), lest; not.
nē ... quidem, not even
-ne, interrog. adv., enclitic (see §§ 16, 210). Cf. nōnne and num
nec or neque, conj. [, not, + que, and], and not, nor.
nec ... nec or neque ... neque, neither ... nor
necessārius, -a, -um, adj. needful, necessary
necō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cf. nex, death], kill. Cf. interficiō, occīdō, trucīdō
negō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, deny, say not (§ 420. a)
negōtium, negō´tī, n. [nec, not, + ōtium, ease], business, affair, matter.
alicui negōtium dare, to employ some one
Nemaeus, -a, -um, adj. Neme´an, of Neme´a, in southern Greece
nēmŏ, dat. nēminī (gen. nūllīus, abl. nūllō, supplied from nūllus), m. and f. [, not, + homō, man], (not a man), no one, nobody
Neptūnus, -ī, m. Neptune, god of the sea, brother of Jupiter
neque, see nec
neuter, -tra, -trum (gen. -trīus, dat. -trī), adj. neither (of two) (§ 108)
nē-ve, conj. adv. and not, and that not, and lest
nihil, n. indecl. [, not, + hīlum, a whit], nothing.
nihil posse, to have no power
nihilum, -ī, n., see nihil
Niobē, -ēs, f. Ni´obe, the queen of Thebes whose children were destroyed by Apollo and Diana
nisi, conj. [, not, + , if], if not, unless, except
nōbilis, -e, adj. well known; noble
noceō, -ēre, -uī, -itūrus [cf. necō, kill], hurt, injure, with dat. (§ 501.14)
noctū, abl. used as adv. [cf. nox, night], at night, by night
Nōla, -ae, f. Nola, a town in central Campania. See map
nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, —— [ne, not, + volō, wish], not to wish, be unwilling (§ 497)
nōmen, -inis, n. [cf. nōscō, know], (means of knowing), name
nōminō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [nōmen, name], name, call. Cf. appellō, vocō
nōn, adv. [, not, + ūnum, one], not.
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
nōn-dum, adv. not yet
nōn-ne, interrog. adv. suggesting an affirmative answer, not? (§ 210). Cf. -ne and num
nōs, pers. pron. we (see ego) (§ 480)
noster, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. our, ours. Plur. nostrī, -ōrum, m. our men (§ 98)
novem, indecl. numeral adj. nine
novus, -a, -um, adj. new.
novae rēs, a revolution
nox, noctis, f. night, multā nocte, late at night
nūllus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. ) adj. [, not, + ūllus, any], not any, none, no (§ 108)
num, interrog. adv. suggesting a negative answer (§ 210). Cf. -ne and nōnne. In indir. questions, whether
319
numerus, -ī, m. number
numquam, adv. [, not, + umquam, ever], never
nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam
nūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [nūntius, messenger], report, announce (§ 420. a)
nūntius, nūntī, m. messenger
nūper, adv. recently, lately, just now
nympha, -ae, f. nymph
O
ob, prep. with acc. on account of. In compounds it often means in front of, against, or it is intensive.
quam ob rem, for this reason (§ 340)
obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage
ob-sideō,-ēre,-sēdī, -sessus [ob, against, + sedeō, sit], besiege
obtineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus [ob, against, + teneō, hold], possess, occupy, hold
occāsiō, -ōnis, f. favorable opportunity, favorable moment
occāsus, -ūs, m. going down, setting
occīdō, -ere, -cīdī, -cīsus [ob, down, + caedō, strike], strike down; cut down, kill. Cf. interficiō, necō
occupō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ob, completely, + capiō, take], seize, take possession of, occupy. Cf. rapio
oc-currō, -ere, -currī, -cursus [ob, against + currō, run], run towards; meet, with dat. (§ 426)
ōceanus, -ī, m. the ocean
octō, indecl. numeral adj. eight
oculus, -ī, m. eye
officium, offi´cī, n. duty
ōlim, adv. formerly, once upon a time
ōmen, -inis, n. sign, token, omen
ō-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [ob, over, past, + mittō, send], let go, omit.
consilium omittere, give up a plan
omnīnō, adv. [omnis, all], altogether, wholly, entirely
omnis, -e, adj. all, every. Cf. tōtus
onerāria, -ae, f. [onus, load], with nāvis expressed or understood, merchant vessel, transport
onus, -eris, n. load, burden
opīniō, -ōnis, f. [opīnor, suppose], opinion, supposition, expectation
oppidānus, -ī, m. [oppidum, town], townsman
oppidum, -ī, n. town, stronghold
opportūnus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, opportune, favorable
op-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus [ob, against, + premō, press], (press against), crush; surprise
oppugnātiō, -ōnis, f. storming, assault
oppugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ob, against, + pugnō fight], fight against, assault, storm, assail
optimē, adv. in superl. degree, compared bene, melius, optimē, very well, best of all (§ 323)
optimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared bonus, melior, optimus, best, most excellent (§ 311)
opus, -eris, n. work, labor, task (§ 464. 2. b)
ōrāculum, -ī, n. [ōrō, speak], oracle
ōrātor, -ōris, m. [ōrō, speak], orator
orbis, -is, m. ring, circle.
orbis terrārum, the earth, world
orbita, -ae, f. [orbis, wheel], rut
Orcus, -ī, m. Orcus, the lower world
ōrdō, -inis, m. row, order, rank (§ 247. 2. a)
orīgo, -inis, f. [orior, rise], source, origin
orior, -īrī, ortus sum, dep. verb, arise, rise, begin; spring, be born
320
ōrnāmentum, -ī, n. [ōrnō, fit out], ornament, jewel
ōrnātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of ōrnō, fit out] fitted out; adorned
ōrnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, fit out, adorn
P
P., abbreviation for Pūblius
paene, adv. nearly, almost
palūdāmentum, -ī, n. military cloak
palūs, -ūdis, f. swamp, marsh
pānis, -is, m. bread
pār, paris, adj. equal (§ 471. III)
parātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of parō, prepare], prepared, ready
parcō, -ere, peper´cī (parsī), parsūrus, spare, with dat. (§ 501.14)
pāreō, -ēre, -uī, ——, obey, with dat. (§ 501 .14)
parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, prepare for, prepare; provide, procure
pars, partis, f. part, share; side, direction
parum, adv., compared minus, minimē, too little, not enough (§ 323)
parvus, -a, -um, adj., compared minor, minimus, small, little (§ 311)
passus, -ūs, m. step, pace.
mīlle passuum, thousand paces, mile (§ 331. b)
pateō, -ēre, patuī, ——, lie open, be open; stretch, extend
pater, -tris, m. father (§ 464. 2. a)
patior, -ī, passus sum, dep. verb, bear, suffer, allow, permit
patria, -ae, f. [cf. pater, father], fatherland, (one’s) country
paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally plur.), few, only a few
paulisper, adv. for a little while
paulō, adv. by a little, little
paulum adv. a little, somewhat
pāx, pācis, f. (no gen. plur.), peace
pecūnia, -ae, f. [pecus, cattle], money
pedes, -itis, m. [pēs, foot], foot soldier
pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. [pēs, foot], on foot; by land
peior, peius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worse (§ 311)
pellis, -is, f. skin, hide
penna, -ae, f. feather
per, prep. with acc. through, by means of, on account of. In composition it often has the force of thoroughly, completely, very (§ 340)
percussus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of percutiō, strike through], pierced
per-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [per, through, + dūcō, lead], lead through.
fossam perdūcere, to construct a ditch
per-exiguus, -a, -um, adj. [per, very, + exiguus, small], very small, very short
perfidus, -a, -um, adj. faithless, treacherous, false
per-fringō, -ere, -frēgī, -frāctus [per, through, frangō, break], shatter
pergō, -ere, perrēxī, perrēctus [per, through, + regō, conduct], go on, proceed, hasten
perīculum, -ī, n. trial, test; danger
peristȳlum, -ī, n. peristyle, an open court with columns around it
perītus, -a, -um, adj. skillful
perpetuus, -a, -um, adj. perpetual
Perseus, -eī, Perseus, a Greek hero, son of Jupiter and Danaë
persōna, -ae, f. part, character, person
per-suādeō, -ēre, -suāsī, -suāsus [per, thoroughly, + suādeō, persuade], persuade, advise, with dat. (§ 501.14), often with an object clause of purpose (§ 501.41)
321
per-terreō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [per, thoroughly, + terreō, frighten], thoroughly terrify, alarm
per-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus [per, through, + veniō, come], arrive, reach, come to
pēs, pedis, m. foot.
pedem referre, retreat (§ 247. 2. a)
pessimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worst (§ 311)
petō, -ere, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, strive for, seek, beg, ask; make for, travel to. Cf. postulō, quaerō, rogō
Pharsālus, -ī, f. Pharsa´lus or Pharsa´lia, a town in Thessaly, near which
Cassar defeated Pompey, 48 B.C.
philosophia, -ae, f. philosophy
philosophus, -ī, m. philosopher
pictus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of pingō, paint], colored, variegated
pīlum, -ī, n. spear, javelin (§ 462. b)
piscīna, -ae, f. [piscis, fish], fish pond
piscis, -is, m. fish
pīstor, -ōris, m. baker
placeō. -ēre, -uī, -itus, please, be pleasing,
with dat. (§ 501.14)
plānitiēs, -ēī, f. [plānus, level], plain
plānus, -a, -um, adj. level, flat
plēnus, -a, -um, full
plūrimum, adv. in superl. degree, compared multum, plūs, plūrimum, very much.
plūrimum valēre, be most influential (§ 322)
plūrimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared multus, plūs, plūrimus, most, very many (§ 311)
