In many cultures, including in some Latin countries today, Candlemas marks the end of the Christmas season. It is celebrated on February 2nd, the 40th day after Christmas, and is technically known as the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary as well as the Presentation in the Temple.
Dom Prosper Gueranger, O.S.B., wrote in 1871 that "We apply the name of Christmas to the forty days which begin with the Nativity of our Lord, December 25, and end with the Purification of the Blessed Virgin, February 2. It is a period which forms a distinct portion of the Liturgical Year..."
The basis of the Feast of the Purification was the Jewish tradition that women were considered unclean after the birth of a child and were not permitted to enter the Temple to worship. This was 40 days after the birth of a son and 60 days after the birth of a daughter. At the end of the 40 or 60 days, the mother was brought to the Temple or synagogue and ritually purified. Now she can go to religious services again, and generally go out in public. See Leviticus 12:2-8.
This feast is now celebrated as the Presentation of the Lord, when the infant Jesus was taken to the Temple by his parents according to Jewish custom. The Canticle of Simeon (or the Song of Simeon) is a moving account of one elderly Jewish man who was present in the Temple on that day. See: Nunc Dimittis - John Cennick.
In many ways, Candlemas can be thought of a pivotal feast. It is forty days since Christmas and Lent is coming soon (as early as February 4th?). Likewise, the words of Simeon at the Presentation reinforce this. The section on Candlemas at Oremus notes:
At Candlemas, there is also the traditional observance of blessing candles and distributing the candles to worshipers. The candles recall the lights of Christmas. The candles also symbolize Simeon's words to Mary and Joseph in Luke 2:32 that Jesus would be "a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel."
According to one source, this was also the day that by tradition all candles that would be used for the next year were blessed. Christians were observing Candlemas in Jerusalem as early as the 4th century A.D. By the middle of the 5th century, candles were lit on this day to symbolize that Jesus Christ was the light, the truth and the way. The feast spread slowly and wasn’t well known even in the 7th century.
Like Christmas, Candlemas also has its secular side. In some prosperous manors of old England, this extension of Christmas-tide was marked by music, dancing, games and feasting: A "Lord Of Misrule," or "abbot of unreason" was appointed, whose duty it was to play the part of a buffoon. In addition,
Many poems and carols celebrate Candlemas. By tradition, Candlemas eve was the date upon which all Christmas decorations were removed. The mid-17th century English poet Robert Herrick (1591-1674) wrote at least four poems concerning Candlemas. In his "Ceremony Upon Candlemas Eve," [Down With The Rosemary, And So] he wrote
In his longer "Ceremonies for Candlemas Eve," [Down With The Rosemary and Bays] he wrote:
This poem was adapted into a carol, Candlemas Eve Carol, set to a Basque melody by Edgar Pittman (1865-1943). Likewise, Candlemas day had its own traditions. In "Upon Candlemas Day," Herrick wrote:
Finally, in "The Ceremonies for Candlemas Day," [Kindle The Christmas Brand] he wrote:
This latter poem celebrates the tradition that Christmas plants would be burned and the Yule Log was to be allowed to burn down completely, but that a portion should be held back to start next year’s Yule log (and as a good luck charm against "mischief"). The ashes were to be spread over the gardens to ensure a good harvest. Also, the Yule log for the next year would be chosen then.
And there is this poem from colonial Williamsburg, first published in the 18th Century:
Candlemas was also believed to be a good day for weather forecasting (it falls halfway between the winter solstice and the spring equinox).1 If it were a sunny day, there would be forty more days of cold and snow. This belief has carried into folklore tradition in England, Scotland, Mexico, the United States (as Groundhog Day), in Germany (using a badger instead of a ground hog), and many other places. One English rhyme says:
In Western Europe, this was also the time for preparing the fields for the first planting.
Likewise, many carols of the period refer to Candlemas as the conclusion of the Christmas season.