plūs, plūris, adj. in comp. degree, compared multus, plūs, plūrimus; sing. n. as substantive, more; plur. more, several (§ 311)
pluteus, -ī, m. shield, parapet
poena, -ae, f. punishment, penalty
poēta, -ae, m. poet
pompa, -ae, f. procession
Pompēiī, -ōrum, m. Pompeii, a city of Campania. See map
Pompēius, Pompē´ī, m. Pompey, a Roman name
pōmum, -ī, n. apple
pōnō, -ere, posuī, positus, put, place.
castra pōnere, pitch camp
pōns, pontis, m. bridge (§ 247. 2. a)
popīna, -ae, f. restaurant
populus, -ī, m. people
Porsena, -ae, m. Porsena, king of Etruria, a district of Italy. See map
porta, -ae, f. gate, door
portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, bear, carry
portus, -ūs, m. [cf. porta, gate], harbor
possideō, -ēre, -sēdī, -sessus, have, own, possess
possum, posse, potuī, ——, irreg. verb [potis, able, + sum, I am], be able, can (§ 495).
nihil posse, have no power
post, prep, with acc. after, behind (§ 340)
posteā, adv. [post, after, + , this], afterwards
(posterus), -a, -um, adj., compared posterior, postrēmus or postumus, following, next (§ 312)
postquam, conj. after, as soon as
postrēmō, adv. [abl. of postrēmus, last], at last, finally. Cf. dēmum, dēnique (§ 322)
postrīdiē, adv. [posterō, next, + diē, day], on the next day
postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, ask, demand, require. Cf. petō, quaerō, rogō
potentia, -ae, f. [potēns, able], might, power, force
322
prae-beō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [prae, forth, + habeō, hold], offer, give
praeda, -ae, f. booty, spoil, plunder
prae-dīcō, -ere, -dīxī, -dictus [prae, before, + dīcō, tell], foretell, predict
prae-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [prae, before, + faciō, make], place in command, with acc. and dat. (§ 501.15)
prae-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [prae, forward, + mittō, send], send forward
praemium, praemī, n. reward, prize
praeruptus, -a, -um [part. of prae-rumpō, break off], broken off, steep
praesēns, -entis, adj. present, immediate
praesertim, adv. especially, chiefly
praesidium, praesi´di, n. guard, garrison, protection
prae-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stitus [prae, before, + sto, stand], (stand before), excel, surpass, with dat. (§ 501.15); show, exhibit
prae-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [prae, before, + sum, be], be over, be in command of, with dat. (§ 501.15)
praeter, prep, with acc. beyond, contrary to (§ 340)
praetereā, adv. [praeter, besides, + , this], in addition, besides, moreover
praetextus, -a, -um, adj. bordered, edged
praetōrium, praetō´rī, n. prætorium
prandium, prandī, n. luncheon
premō, -ere, pressī, pressus, press hard, compress; crowd, drive, harass
(prex, precis), f. prayer
prīmō, adv. [prīmus, first], at first, in the beginning (§ 322)
prīmum, adv. [prīmus, first], first.
quam primum, as soon as possible
prīmus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared prior, prīmus, first (§ 315)
prīnceps, -cipis, m. [prīmus, first, + capiō, take], (taking the first place), chief, leader (§ 464. 1)
prior, prius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, superl., prīmus, former (§ 315)
prīstinus, -a, -um, adj. former, previous
prō, prep, with abl. before; for, for the sake of, in behalf of; instead of, as (§ 209). In composition, forth, forward
prō-cēdō, -ere, -cussī, -cessūrus [prō, forward, + cēdō, go], go forward, proceed
procul, adv. far, afar off
prō-currō, -ere, -currī (-cucurrī), -cur-sus [prō, forward, + currō, run], run forward
proelium, proeli, n. battle, combat.
proelium committere, join battle.
proelium facere, fight a battle
profectiō, -ōnis, f. departure
proficīscor, -ī, -fectus sum, dep. verb, set out, march. Cf. ēgredior, exeō
prō-gredior, -ī, -gressus sum, dep. verb [prō, forth, + gradior, go], go forth, proceed, advance. Cf. pergō, prōcēdō
prōgressus, see prōgredior
prohibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [prō, forth, away from, + habeō, hold], keep away from, hinder, prevent
prō-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus [prō, forward, + moveō, move], move forward, advance
prō-nūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [prō, forth, + nūntiō, announce], proclaim, declare
prope, adv., compared propius, proxi-mē, nearly. Prep, with acc. near
prō-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus [prō, forth, + pellō, drive], drive forth; move, impel
323
properō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [properus, quick], go quickly, hasten. Cf. contendō, maturō
propinquus, -a, -um, adj. [prope, near], near, neighboring
propior, -ius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, superl., proximus, nearer (§ 315)
propius, adv. in comp. degree, compared prope, propius, proximē, nearer (§ 323)
propter, prep. with acc. on account of, because of (§ 340)
prō-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scriptus [prō, forth, + scribō, write], proclaim, publish. Cf. prōnūntiō
prō-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [prō, forth, + sequor, follow], escort, attend
prō-sum, prōdesse, prōfuī, prōfutūrus [prō, for, + sum, be], be useful, benefit, with dat. (§§ 496; 501.15)
prō-tegō, -ere, -tēx=i], -tēctus [prō, in front, + tegō, cover], cover in front, protect
prōvincia, -ae, f. territory, province
proximē, adv. in superl. degree, compared prope, propius, proximē, nearest, next; last, most recently (§ 323)
proximus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared propior, proximus, nearest, next (§ 315)
pūblicus, -a, -um, adj. [populus,people], of the people, public, res pūblica, the commonwealth
puella, -ae, f. [diminutive of puer, boy], girl, maiden
puer, -eri, m. boy; slave (§ 462. c)
pugna, -ae, f -fight, battle. Cf. proelium
pugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [pugna, battle], fight. Cf. contendō, dīmicō
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beautiful, pretty (§§ 469.b; 304)
Pullō, -ōnis, m. Pullo, a centurion
pulsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, strike, beat
puppis, -is (acc. -im, abl. ), f. stern of a ship, deck
pūrē, adv. [pūrus, pure], comp. pūrius, purely
pūrgō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, cleanse, clean
purpureus, -a, -um, adj. purple, dark red
putō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, reckon, think (§ 420,c). Cf. arbitror, exīstimō
Pȳthia, -ae, f. Pythia, the inspired priestess of Apollo at Delphi
Q
quā dē causā, for this reason, wherefore
quā rē, therefore, for this reason
quaerō, -ere, -sīvī, -sītus, seek, ask, inquire. Cf. petō, postulō, rogō
quālis, -e, interrog. pronom. adj. of what sort, what kind of.
talis ... qualis, such ... as
quam, adv. how; after a comparative, than ; with a superlative, translated as ... as possible, quam prīmum, as soon as possible
quantus, -a, -um, adj. [quam, how], how great, how much, tantus ... quantus, as great as
quārtus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [quattuor, four], fourth
quattuor, indecl. numeral adj. four
quattuor-decim, indecl. numeral adj. fourteen
-que, conj., enclitic, and (§ 16). Cf. ac, atque, et
quī, quae, quod, rel. pron. and adj. who, which, what, that (§ 482)
324
quia, conj. because. Cf. quod
quīdam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam), indef. pron. and adj. a certain one, a certain, a (§ 485).
quidem, adv. to be sure, certainly, indeed, nē ... quidem, not even
quiēs, -ētis, f. rest, repose
quiētus, -a, -um, adj. quiet, restful
quīndecim, indecl. numeral adj. fifteen
quīngentī, -ae, -a, numeral adj. five hundred
quīnque, indecl. numeral adj. five
quīntus, -a, -um, numeral adj. fifth
quis (quī), quae, quid (quod), interrog. pron. and adj. who? what? which? (§ 483).
quis (quī), qua (quae), quid (quod), indef. pron. and adj., used after sī, nisi, nē, num, any one, anything, some one, something, any, some (§ 484).
quisquam, quicquam or quidquam (no fem. or plur.), indef. pron. any one (at all), anything (at all) (§ 486).
quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque), indef. pron. and adj. each, each one, every (§ 484).
quō, interrog. and rel. adv. whither, where
quō, conj. in order to, that, with comp. degree (§ 350).
quod, conj. because, in that. Cf. quia
quoque, conj., following an emphatic word, also, too. Cf. etiam
quot-annīs, adv. [quot, how many + annus, year], every year, yearly
quotiēns, interrog. and rel. adv. how often? as often as
R
rādīx, -īcis, f. root; foot
rapiō, -ere, -uī, -tus, seize, snatch
rārō, adv. [rārus, rare], rarely
rārus, -a, -um, adj. rare
re- or red-, an inseparable prefix, again, back, anew, in return
rebelliō, -ōnis, f. renewal of war, rebellion
recēns, -entis, adj. recent
re-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [re-, back, + capiō, take], take back, receive.
sē recipere, withdraw, retreat
re-clīnātus, -a, -um, part. of reclīnō, leaning back
re-creātus, -a, -um, part. of recreō, refreshed
rēctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of regō, keep straight], straight, direct
re-cūsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, refuse
red-āctus, -a, -um, part. of redigō, reduced, subdued
red-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus [red-, back, + , go], go back, return (§ 413). Cf. revertō
reditus, -ūs, m. [cf. redeō, return], return, going back
re-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [re-, back, + dūcō, lead], lead back
re-ferō, -ferre, rettulī, -lātus [re-, back, + ferō, bear], bear back; report.
pedem referre, withdraw, retreat
re-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [re-, again, + faciō, make], make again, repair.
sē reficere, refresh one’s self
rēgīna, -ae, f. [rēx, king], queen
regiō, -ōnis, f. region, district
rēgnum, -ī, n. sovereignty; kingdom
regō, -ere, rēxī, rēctus [cf. rēx, king], govern, rule (§ 490)
re-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [re-, back, + iaciō, hurl], hurl back; throw away
re-linquō, -ere, -līquī, -lictus [re-, behind, + linquō, leave], leave behind, leave, abandon
325
reliquus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. relinquō, leave], left over, remaining. As a noun, plur. the rest
remōtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of re-moveō, remove], remote, distant
re-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -motus [re-, back, + moveō, move], remove
rēmus, -ī, m. oar
re-periō, -īre, repperī, repertus, find
re-portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [re-, back, + portō, carry], carry back, bring back, win, gain
rēs, reī, f. thing, business, matter, deed, event, circumstance (§ 467).
quam ob rem, for this reason.
rēs adversae, adversity.
rēs frūmentāria, grain supplies.
rēs gestae, exploits.
rēs militāris, science of war.
rēs pūblica, the commonwealth.
rēs secundae, prosperity
re-scindō, -ere, -scidī, -scissus [re-, back, + scindō, cut], cut off, cut down
re-sistō, -ere, -stitī, —— [re-, back, + sistō, cause to stand], oppose, resist, with dat. (§ 501.14)
re-spondeō, -ēre, -spondī, -spōnsus [re-, in return, + spondeō, promise], answer, reply (§ 420. a)
re-vertō, -ere, -ī, ——, or dep. verb re-vertor, -ī, -sus sum [re-, back, + vertō, turn], turn back, return. Usually active in the perf. system
re-vinciō, -īre, -vīnxī, -vīnctus [re-, back, + vinciō, bind], fasten
rēx, rēgis, m. [cf. regō, rule], king
Rhēnus, -ī, m. the Rhine, a river of Germany
rīpa, -ae, f. bank
rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, ask. Cf. petō, postulō, quaerō
Rōma, -ae, f. Rome. See map
Rōmānus, -a, -um, adj. [Rōma, Rome], Roman, follows its noun. As a noun, m. and f. a Roman
rosa, -ae, f. rose
rōstrum, -ī, n. beak of a ship. In plur., the rostra, the speaker’s stand in the Roman Forum
rota, -ae, f. wheel
Rubicō, -ōnis, m. the Rubicon, a river in northern Italy. See map
rūmor, -ōris, m. report, rumor
rūrsus, adv. [for reversus, turned back], again, in turn
rūs, rūris (locative abl. rūrī, no gen., dat., or abl. plur.), n. the country (§ 501. 36. 1). Cf. ager, patria, terra
S
Sabīnus, -a, -um, adj. Sabine. As a noun, m. and f. a Sabine. The Sabines were an ancient people of central Italy. See map
sacrum, -ī, n. [sacer, consecrated], something consecrated, sacrifice; usually in plur., religious rites
saepe, adv., compared saepius, saepissimē, often, frequently
saevus, -a, -um, adj. cruel, savage
sagitta, -ae, f. arrow
saliō, -īre, -uī, saltus, jump
salūs, -ūtis, f. safety; health.
salūtem dīcere, send greetings
salūtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [salūs, health], greet, salute
salvē, imv. of salveō, hail, greetings
sanguis, -inis, m. blood (§ 247. 2. a]
sānitās, -ātis, f. [sānus, sound], health, sanity
sapiēns, -entis, adj. [part. of sapiō, be wise], wise, sensible
326
satis, adv. and indecl. noun, enough, sufficient, sufficiently
saxum, -ī, n. rock, stone
scelus, -eris, n. crime, sin
scēptrum, -ī, n. scepter
schola, -ae, f. school, the higher grades. Cf. lūdus
scientia, -ae, f. [sciēns, knowing], skill, knowledge, science
scindō, -ere, scidī, scissus, cut, tear
sciō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, know (§ 420. b). Cf. cognōscō
scrībō, -ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus, write
scūtum, -ī, n. shield, buckler
, see suī
sēcum = + cum
secundus, -a, -um, adj. [sequor, follow], following, next, second; favorable, successful.
rēs secundae, prosperity
sed, conj. but, on the contrary.
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
sēdecim, indecl. numeral adj. sixteen
sedeō, -ēre, sēdī, sessus, sit
semper, adv. always, forever
senātus, -ūs, m. [cf. senex, old], council of elders, senate
sentiō, -īre, sēnsī, sēnsus, feel, know, perceive (§ 420. d). Cf. intellegō, videō
septem, indecl. numeral adj. seven
septimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. seventh
sequor, -ī, secūtus sum, dep. verb, follow (§ 493)
serpēns, -entis, f. [serpō, crawl], serpent, snake
sertae, -ārum, f. plur. wreaths, garlands
servitūs, -ūtis, f. [servus, slave], slavery, servitude
servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, save, rescue, keep
servus, -ī, m. slave
sēsē, emphatic for
sex, indecl. numeral adj. six
Sextus, -ī, m. Sextus, a Roman first name
, conj. if
sīc, adv. thus, in this way. Cf. ita, tam
Sicilia, -ae, f. Sicily. See map
sīc-ut, just as, as if
signifer, -erī, m. [signum, standard, + ferō, bear], standard bearer (p. 224)
signum, -ī, n. ensign, standard; signal
silva, -ae, f. wood, forest
similis, -e, adj., compared similior, simillimus, like, similar (§ 307)
simul, adv. at the same time
simul ac or simul atque, conj. as soon as
sine, prep. with abl. without (§ 209)
singulī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. one at a time, single (§ 334)
sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left
Sinuessa, -ae, f. Sinues´sa, a town in Campania. See map
sitis, -is (acc. -im, abl. , no plur.), f. thirst
situs, -a, -um, adj. [part. of sinō, set], situated, placed, lying
socius, socī, m. comrade, ally
sōl, sōlis (no gen. plur.), m. sun
soleō, -ēre, solitus sum, semi-dep. verb, be wont, be accustomed
sollicitus, -a, -um, adj. disturbed, anxious
sōlum, adv. [sōlus, alone], alone, only.
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
sōlus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. alone, only (§ 108)
solvō, -ere, solvī, solūtus, loosen, unbind.
nāvem solvere, set sail
327
somnus, -ī, m. sleep
soror, -ōris, f. sister
spatium, spatī, n. space, distance; time; opportunity
spectāculum, -ī, n. [spectō, look at], show, spectacle
spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, look at, witness
spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [spēs, hope], hope, expect (§ 420. c)
spēs, speī, f. hope (§ 273. 2)
splendidē, adv. [splendidus], compared splendidius, splendidissimē, splendidly, handsomely
splendidus, -a, -um, adj. brilliant, gorgeous, splendid
Stabiānus, -a, -um, Stabian
stabulum, -ī, n. [cf. stō, stand], standing place, stable, stall
statim, adv. [cf. stō, stand], on the spot, at once, instantly
statua, -ae, f. [sistō, place, set], statue
statuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus [status, station], decide, determine
stilus, -ī, m. iron pencil, style (p. 210)
stō, -āre, stetī, status, stand
strātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of sternō, spread], paved (of streets)
strepitus, -ūs, m. [strepō, make a noise], noise, din
stringō, -ere, strīnxī, strictus, bind tight; draw, unsheathe
studeō, -ēre, -uī, ——, give attention to, be eager, with dat. (§ 501.14)
studium, studī, n. [cf. studeō, be eager for], eagerness, desire, zeal, devotion
stultus, -a, -um, adj. foolish, stupid
Stymphālis, -idis, adj. f. Stymphalian, of Stympha´lus, a lake in southern Greece
Stymphālus, -ī, m. Stympha´lus, a district of southern Greece with a town, mountain, and lake, all of the same name
suādeō, -ēre, -sī, -sus, advise, recommend, with subjv. of purpose (§ 501.41)
sub, prep, with acc. and abl. under, below, up to; at or to the foot of
sub-igō, -ere, -ēgī, -āctus [sub, under, + agō, drive], subdue, reduce
subitō, adv. [subitus, sudden], suddenly
sub-sequor, -ī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [sub, below, + sequor, follow], follow close after, follow up
suc-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus [sub, below, + cēdō, go], follow, succeed
suī, reflexive pron. of himself (herself, itself, themselves) (§ 480).
sēcum = + cum.
sēsē, emphatic form of
sum, esse, fuī, futūrus, irreg. verb, be; exist (§ 494)
summus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared superus, superior, suprēmus or summus (§ 312), supreme, highest; best, greatest.
in summō colle, on the top of the hill
sūmō, -ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus, take up; assume, put on.
sūmere supplicium dē, inflict punishment on
super, prep. with acc. and abl. over, above
superbia, -ae, f. [superbus, proud], pride, arrogance
superbus, -a, -um, adj. proud, haughty
superior, comp. of superus
superō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [superus, above], go over; subdue, overcome; surpass, excel
super-sum, -esse, -fuī, ——, be over, survive, with dat. (§ 501.15)
328
superus, -a, -um, adj., compared superior, suprēmus or summus, above, upper (§ 312)
supplicium, suppli´cī, n. [supplex, kneeling in entreaty], punishment, torture.
supplicium sūmere dē, inflict punishment on.
supplicium dare, suffer punishment
surgō, -ere, surrēxī, —— [sub, from below, + regō, straighten], rise
sus-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [sub, under, + capiō, take], undertake, assume, begin
suspicor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, suspect, surmise, suppose
sus-tineō, -ēre, -tinuī, -tentus [sub, under, + teneō, hold], hold up, bear, sustain, withstand
suus, -a, -um, reflexive possessive adj. and pron., his, her, hers, its, their, theirs (§ 98)