In Christemas Hath Made An End, the singer laments the end of this Christmas-tide and the return to the fields:
Keyte and Parrott, in The New Oxford Book of Carols, note that in the 17th century, there was little work to be done in the fields during winter, and that the Christmas-tide was, by nature, an extended holiday which could be lengthened to Candlemas (as in this carol), although rarely beyond Epiphany (January 6th).
The carol Farewell To Christmas begins:
The reference to Hallowtide comes from a tradition that the monarch would announce on All Hallows (November 1) where he or she would spend Christmas. There's a tradition I could live with! Celebrate the holidays from November 1 through February 2! See: Now Have Good Day, Now Have Good Day!
The carol Of The Purification concludes with:
Another carol, The fyrst day of yole have we in mynd, begins with:
The last verse of this carol, which is an enumeration of the feasts of Christmas-tide, is:
See also The fyrst day of yole have we in mynd and The fyrst day of yole have we in mynd - Thomas Wright.
But this is not just an old tradition, now forgotten. In many Latin countries, the tradition of Candlemas — especially as it relates to the celebration of the Three Kings — is still celebrated.
In Mexico, la Rosca de Reyes, a sweet circular cake is served with a doll baked inside representing the baby Jesus (similar to Mardi Gras Kings Cake) and is served with hot chocolate on Epiphany (known locally as Three Kings Day or El Dia de los Reyes Magos). The person who finds the baby in their slice is to host the forthcoming celebration Candelaria or Candlemas on February 2nd (when a feast of tamalitos and hot chocolate is enjoyed by all). According to an article in the Oaxaca Times by Gayle Hanson, when 20 or thirty people are on hand sometimes several babies are baked into the cake, all the better to spread out the cost of the next party among friends.
The Rosca de Reyes was used by the friars to evangelize: a small doll, representing the Christ child, is baked right in the bread — "hidden", to symbolize the hiding of the infant from King Herod's troops on the day of Los Santos Inocentes, the Holy Innocents [See: The Hymns Of The Holy Innocents].
As was the case in old England, it is on this day that the nativity scene and all the Christmas decorations are put away.
Note: See the following pages for additional information concerning Candlemas:
The poet Robert Herrick (1591-1674) also had three poems concerning Candlemas which were reproduced in his “Hesperides,” first published in 1648. They are reproduced in Christmas Customs.
Finally, there is a small duet found in Enjoy Your Recorder by the Trapp Family Singers (Sharon, CN: Magnamusic Distributors, Inc., 1954, p. 43) titled "It Was Candlemas Day." They gave no author or other information concerning the tune.
MIDI / Noteworthy Composer / PDF
1. Nor was Candlemas unique in this regard. At least two carols attribute weather forecasts to Christmas Day: Lordings, All Of You I Warn and If Christmas Day On The Sunday Be. Return
2. Songs, Carols, and other Miscellaneous Poems, from the Balliol MS. 354, ed. R. Dyboski, E. E. T. S., Extra ser., CI , 18. This carol may also be found in Richard Greene, ed., A Selection of English Carols (Oxford: Clarendon, 1962), Carol 38. Return
3. Of The Purification, found MS Eng. Poet. e I, (ed. Wright, as above, p. 57, "Of the Puryfycacion"). This carol may also be found in Richard Greene, ed., A Selection of English Carols (Oxford: Clarendon, 1962), Carol 37. Return
4. MS Eng. Poet, e. I, printed Percy Society (ed. T. Wright), XXIII (London, 1848), 24. This carol; with some variants, is also found in MS Sloane 2593, printed Warton Club (ed. Wright; London, 1856), p. 98. Cf. Another similar carol in MS Sloane, "Wolcum be thou, hevene kynge," on p. 93 of the Warton Club’s printing, or in E. E. L., p. 232. This carol may also be found in Richard Greene, ed., A Selection of English Carols (Oxford: Clarendon, 1962), Carol 3. Return
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