T
T., abbreviation of Titus
taberna, -ae, f. shop, stall
tabula, -ae, f. tablet for writing
tālis, -e, adj. such.
tālis ... quālis, such ... as
tam, adv. so, such. Cf. ita, sīc
tamen, adv. yet, however, nevertheless
tandem, adv. at length, finally
tangō, -ere, tetigī, tāctus, touch
tantum, adv. [tantus], only
tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great, such.
tantus ... quantus, as large as
tardus, -a, -um, adj. slow, late; lazy
Tarpēia, -ae, f. Tarpeia (pronounced Tar-pē´ya), the maiden who opened the citadel to the Sabines
Tarquinius, Tarqui´nī, Tarquin, a Roman king. With the surname Superbus, Tarquin the Proud
Tarracīna, -ae, f. Tarraci´na, a town in Latium. See map
taurus, -ī, m. bull
tēctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of tegō, cover], covered, protected
tēlum, -ī, n. weapon
temerē, adv. rashly, heedlessly
tempestās, -ātis, f. [tempus, time] storm, tempest
templum, -ī, n. temple, shrine
tempto, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, try, test; make trial of, attempt
tempus, -oris, n. time (§ 464. 2. b). in reliquum tempus, for the future
teneō, -ēre, tenuī, ——, hold, keep
tergum, -ī, n. back, ā tergō, on the rear, tergum vertere, retreat, flee
ternī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. three each, by threes (§ 334)
terra, -ae, f. earth, ground, land.
orbis terrārum, the whole world
terror, -ōris, m. [cf. terreō, frighten], dread, alarm, terror
tertius, -a, -um, numeral adj. third
Teutonēs, -um, m. the Teutons
theātrum, -ī, n. theater
Thēbae, -ārum, f. Thebes, a city of Greece
Thēbānī, -ōrum, m. Thebans, the people of Thebes
thermae, -ārum, f. plur. baths
Thessalia, -ae, f. Thessaly, a district of northern Greece
Thrācia, -ae, f. Thrace, a district north of Greece
Tiberius, Tibe´rī, m. Tiberius, a Roman first name
tībīcen, -īnis, m. [cf. tībia, pipe], piper, flute player
timeō, -ēre, -uī, ——, fear, be afraid of. Cf. vereor
329
timor, -ōris, m. [cf. timeō, fear], fear, dread, alarm. Cf. metus
Tīryns, Tīrynthis, f. Ti´ryns, an ancient town in southern Greece, where Hercules served Eurystheus
toga, -ae, f. [cf. tegō, cover], toga
tormentum, -ī, n. engine of war
totiēns, adv. so often, so many times
tōtus, -a, -um, (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. all, the whole, entire (§ 108)
trā-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus [trāns, across, + , deliver], give up, hand over, surrender, betray
trā-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [trāns, across, + dūcō, lead], lead across
trahō, -ere, trāxī, trāctus, draw, pull, drag.
multum trahere, protract, prolong much
trā-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [trāns, across, + iaciō, hurl], throw across; transfix
trā-nō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [trāns, across, + , swim], swim across
trāns, prep. with acc. across, over (§ 340)
trāns-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus [trāns, across, + , go], go across, cross (§ 413)
trāns-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus [trāns, through, + fīgō, drive], transfix
trānsitus, —— (acc. -um, abl. ), m. [cf. trānseō, cross over], passage across
trēs, tria, numeral adj. three (§ 479)
trīduum, trīduī, n. [trēs, three, + diēs, days], three days’ time, three days
trīgintā, indecl. numeral adj. thirty
triplex, -icis, adj. threefold, triple
trīstis, -e, adj. sad; severe, terrible
trīstitia, -ae, f. [trīstis, sad], sadness, sorrow
triumphō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [triumphus, triumph], celebrate a triumph
triumphus, -ī, m. triumphal procession, triumph.
triumphum agere, celebrate a triumph
trucīdō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, cut to pieces, slaughter. Cf. interficiō, necō, occīdō
tū, tuī (plur. vōs), pers. pron. thou, you (§ 480)
tuba, -ae, f. trumpet
Tullia, -ae, f. Tullia, a Roman name
tum, adv. then, at that time
turris, -is, f. tower (§ 465. 2)
tūtus, -a, -um, adj. safe
tuus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. your, yours (§ 98)
U
ubi, rel. and interrog. adv. where, when
ūllus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. any (§ 108)
ulterior, -ius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, superl. ultimus, farther, more remote (§ 315)
ultimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree (see ulterior), farthest (§ 315)
umbra, -ae, f. shade
umerus, -ī, m. shoulder
umquam, adv. ever, at any time
ūnā, adv. [ūnus, one], in the same place, at the same time
ūndecimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [ūnus, one, + decimus, tenth], eleventh
undique, adv. from every quarter, on all sides, everywhere
ūnus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. ), numeral adj. one; alone (§ 108)
urbs, -is, f. city (§ 465. a)
urgeō, -ēre, ursī, ——, press upon, crowd, hem in
ūrus, -ī, m. wild ox, urus
ūsque, adv. all the way, even
ūsus, -ūs, m. use, advantage
330
ut, conj. with the subjv. that, in order that, that not (with verbs of fearing), so that, to (§ 350. 1)
uter, -tra, -trum (gen. -īus, dat. ), interrog. pron. which of two? which? (§ 108)
uterque, utraque, utrumque, indef. pron. each of two, each, both.
ab utrāque parte, on both sides
ūtilis, -e, adj. [ūtor, use], useful
utrimque, adv. [uterque, each of two], on each side, on either hand
ūva, -ae, f. grape, bunch of grapes
uxor, -ōris, f. wife
V
vāgīna, -ae, sheath, scabbard
vagor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, wander
valeō, -ēre, -uī, -itūrus, be powerful, be well; in the imperative as a greeting, farewell.
plūrimum valēre, have the most power
valētūdō, -inis, f. [valeō, be well], health
validus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. valeō, be strong], strong, able, well
vallēs, -is, f. valley
vāllum, -ī, n. rampart, earthworks
varius, -a, -um, adj. bright-colored
vāstō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [vāstus, empty], (make empty), devastate, lay waste
vectīgal, -ālis, n. tax, tribute
vehementer, adv. [vehemēns, eager], compared vehementius, vehementissimē, eagerly, vehemently
vehō, -ere, vexī, vectus, convey, carry. In the passive often in the sense of ride, sail
vel, conj. or.
vel ... vel, either ... or. Cf. aut
vēlōcitās, -ātis, f. [vēlōx, swift], swiftness
vēlōx, -ōcis, adj. swift, fleet
vēlum, -ī, n. sail
vēndō, -ere, vēndidī, vēnditus, sell
veniō, -īre, vēnī, ventus, come, go
ventus, -ī, m. wind
verbum, -ī, n. word.
verba facere prō, speak in behalf of
vereor, -ērī, -itus sum, dep. verb, fear; reverence, respect (§ 493). Cf. timeō
Vergilius, Vergi´lī, m. Vergil, the poet
vergō, -ere, ——, ——, turn, lie
vērō, adv. [vērus, true], in truth, surely; conj. but, however.
tum vērō, then you may be sure, introducing the climax of a story
vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus, turn, change.
tergum vertere, retreat, flee
vērus, -a, -um, true, actual
vesper, -erī, m. evening
vester, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. your, yours (§ 98)
vestīgium, vestī´gī, n. [cf. vestīgō, track], footstep, track, trace
vestīmentum, -ī, n. [vestis, clothing], garment
vestiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus [vestis, clothing], clothe, dress
vestis, -is, f. clothing, attire, garment, robe
vestītus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of vestiō, clothe], clothed
Vesuvius, Vesu´vi, m. Vesuvius, the volcano near Pompeii. See map
veterānus, -a, -um, adj. old, veteran
vetō, -āre, -uī, -itus, forbid, prohibit
vexō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, trouble, annoy
via, -ae, f. way, road, street; way, manner. Cf. iter
331
viātor, -ōris, m. [via], traveler
victor, -ōris, m. [vincō, conquer], conqueror, victor. In apposition, with adj. force victorious
victōria, -ae, f. [victor, victor], victory
vīcus, -ī, m. village
videō, -ēre, vīdī, vīsus, see, perceive. Pass. be seen; seem (§ 420. d)
vigilia, -ae, f. [vigil awake], watch.
dē tertia vigilia, about the third watch
vīgintī, indecl. numeral adj. twenty
vīlicus, -ī, m. [vīlla, farm], steward, overseer of a farm
vīlla, -ae, f. farm, villa
vinciō, -īre, vīnxī, vīnctus, bind, tie, fetter
vincō, -ere, vīcī, victus, conquer, defeat, overcome. Cf. subigō, superō
vīnea, -ae, f. shed (p. 219)
vīnum, -ī, n. wine
violenter, adv. [violentus, violent], compared violentius, violentissimē, violently, furiously
vir, virī, m. man, husband; hero (§ 462. c)
virīlis, -e, adj. [vir, man], manly
virtūs, -ūtis, f. [vir, man], manliness; courage, valor; virtue (§ 464. 1)
vīs, (vīs), f. strength, power, might, violence (§ 468)
vīta, -ae, f. [cf. vīvō, live], life, vītam agere, spend or pass life
vīto, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, shun, avoid
vīvō, -ere, vīxī, ——, live. Cf. habitō, incolō
vīvus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. vīvō, live], alive, living
vix, adv. scarcely, hardly
vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, call, summon, invite. Cf. appellō, nōminō
volō, -āre, -āvī, -ātūrus, fly
volō, velle, voluī, ——, irreg. verb, will, be willing; wish (§ 497). Cf. cupio
volūmen, -inis, n. roll, book
Vorēnus, -ī, m. Vore´nus, a centurion
vōs, pers. pron.; you (see ) (§ 480)
vōtum, -ī, n. [neut. part. of voveō, vow], vow, pledge, prayer
vōx, vōcis, f. [cf. vocō, call], voice, cry; word
vulnerō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [vulnus, wound], wound, hurt
vulnus, -eris, n. wound, injury
vulpēs, -īs, f. fox

Roman knight on horseback
EQUES ROMANUS

332

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY

This vocabulary contains only the words used in the English-Latin exercises. For details not given here, reference may be made to the Latin-English vocabulary. The figures 1, 2, 3, 4, after verbs indicate the conjugation.

A
a, an, commonly not translated
able (be), possum, posse, potuī, ——(§ 495)
abode, domicilium, domici´lī, n.
about (adv.), circiter
about (prep.), dē, with abl.
about to, expressed by fut. act. part.
abundance, cōpia, -ae, f.
across, trāns, with acc.
active, ācer, ācris, ācre
advance, prōgredior, 3
advantage, ūsus, -ūs, m.
advise, moneō, 2
after (conj.), postquam; often expressed by the perf. part.
after (prep.), post, with acc.
against, in, contrā, with acc.
aid, auxilium, auxi´lī, n.
all, omnis, -e; tōtus, -a, -um (§ 108)
allow, patior, 3
ally, socius, socī, m.
almost, paene; ferē
alone, ūnus, -a, -um; sōlus, -a, -um (§ 108)
already, iam
also, quoque
always, semper
ambassador, lēgātus, -ī, m.
among, apud, with acc.
ancient, antīquus, -a, -um
and, et; atque (ac); -que
and so, itaque
Andromeda, Andromeda, -ae, f.
angry, īrātus, -a, um
animal, animal, -ālis, n.
announce, nūntiō, 1
annoying, molestus, -a, -um
another, alius, -a, -ud (§ 109)
any, ūllus, -a, -um (§ 108)
any one, anything, quisquam, quicquam or quidquam (§ 486)
appearance, fōrma, -ae, f.
appoint, creō, 1
approach, adpropinquō, 1, with dat.
are, used as auxiliary, not translated; as a copula, sum (§ 494)
arise, orior, 4
arm, bracchium, bracchī, n.
armed, armātus, -a, -um
arms, arma, -ōrum, n. plur.
army, exercitus, -ūs, m.
around, circum, with acc.
arrival, adventus, -us, m.
arrow, sagitta, -ae, f.
art of war, rēs mīlitāris
as possible, expressed by quam and superl..
ask, petō, 3; quaerō, 3; rogō, 1
assail, oppugnō, 1
at, in, with acc. or abl.; with names of towns, locative case or abl. without a preposition (§ 268); time when, abl.
333
at once, statim
at the beginning of summer, initā aestāte
Athens, Athēnae, -ārum, f.
attack, impetus, -us, m.
attempt, cōnor, 1; temptō, 1
away from, ā or ab, with abl.
B
bad, malus, -a, -um
baggage, impedīmenta, -ōrum, n. plur.
bank, rīpa, -ae, f.
barbarians, barbarī, -ōrum, m. plur.
battle, proelium, proelī, n.; pugna, -ae. f.
be, sum (§ 494)
be absent, be far, absum (§ 494)
be afraid, timeō, 2; vereor, 2
be away, absum (§ 494)
be in command of, praesum, with dat. (§§ 494, 426)
be informed, certior fīō
be off, be distant, absum (§ 494)
be without, egeō, with abl. (§ 180)
beast (wild), fera, -ae, f.
beautiful, pulcher, -chra, -chrum
because, quia; quod
because of, propter, with acc.; or abl. of cause
before, heretofore (adv.), anteā
before (prep.), ante, with acc.;
prō, with abl.
begin, incipiō, 3
believe, crēdō, 3, with dat. (§ 153)
belong to, predicate genitive (§ 409)
best, optimus, superl. of bonus
betray, trādō, 3
better, melior, comp. of bonus
between, inter, with acc.
billow, fluctus, -us, m.
bird, avis, -is, f. (§ 243. 1)
blood, sanguis, -inis, m.
body, corpus, -oris. n.
bold, audāx, -ācis; fortis, -e
boldly, audācter; fortiter
boldness, audācia, -ae, f.
booty, praeda, -ae, f.
both, each (of two), uterque, utraque, utrumque
both ... and, et ... et
boy, puer, -erī, m.
brave, fortis, -e
bravely, fortiter
bridge, pōns, pontis, m.
bright, clārus, -a, -um
bring back, reportō, 1
bring upon, īnferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus,
with acc. and dat. (§ 426)
brother, frāter, -tris, m.
building, aedificium, aedifi´cī. n.
burn, cremō, 1; incendō, 3
business, negōtium, negō´tī, n.
but, however, autem, sed
by, ā, ab, with abl.; denoting means, abl. alone; sometimes implied in a participle
by night, noctū
C
Cæsar, Caesar, -aris, m.
calamity, calamitās, -ātis, f.
call, vocō, 1; appellō, 1; nōminō, 1
call together, convocō, 1
camp, castra, -ōrum, n. plur.
can, could, possum, posse, potuī, —— (§ 495)
capture, capiō, 3; occupō, 1
care, cūra, -ae, f.
care for, cūrō, 1
careful, attentus, -a, -um
carefulness, dīligentia, -ae, f.
carry, ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus (§ 498); portō, 1
334
carry on, gerō, 3
cart, carrus, -ī, m.
cause, causa, -ae, f.
cavalry, equitātus, -ūs, m.
cease, cessō, 1
Cepheus, Cēpheus, -ī, m.
certain (a), quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (quiddam) (§ 485)
chicken, gallīna, -ae, f.
chief, prīnceps, -cipis, m.
children, līberī, -ōrum, m. plur.
choose, dēligō, 3
choose, elect, creō, 1
citizen, cīvis, -is, m. and f. (§ 243. 1)
city, urbs, urbis, f.
clear, clārus, -a, -um
cohort, cohors, -rtis, f.
come, veniō, 4
command, imperō, 1, with dat. (§ 45); iubeō, 2; praesum, with dat. (§ 426)
commit, committō, 3
commonwealth, rēs pūblica, reī pūblicae
concerning, dē, with abl.
conquer, superō, 1; vincō, 3
construct (a ditch), perdūcō, 3
consul, cōnsul, -ulis, m.
contrary to, contrā, with acc.
Corinth, Corinthus, -ī, f.
Cornelia, Cornēlia, -ae, f.
Cornelius, Cornēlius, Cornē´li, m.
corselet, lōrīca, -ae, f.
cottage, casa, -ae, f.
country, as distinguished from the city, rūs, rūris, n.; as territory, fīnēs, -ium, m., plur. of fīnis
courage, virtūs, -ūtis, f.
crime, scelus, -eris, n.
cross, trānseō, 4 (§ 499)
crown, corōna, -ae, f.
D
daily, cotīdiē
danger, perīculum, -ī, n.
daughter, fīlia, -ae, f. (§ 67)
day, diēs, -ēī, m.
daybreak, prīma lūx
dear, cārus, -a, -um
death, mors, mortis, f.
deed, rēs, reī, f.
deep, altus, -a, -um
defeat, calamitās, -ātis, f.
defend, dēfendō, 3
delay (Noun), mora, -ae, f.
delay (verb), moror, 1
demand, postulō, 1
dense, dēnsus, -a, -um
depart, discēdō, 3; exeō, 4; proficīscor, 3
dependent, cliēns, -entis, m.
design, cōnsilium, consi´lī n.
desire, cupiō, 3
destroy, dēleō, 2
Diana, Diāna, -ae, f.
differ, differō, differre, distulī, dīlātus (§ 498)
different, dissimilis, -e
difficult, difficilis, -e
difficulty, difficultās, -ātis, f.
diligence, dīligentia, -ae, f.
dinner, cēna, -ae, f.
disaster, calamitās, -ātis, f.
distant (be), absum, -esse, āfuī, āfutūrus (§ 494)
ditch, fossa, -ae, f.
do, agō, 3; faciō, 3; when used as auxiliary, not translated
down from, dē, with abl.
drag, trahō, 3
drive, agō, 3
dwell, habitō, 1; incolō, 3; vīvō, 3
dwelling, aedificium, aedifi´cī, n.
335
each, quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque) (§ 484)
each of two, uterque, utraque, utrumque
each other, inter with acc. of a reflexive
eager, ācer, ācris, ācre; alacer, alacris, alacre
eager (be), studeō, 2
eagerness, studium, studī, n.
eagle, aquila, -ae, f.
easily, facile
easy, facilis, -e
either ... or, aut ... aut
empire, imperium, impe´rī, n.
employ, negōtium dō
encourage, hortor, 1
enemy, hostis, -is, m. and f.; inimīcus, -ī, m.
enough, satis
entire, tōtus, -a, -um (§ 108)
expectation, opīniō, -ōnis, f.
eye, oculus, -ī, m.
F
faithless, perfidus, -a, -um
famous, clārus, -a, -um
far, longē
farmer, agricola, -ae, m.
farther, ulterior, -ius
father, pater, patris, m.
fatherland, patria, -ae, f.
favor, faveō, 2
favorable, idōneus, -a,-um; secundus, -a, -um
fear, metus, -ūs, m.; timor, -ōris, m.
fear, be afraid, timeō, 2
few, paucī, -ae, -a
field, ager, agrī, m.
fifteen, quīndecim
fight, contendō, 3; pugnō, 1
find, reperiō, 4
finish, cōnficiō, 3
fire, ignis, -is, m. (§ 243. 1)
firmness, cōnstantia, -ae, f.
first, prīmus, -a, -um
flee, fugiō, 3
flight, fuga, -ae, f.
fly, volō, 1
foe, see enemy
follow close after, subsequor, 3
food, cibus, -ī, m.
foot, pēs, pedis, m.
foot-soldier, pedes, -itis, m.
for (conj.), enim, nam
for (prep.), sign of dat.; dē, prō, with abl.; to express purpose, ad, with gerundive; implied in acc. of time and of extent of space
for a long time, diū
forbid, vetō, 1
forces, cōpiae, -ārum, f., plur. of cōpia
forest, silva, -ae, f.
fort, castellum, -ī, n.; castrum, -ī, n.
fortification, mūnitiō, -ōnis, f.
fortify, mūniō, 4
fortune, fortūna, -ae, f.
fourth, quārtus, -a, -um
free, līber, -era, -erum
free, liberate, līberō, 1
frequent, crēber, -bra, -brum
friend, amīcus, -ī, m.
friendly (adj.), amīcus, -a, -um
friendly (adv.), amīcē
friendship, amīcitia, -ae, f.
frighten, perterreō, 2
from, ā or ab, dē, ē, ex, with abl. Often expressed by the separative ablative without a prep.
from each other, inter, with acc. of a reflexive pron.
full, plēnus, -a, -um
G
336
Galba, Galba, -ae, m.
garland, corōna, -ae, f.
garrison, praesidium, praesi´dī, n.
gate, porta, -ae, f.
Gaul, Gallia, -ae, f.
Gaul (a), Gallus, -ī, m.
general, imperātor, -ōris, m.
Geneva, Genāva, -ae, f.
gentle, lēnis, -e
German, Germānus, -a, -um
Germans (the), Germānī, -ōrum, m. plur.
Germany, Germānia, -ae, f.
get (dinner), parō, 1
girl, puella, -ae, f.
give, dō, dare, dedī, datus
give over, surrender, dēdō, 3; trādō, 3
give up, omittō, 3
go, eō, 4 (§ 499)
go forth, prōgredior, 3
god, deus, -ī, m. (§ 468)
goddess, dea, -ae, f. (§ 67)
gold, aurum, -ī, n.
good, bonus, -a, -um
grain, frūmentum, -ī, n.
grain supply, rēs frūmentāria
great, ingēns, -entis; magnus, -a, -um
greatest, maximus, -a, -um; summus, -a, -um
guard, praesidium, praesi´dī, n.
H
hand, manus, -ūs, f.
happy, laetus, -a, -um
harbor, portus, -ūs, m.
hasten, contendō, 3; mātūrō, 1; properō, 1
hateful, invīsus, -a, -um
haughty, superbus, -a, -um
have, habeō, 2
have no power, nihil possum
he, is; hic; iste; ille; or not expressed
head, caput, -itis, n.
hear, audiō
heart, animus, -ī, m.
heavy, gravis, -e
Helvetii (the), Helvētiī, -ōrum, m. plur.
hem in, contineō, 2
hen, gallīna, -ae, f.
her, eius; huius; istīus; illīus; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (§ 116)
hide, abdō, 3
high, altus, -a, -um
highest, summus, -a, -um
hill, collis, -is, m.
himself, suī. See self
hindrance, impedīmentum, -ī, n.
his, eius; huius; istīus; illīus; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (§ 116)
hither, citerior, -ius (§ 315)
hold, teneō, 2
home, domus, -ūs, f. (§ 468).
at home, domī (§ 267)
hope (Noun), spēs, speī, f.
hope (verb), spērō, 1
horse, equus, -ī, m.
horseman, eques, -itis, m.
hostage, obses, -idis, m. and f.
hostile, inimīcus, -a, -um
hour, hōra, -ae, f.
house, domicilium, domici´lī, n.; domus, -ūs, f. (§ 468)
hurl, iaciō, 3
I
I, ego (§ 280); or not expressed
if, sī. if not, nisi
ill, aeger, -gra, -grum
immediately, statim
in (of place), in, with abl.; (of time or of specification) abl. without prep.
337
in order that, ut, with subjv.;
in order that not, lest, nē, with subjv.
in vain, frūstrā
industry, dīligentia, -ae, f.
inflict injuries upon, iniūriās īnferō with dat. (§ 426)
inflict punishment on, supplicium sūmō de
inform some one, aliquem certiōrem faciō
injure, noceō, 2, with dat. (§ 153)
injury, iniūria, -ae, f.
into, in, with acc.
intrust, committō, 3; mandō, 1
invite, vocō, 1
is, used as auxiliary, not translated; as a copula, sum (§ 494)
island, īnsula, -ae, f.
it, is; hie; iste; ille; or not expressed
Italy, Italia, -ae, f.
its, eius; huius; istīus; illīus; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (§ 116)
itself, suī. See self
J
join battle, proelium committō
journey, iter, itineris, n. (§ 468)
judge (Noun), iūdex, -icis, m.
judge (verb), iūdicō, 1
Julia, Iūlia, -ae, f.
just now, nūper
K
keep, contineō, 2; prohibeo, 2; teneō, 2
keep on doing something, expressed by the impf. indic.
kill, interficiō, 3; necō, 1 ; occīdō, 3
king, rēx, rēgis, m.
kingdom, rēgnum, -ī, n.
know, cognōscō, 3, in perf.; sciō, 4
L
labor (Noun), labor, -ōris, m.
labor (verb), labōrō, 1
lack (Noun), inopia, -ae, f.
lack (verb), egeō, 2, with abl. (§ 180)
lady, domina, -ae, f.
lake, lacus, -ūs, m. (§ 260. 2)
land, terra, -ae, f.
language, lingua, -ae, f.
large, ingēns, -entis ; magnus, -a, -um
larger, maior, maius
lately, nūper
Latona, Lātōna, -ae, f.
law, lēx, lēgis, f.
lay waste, vāstō, 1
lead, dūco, 3
leader, dux, ducis, m. and f.
learn, know, cognōscō, 3
leave, depart from, discēdō, 3
leave behind, abandon, relinquō, 3
left, sinister, -tra, -trum
legion, legiō, -ōnis, f.
legionaries, legiōnāriī, -ōrum, m. plur.
length, longitūdō, -inis, f.
lest, nē, with subjv.
letter (of the alphabet), littera, -ae, f; (an epistle) litterae, -ārum, f. plur.
lieutenant, lēgātus, -ī, m.
light, lūx, lūcis, f.
like (adj.), similis, -e
like, love, amō, 1
line of battle, aciēs, aciēī, f.
little, parvus, -a, -um
live, habitō, 1; incolō, 3; vīvō, 3
long, longus, -a, -um
long, for a long time, diū
long for, dēsīderō, 1
look after, cūrō, 1
love, amō, 1
338
maid, maid servant, ancilla, -ae,f.
make, faciō, 3
make war upon, bellum īnferō with dat. (§ 426)
man, homō, -inis, m. and f.; vir, virī, m.
man-of-war, nāvis longa
many, multī, -ae, -a, plur. of multus
march, iter, itineris, n. (§ 468)
Mark, Mārcus, -ī, m.
marriage, mātrimōnium, mātrimō´nī, n.
master, dominus, -ī, m.; magīster, -trī, m.
matter, negōtium, negō´tī, n.; rēs, reī, f.
means, by means of, the abl.
messenger, nūntius, nūntī, m.
midnight, media nox
mile, mīlle passuum (§ 331. b)
miles, mīlia passuum
mind, animus, -ī, m.; mēns, mentis, f.
mine, meus, -a, -um
mistress, domina, -ae, f.
money, pecūnia, -ae, f.
monster, mōnstrum, -ī, n.
month, mēnsis, -is, m.
moon, lūna, -ae, f.
more (adj.), plūs, plūris (§ 313); or a comparative. Adverb, magis
most (adj.), plūrimus, -a, -um; superl. degree. Adverb, maximē; plūrimum
mother, māter, mātris, f.
mountain, mōns, montis, m.
move, moveō, 2
moved, commōtus, -a, -um
much (by), multō
multitude, multitūdō, -inis. f.
my, meus, -a, -um
myself, mē, reflexive. See self
N
name, nōmen, -inis, n.
nation, gēns, gentis, f.
near, propinquus, -a, -um
nearest, proximus, -a, -um
nearly, ferē
neighbor, fīnitimus, -ī, in.
neighboring, fīinitimus, -a, -um
neither, neque or nec;
neither ... nor, neque (nec) ... neque (nec)
never, numquam
nevertheless, tamen
new, novus, -a, -um
next day, postrīdiē eius diēī
next to, proximus, -a, -um
night, nox, noctis, f.
nine, novem
no, minimē; or repeat verb with a negative (§ 210)
no, none, nūllus, -a, -um (§ 109)
no one, nēmō, nūllīus
nor, neque or nec
not, nōn
not even, nē ... quidem
not only ... but also, nōn sōlum ... sed etiam
nothing, nihil or nihilum, -ī, n.
now, nunc
number, numerus, -ī, m.
O
obey, pāreō, 2, with dat. (§ 153)
of, sign of gen.;
dē, with abl.;
out of, ē or ex, with abl.
often, saepe
on (of place), in, with abl.;
(of time) abl. without prep.
on account of, propter, with acc.; or abl. of cause.
on all sides, undique
once (upon a time), ōlim
339
one, ūnus, -a, -um (§ 108)
one ... another, alius ... alius (§ 110)
only (adv.), sōlum; tantum
opportune, opportunus, -a, -um
opposite, adversus, -a, -um
oracle, ōrāculum, -ī, n.
orator, ōrātor, -ōris, m.
order, imperō, 1; iubeō, 2
ornament, ōrnāmentum, -ī, n.
other, alius, -a, -ud (§ 109)
others (the), reliquī, -ōrum, m. plur.
ought, dēbeō, 2
our, noster, -tra, -trum
ourselves, nōs, as reflexive object. See self
overcome, superō, 1 ; vincō, 3
own (his, her, its, their), suus, -a, -um
P
part, pars, partis, f.
peace, pāx, pācis, f.
people, populus, -ī, m.
Perseus, Perseus, -ī, m.
persuade, persuādeō, 2, with dat. (§ 153)
pitch camp, castra pōnō
place (Noun), locus, -ī, m.
place, arrange, conlocō, 1
place, put, pōnō, 3
place in command, praeficiō, 3, with acc. and dat. (§ 426)
plan (a), cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī, n.
please, placeō, 2, with dat. (§ 154)
pleasing, grātus, -a, -um
plow, arō, 1
Pompeii, Pompēiī, -ōrum, m. plur.
possible (as), expressed by quam and superl.
powerful (be), valeō, 2
praise, laudō, 1
prefer, mālō, mālle, māluī, —— (§ 497)
prepare for, parō, 1, with acc.
press hard, premō, 3
protection, fidēs, fideī, f.
province, prōvincia, -ae, f.
public, pūblicus, -a, -um
Publius, Pūblius, Pūblī, m.
punishment, poena, -ae, f.; supplicium, suppli´cī, n.
purpose, for the purpose of, ut, quī, or quō, with subjv.;
ad, with gerund or gerundive; causā, following the genitive of a gerund or gerundive
pursue, īnsequor, 3
Q
queen, rēgīna, -ae, f.
quickly, celeriter
quite, expressed by the comp. degree
R
rampart, vāllum, -ī, n.
rear, novissimum agmen
reason, causa, -ae, f.
receive, accipiō, 3; excipiō, 3
recent, recēns, -entis
recently, nūper
redoubt, castellum, -ī, n.
refuse, recūsō, 1
remain, maneō, 2
remaining, reliquus, -a, -um
reply, respondeō, 2
report (Noun), fama, -ae, f.; rūmor, -ōris, m.
report (verb), adferō; dēferō; referō (§ 498)
republic, rēs pūblica
require, postulō, 1
resist, resistō, 3, with dat. (§ 154)
rest (the), reliquī, -ōrum, m. plur.
340
restrain, contineō, 2
retainer, cliēns, -entis, m.
retreat, pedem referō; terga vertō
return, redeō, 4; revertor, 3
revolution, rēs novae
Rhine, Rhēnus, -ī, m.
right, dexter, -tra, -trum
river, flūmen, -inis, n.; fluvius, fluvī, m.
road, via, -ae, f.
Roman, Rōmānus, -a, -um
Rome, Rōma, -ae, f.
row, ōrdō, -inis, m.
rule, regō, 3
rumor, fāma, -ae, f.; rūmor, -ōris, m.
run, currō, 3
S
sacrifice, sacrum, -ī, n.
safety, salūs, -ūtis, f.
sail, nāvigō, 1
sailor, nauta, -ae, m.
sake, for the sake of, causā, following a gen.
same, īdem, eadem, idem (§ 287)
savages, barbarī, -ōrum, m. plur.
save, servō, 1
say, dīcō, 3
school, lūdus, -ī, m.; schola, -ae, f.
scout, explōrātor, -ōris, m.
sea, mare, -is, n.
second, secundus, -a, -um
see, videō, 2
seek, petō, 3
seem, videor, 2, passive of videō
seize, occupō, 1; rapiō, 3
self, ipse, -a, -um (§ 286); suī (§ 281)
send, mittō, 3
set fire to, incendō, 3
set out, proficīscor, 3
seven, septem
Sextus, Sextus, -ī, m.
she, ea; haec; ista; illa (§ 115); or not expressed
ship, nāvis, -is, f. (§ 243. 1)
short, brevis, -e
shout, clāmor, -ōris, m.
show, dēmōnstrō, 1
Sicily, Sicilia, -ae, f.
sick, aeger, -gra, -grum
side, latus, -eris, n.
siege, obsidiō, -ōnis, f.
since, cum, with subjv. (§ 396); the abl. abs. (§ 381)
sing, canō, 3; cantō, 1
sister, soror, -ōris, f.
sit, sedeō, 2
size, magnitūdō, -inis, f.
skillful, perītus, -a, -um
slave, servus, -ī, m.
slavery, servitiūs, -ūtis, f.
slow, tardus, -a, -um
small, parvus, -a, -um
snatch, rapiō, 3
so, ita; sīc; tam
so great, tantus, -a, -um
so that, ut; so that not, ut nōn
soldier, mīles, -itis, m.
some, often not expressed; quis (quī), qua (quae), quid (quod); aliquī, aliqua, aliquod
some one, quis; aliquis (§ 487)
some ... others, aliī ... aliī (§ 110)
something, quid; aliquid (§ 487)
son, fīlius, fīlī, m.
soon, mox
space, spatium, spatī, n.
spear, pīlum, -ī, n.
spirited, ācer, ācris, ācre; alacer, alacris, alacre
spring, fōns, fontis, m.
spur, calcar, -āris, n.
stand, stō, 1
341
state, cīvitās, -ātis, f.
station, conlocō, 1
steadiness, cōnstantia, -ae, f.
stone, lapis, -idis, m.
storm, oppugnō, 1
story, fābula, -ae, f.
street, via, -ae, f.
strength, vīs, (vīs), f.
strong, fortis, -e; validus, -a, -um
sturdy, validus, -a, -um
such, tālis, -e
suddenly, subitō
suffer punishment, supplicium dō
sufficiently, satis
suitable, idōneus, -a, -um
summer, aestās, -ātis, f.
sun, sōl, sōlis, m.
supplies, commeātus, -ūs, m.
surrender, trādō, 3
suspect, suspicor, 1
swift, celer, -eris, -ere; vēlōx, -ōcis
sword, gladius, gladī, m.
T
take, capture, capiō, 3
take part in, intersum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus, with dat. (§ 426)
take possession of, occupō, 1
tall, altus, -a, -um
task, opus, operis, n.
teach, doceō, 2
teacher, magister, -trī, m.
tear (Noun), lacrima, -ae, f.
tell, dīcō, 3; nārrō, 1
ten, decem
terrified, perterritus, -a, -um
terrify, perterreō, 2
than, quam
that (conj. after verbs of saying and the like), not expressed
that (pron.), is; iste; ille
that, in order that, in purpose clauses, ut; after verbs of fearing, nē (§§ 349, 366, 372)
that not, lest, in purpose clauses, nē; after verbs of fearing, ut (§§ 349, 366, 372)
the, not expressed
their, gen. plur. of is; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (§ 116)
their own, suus, -a, -um (§ 116)
then, at that time, tum
then, in the next place, deinde, tum
there, as expletive, not expressed
there, in that place, ibi
therefore, itaque
they, iī; hī; istī; illī; or not expressed
think, arbitror, 1; exīstimō, 1; putō, 1
third, tertius, -a, -um
this, hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id
though, cum. with subjv. (§ 396)
thousand, mīlle (§ 479)
three, trēs, tria (§ 479)
through, per, with acc.
thy, tuus, -a, -um
time, tempus, -oris, n.
to, sign of dat.; ad, in, with acc.; expressing purpose, ut, quī, with subjv.; ad, with gerund or gerundive
to each other, inter, with acc. of a reflexive pron.
to-day, hodiē
tooth, dēns, dentis, m.
top of, summus, -a, -um
tower, turris, -is, f. (§ 243. 2)
town, oppidum, -ī, n.
townsman, oppidānus, -ī, m.
trace, vestīgium, vestī´gī, n.
trader, mercātor, -ōris, m.
train, exerceō, 2
tree, arbor, -oris, f.
342
tribe, gēns, gentis, f.
troops, cōpiae, -ārum, f. plur.
true, vērus, -a, -um
trumpet, tuba, -ae, f.
try, cōnor, 1; temptō, 1
twelve, duodecim
two, duo, duae, duo (§ 479)
U
under, sub, with acc. or abl.
undertake, suscipiō, 3
unharmed, incolumis, -e
unless, nisi
unlike, dissimilis, -e
unwilling (be), nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, —— (§ 497)
up to, sub, with acc.
us, nōs, acc. plur. of ego
V
very, superl. degree; maximē; ipse, -a, -um (§ 285)
victor, victor, -ōris, m.
victory, victōria, -ae, f.
village, vīcus, -ī, m.
violence, vīs, (vīs), f.
violently, vehementer
voice, vōx, vōcis, f.
W
wage, gerō, 3
wagon, carrus. -ī, m.
wall, mūrus, -ī, m.
want, inopia, -ae, f.
war, bellum, -ī, n.
watch, vigilia, -ae, f.
water, aqua, -ae, f.
wave, fluctus, -ūs, m.
way, iter, itineris, n. (§ 468); via, -ae, f.
way, manner, modus, -ī, m.
we, nōs, plur. of ego; or not expressed
weak, īnfīrmus, -a, -um
weapons, arma, -ōrum, n. plur.; tēla, -ōrum, n. plur.
wear, gerō, 3
weary, dēfessus, -a, -um
what, quis (quī), quae, quid (quod) (§ 483)
when, ubi; cum (§ 396); often expressed by a participle
where, ubi
which, quī, quae, quod (§ 482); which of two, uter, utra, utrum (§ 108)
while, expressed by a participle
whither, quō
who (rel.), quī, quae (§ 482); (interrog.) quis (§ 483)
whole, tōtus, -a, -um (§ 108)
whose, cuius; quōrum, quārum, quōrum, gen. of quī, quae, quod, rel.; or of quis, quid, interrog.
why, cūr
wicked, malus, -a, -um
wide, lātus, -a, -um
width, lātitūdō, -inis, f.
wild beast, fera, -ae, f.
willing (be), volō, velle, voluī, —— (§ 497)
win (a victory), reportō, 1
wind, ventus, -ī, m.
wine, vīnum, -ī, n.
wing, cornū, -ūs, n.
winter, hiems, -emis, f.
wisdom, cōnsilium, consi´lī, n.
wish, cupiō, 3; volō, velle, voluī, —— (§ 497);
wish not, nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, —— (§ 497)
with, cum, with abl.; sometimes abl. alone
withdraw, sē recipere
without, sine, with abl.
woman, fēmina, -ae, f.; mulier, -eris, f.
343
wonderful, mīrus, -a, -um
word, verbum, -ī, n.
work, labor, -ōris, m.; opus, -eris, n.
worse, peior, peius, comp. of malus
worst, pessimus, -a, -um, superl. of malus
wound (Noun), vulnus, -eris, n.
wound (verb), vulnerō, 1
wreath, corōna, -ae, f.
wretched, miser, -era, -erum
wrong, iniūria, -ae, f.
Y
year, annus, -ī, m.
yes, certē; ita; vērō; or, more usually, repeat the verb (§ 210)
yonder (that), ille, -a, -ud
you, sing. tū; plur. vōs (§ 480); or not expressed
your, sing. tuus, -a, -um; plur. vester, -tra, -trum (§ 98. b)
Z
zeal, studium, studī, n.
344

INDEX

The numbers in all cases refer to sections.

ā-declension of nouns, 57, 461

ā-verbs, conjugation of, 488

ablative case, 48, 50

absolute, 381

after a comparative, 309

of accompaniment, 104

of agent, 181

of cause, 102

of description, 444, 445

of manner, 105

of means or instrument, 103

of measure of difference, 317

of place from which, 179

of place where, 265

of separation, 180

of specification, 398

of time, 275

accent, 14-16

accompaniment

abl. of, 104

accusative case, 33

as subject of the infinitive, 214

object, 37

of duration and extent, 336

of place to which, 263, 266

predicate, 392

with prepositions, 340

adjectives, 54, 55

agreement, 65

comparison

regular, 301

by adverbs, 302

irregular, 307, 311, 312, 315

declension of comparatives, 303

of first and second declensions, 83, 93, 469

of third declension, 250-257, 471

with the dative, 143

adverbs, 319

comparison, 320, 323

formation

regular, 320, 321

irregular, 322, 323

agent

expressed by the abl. with ā or ab, 181

agreement

of adjectives, 65, 215. a

of appositives, 81

of predicate nouns, 76

of relative pronouns, 224

of verbs, 28

aliquis, 487

alius, 108, 110, 470

alphabet, 1-3

alter, 108, 110

antepenult, 9. 3

accent of, 15

apposition, 80, 81

article

not used in Latin, 22. a

 

base, 58

 

cardinal numerals, 327-329, 478

case, 32. 2

causal clauses with cum, 395, 396

cause,

expressed by the abl., 102

characteristic

subjv. of, 389, 390

comparative

declension of, 303

comparison

abl. of, 309

degrees of, 300

of adjectives, 300-315

irregular, 311-315, 473, 475

of adverbs

regular, 320-476

irregular, 323, 477

positive wanting, 315

six adjectives in -lis, 307

complementary infinitive, 215

compound verbs

with the dative, 425, 426

345

concessive clauses with cum, 395, 396

conjugation stems, 184

conjugations

the four regular, 126, 488-491

irregular, 494-500

consonants, 2

copula, 21

cum

conjunction, 395

cum

preposition, 209

 

dative case, 43

of indirect object, 44, 45

of purpose, or end for which, 437

with adjectives, 143

with compound verbs, 426

with special verbs, 153

dea

declension of, 67

declension, 23, 32

degree of difference

expressed by the abl., 317

demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, 112-115, 290-292, 481

deponent verbs, 338, 339, 493

descriptive ablative and genitive, 441-445

descriptive relative clause

with the subjv., 389, 390

deus

declension of, 468

difference, measure of, 316, 317

diphthongs, 6

direct statements, 414

distributive numerals, 327. 3, 334

domī

locative, 267

domus

declension of, 468

duo

declension of, 479

duration of time, expressed by the acc., 336

 

ē-declension of nouns, 272, 273, 467

ē-verbs, conjugation of, 489

ĕ-verbs, conjugation of, 490

ego

declension of, 280, 480

enclitics, 16

conjugation of, 499

extent of space

expressed by the acc., 336

 

fearing

subjv. after verbs of, 370-372

ferō

conjugation of, 498

fifth or ē-declension, 272, 273, 467

fīlia

declension of, 67

fīlius

declension of, 87-89

finite verb

defined, 173

fīō

conjugation of, 500

first conjugation, 488

first or ā-declension, 57, 461

fourth conjugation, 491

fourth or u-declension, 259, 260, 466

from

how expressed, 178-181

future participle

formation of, 374. c

future perfect

formation of

active, 187. 3

passive, 202

future tense

formation of, 137, 156

 

gender

in English and in Latin, 60

in the first declension, 61

in the second declension, 72

in the third declension, 247

in the fourth declension, 260

in the fifth declension, 272

general observations on declension, 74

genitive case

English equivalents of, 33

of description, 443, 445

of nouns in -ius and -ium, 87

partitive, 331

possessive, 38, 409

gerund

a verbal noun, 402, 403

gerundive

a verbal adjective, 404

with ad to express purpose, 407

 

hic

declension and use of, 290, 291

how to read Latin, 17

 

i

consonant, 3

i-stems of nouns, 231, 241-244

ī-verbs

conjugation of, 491

īdem

declension of, 287, 481

iēns

declension of, 472

ille

declension and use of, 290-293, 481

346

imperative

formation of, 161, 175

irregular, 161. 2

in commands, 161

imperfect indicative, formation and use of, 133, 134, 165. 1

imperfect subjunctive, 354

indefinite pronouns and adjectives, 296, 297, 484-487

independent clauses, 219

indirect object, 44, 45

indirect questions, 430-432

indirect statements, 414-419

infinitive

as object, 213

as subject, 216

complementary, 215

definition of, 173

does not express purpose, 352

formation of, 126, 174, 205, 206

in indirect statements, 415-410

used as in English, 213-216

inflection

defined, 23

instrument

abl. of, 100. b, 103

intensive pronoun

ipse, declension and use of, 285, 286, 481

interrogative pronouns and adjectives, 225-227, 483

intransitive verbs,

defined, 20. a

with the dative, 153

iō-verbs of the third conj., 492

ipse

declension and use of, 285, 481

irregular adjectives, 108

irregular comparison

of adjectives, 307 311, 312

of adverbs, 323

irregular nouns, 67, 246, 468

irregular verbs, 494-500

is

declension and use of, 113-116

iste

declension and use of, 290, 292, 481

iter

declension of, 468

 

Latin word order, 68

locative case, 267

 

magis and maximē

comparison by, 302

mālō

conjugation of, 4.97

manner

abl. of, 105

means

abl. of, 103

measure of difference

abl. of, 316, 317

mīlle,

declension of, 479

construction with, 331. a,b

moods, defined, 121

 

-ne, enclitic

in questions, 210

, conj., that not, lest

with negative clauses of purpose, 350.II

with verbs of fearing, 370

nine irregular adjectives, 108-110

nōlō

conjugation of, 497

nominative case, 35, 36

nōnne

in questions, 210

nōs

declension of, 280, 480

Nouns, 19. 2

first declension, 57, 461

second declension, 71-74,87-92,462

third declension, 230-247, 463-465

fourth declension, 259, 260, 466

fifth declension, 272, 273, 467

num, in questions, 210

number, 24

numerals, 327-334, 478, 479

 

o-declension of nouns, 71-74, 87-92, 462

object, 20

direct, 37

indirect, 44, 45

order of words, 68

ordinal numerals, 327. 2, 478

 

participial stem, 201. 2

participles, defined, 203

agreement of, 204

formation,

of present, 374. b

of perfect, 201

of future, 374. c,d

of deponent verbs, 375

tenses of, 376

translated by a clause, 377

partitive genitive, 330, 331

passive voice

defined, 163

formation of, 164, 202

penult, 9. 3

accent of, 15

perfect indicative

formation,

in the active, 185, 186

in the passive, 202

347

meaning of, 190

definite, 190

indefinite, 190

distinguished from the imperfect, 190

perfect infinitive

active, 195

passive, 205

perfect passive participle, 201

perfect stem, 185

perfect subjunctive

active, 361

passive, 362

person, 122

personal endings

active, 122

passive, 164

personal pronouns, 280, 480

place

where, whither, whence, 263-265

names of towns and domus and rūs, 266-268

pluperfect indicative

active, 187. 2

passive, 202

pluperfect subjunctive

active, 361

passive, 363

plūs

declension of, 313

possessive pronouns, 97, 98

possum

conjugation of, 495

predicate

defined, 19

predicate adjective

defined, 55

predicate noun, 75, 76

prepositions

with the abl., 209

with the acc., 340

present indicative, 128, 130, 147

present stem, 126. a

present subjunctive, 344

primary tenses, 356

principal parts, 183

pronouns

classification of, 278

defined, 19. 2. a

demonstrative, 481

indefinite, 297, 484-487

intensive, 285, 286, 481

interrogative, 483

personal, 480

possessive, 97, 98

reflexive, 281

relative, 220, 221

pronunciation, 4-7

prōsum

conjugation of, 496

purpose

dative of, 436, 437

expressed by the gerund or gerundive with ad, 407

not expressed by the infinitive, 352

subjunctive of, 348-350, 365-367

 

quality

gen. or abl. of, 441-445

quam

with a comparative, 308

quantity, 11-13

questions

direct, 210

indirect, 430-432

quī

declension and use of, 220,221, 482

quīdam

declension of, 485

quis

declension and use of, 225-227, 483

quisquam

declension of, 486

quisque

declension of, 484

 

reflexive pronouns, 281

relative clauses of characteristic or description, 389, 390

relative clauses of purpose, 348, 349

relative pronouns, 220, 221

result clauses, 384-387

reviews, 502-528

rūs

constructions of, 266

 

distinguished from ipse, 285. a

second conjugation, 489

second or o-declension, 71-93, 462

sentences

simple, complex, compound, 219

separation

abl. of, 180

separative ablative, 178-181

sequence of tenses, 356-358

space

extent of, expressed by the acc., 336

specification

abl. of, 398

stems

of nouns, 230

of verbs, 184

subject

defined, 19. 2

of the infinitive, 213, 214

subjunctive

formation of the present, 344

348

of the imperfect, 354

of the perfect, 361, 362

of the pluperfect, 361. c, 363

subjunctive constructions

characteristic or description, 389, 390

indirect questions, 430-432

purpose, 349, 366, 372

result, 385, 386

time, cause, or concession, with cum, 395, 396

subjunctive ideas, 346

subjunctive tenses, 342, 343

subordinate clauses, 219

suī

declension of, 281, 480

sum

conjugation of, 494

suus

use of, 98. c, 116

syllables, 8

division of, 9

quantity of, 13

syntax

rules of, 501

 

temporal clauses with cum, 395, 396

tense

defined, 120

tense signs

imperfect, 133

future, 137, 156

pluperfect active, 187. 2

future perfect active, 187. 3

tenses

primary and secondary, 356

sequence of, 357, 358

third conjugation, 490, 492

third declension of nouns

classes, 231, 463

consonant stems, 232-238, 464

gender, 247

i-stems, 241-244, 465

irregular nouns, 246

time

abl. of, 275

time

acc. of, 336

towns

rules for names of, 266, 267, 268

transitive verb, 20. a

trēs

declension of, 479

declension of, 280, 480

tuus

compared with vester, 98. b

 

u-declension of nouns, 259, 260, 466

ultima, 9. 3

 

verbs

agreement of, 28

conjugation of, 126, 488-491

deponent, 338, 339, 493

irregular, 494-500

personal endings of, 122, 164

principal parts of, 183

vester

compared with tuus, 98. b

vīs

declension of, 468

vocabularies

English-Latin, pp. 332-343

Latin-English, pp. 299-331

special, pp. 283-298

vocative case, 56. a

of nouns in -us of the second declension, 73. b

of proper nouns in -ius and of fīlius, 88

voice

defined, 163

volō

conjugation of, 497

vōs

declension of, 280, 480

vowels

sounds of, 5, 6

quantity of, 12

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