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LATIN FOR BEGINNERS


BY

BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR IN THE MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE


GINN AND COMPANY
BOSTON · NEW YORK · CHICAGO · LONDON

COPYRIGHT, 1909, 1911 BY BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE
ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
013.4


The Athenæum Press
GINN AND COMPANY · PROPRIETORS ·
BOSTON · U.S.A.

PREFACE

To make the course preparatory to Cæsar at the same time systematic, thorough, clear, and interesting is the purpose of this series of lessons.

The first pages are devoted to a brief discussion of the Latin language, its history, and its educational value. The body of the book, consisting of seventy-nine lessons, is divided into three parts.

Part I is devoted to pronunciation, quantity, accent, and kindred introductory essentials.

Part II carries the work through the first sixty lessons, and is devoted to the study of forms and vocabulary, together with some elementary constructions, a knowledge of which is necessary for the translation of the exercises and reading matter. The first few lessons have been made unusually simple, to meet the wants of pupils not well grounded in English grammar.

Part III contains nineteen lessons, and is concerned primarily with the study of syntax and of subjunctive and irregular verb forms. The last three of these lessons constitute a review of all the constructions presented in the book. There is abundant easy reading matter; and, in order to secure proper concentration of effort upon syntax and translation, no new vocabularies are introduced, but the vocabularies in Part II are reviewed.

It is hoped that the following features will commend themselves to teachers:

The forms are presented in their natural sequence, and are given, for the most part, in the body of the book as well as in a grammatical appendix. The work on the verb is intensive in character, work in other directions being reduced to a minimum while this is going on. The forms of the subjunctive are studied in correlation with the subjunctive constructions.

The vocabulary has been selected with the greatest care, using Lodge's "Dictionary of Secondary Latin" and Browne's "Latin Word List" as a basis. There are about six hundred words, exclusive of proper names, in the special vocabularies, and these are among the simplest and commonest words in the language. More than ninety-five per cent of those chosen are Cæsarian, and of these more than ninety per cent are used in Cæsar five or more times. The few words not Cæsarian are of such frequent occurrence in Cicero, Vergil, and other authors as to justify their appearance here. But teachers desiring to confine word study to Cæsar can easily do so, as the Cæsarian words are printed in the vocabularies in distinctive type. Concrete nouns have been preferred to abstract, root words to compounds and derivatives, even when the latter were of more frequent occurrence in Cæsar. To assist the memory, related English words are added in each special vocabulary. To insure more careful preparation, the special vocabularies have been removed from their respective lessons and placed by themselves. The general vocabulary contains about twelve hundred words, and of these above eighty-five per cent are found in Cæsar.

The syntax has been limited to those essentials which recent investigations, such as those of Dr. Lee Byrne and his collaborators, have shown to belong properly to the work of the first year. The constructions are presented, as far as possible, from the standpoint of English, the English usage being given first and the Latin compared or contrasted with it. Special attention has been given to the constructions of participles, the gerund and gerundive, and the infinitive in indirect statements. Constructions having a logical connection are not separated but are treated together.

Exercises for translation occur throughout, those for translation into Latin being, as a rule, only half as long as those for translation into English. In Part III a few of the commoner idioms in Cæsar are introduced and the sentences are drawn mainly from that author. From first to last a consistent effort is made to instill a proper regard for Latin word order, the first principles of which are laid down early in the course.

Selections for reading are unusually abundant and are introduced from the earliest possible moment. These increase in number and length as the book progresses, and, for the most part, are made an integral part of the lessons instead of being massed at the end of the book. This arrangement insures a more constant and thorough drill in forms and vocabulary, promotes reading power, and affords a breathing spell between succeeding subjects. The material is drawn from historical and mythological sources, and the vocabulary employed includes but few words not already learned. The book closes with a continued story which recounts the chief incidents in the life of a Roman boy. The last chapters record his experiences in Cæsar's army, and contain much information that will facilitate the interpretation of the Commentaries. The early emphasis placed on word order and sentence structure, the simplicity of the syntax, and the familiarity of the vocabulary, make the reading selections especially useful for work in sight translation.

Reviews are called for at frequent intervals, and to facilitate this branch of the work an Appendix of Reviews has been prepared, covering both the vocabulary and the grammar.

The illustrations are numerous, and will, it is hoped, do much to stimulate interest in the ancient world and to create true and lasting impressions of Roman life and times.

A consistent effort has been made to use simple language and clear explanation throughout.

As an aid to teachers using this book a "Teacher's Manual" has been prepared, which contains, in addition to general suggestions, notes on each lesson.

The author wishes to express his gratitude to the numerous teachers who tested the advance pages in their classes, and, as a result of their experience, have given much valuable aid by criticism and suggestion. Particular acknowledgments are due to Miss A. Susan Jones of the Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan; to Miss Clara Allison of the High School at Hastings, Michigan; and to Miss Helen B. Muir and Mr. Orland O. Norris, teachers of Latin in this institution.

BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE
Michigan State Normal College



CONTENTS

LESSONPAGE
Preface
To the Student—By way of Introduction1-4

PART I. THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

Alphabet, Sounds of the Letters, Syllables, Quantity, Accent, How to Read Latin5-11

PART II. WORDS AND FORMS

I-VI.First Principles—Subject and Predicate, Inflection, Number, Nominative Subject, Possessive Genitive, Agreement of Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object, etc.—Dialogue 12-24
VII-VIII.First or Â-Declension—Gender, Agreement of Adjectives, Word Order 25-30
IX-X.Second or O-Declension—General Rules for Declension—Predicate Noun, Apposition—Dialogue 31-35
XI.Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions 36-37
XII.Nouns in -ius and -ium—Germânia 38-39
XIII.Second Declension (Continued)—Nouns in -er and -ir—Italia—Dialogue 39-41
XIV.Possessive Adjective Pronouns 42-43
XV.Ablative Denoting With—Cause, Means, Accompaniment, Manner—The Romans Prepare for War 44-46
XVI.The Nine Irregular Adjectives 46-47
XVII.The Demonstrative is, ea, id—Dialogue 48-50
XVIII.Conjugation—Present, Imperfect, and Future of sum—Dialogue 51-53
XIX.Present Active Indicative of amô and moneô 54-56
XX.Imperfect Active Indicative of amô and moneôMeaning of the Imperfect—Niobe and her Children 56-57
XXI.Future Active Indicative of amô and moneô—Niobe and her Children (Concluded) 58-59
XXII.Review of Verbs—The Dative with Adjectives—Cornelia and her Jewels 59-61
XXIII.ix Present Active Indicative of regô and audiô—Cornelia and her Jewels (Concluded) 61-63
XXIV.Imperfect Active Indicative of regô and audiôThe Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs 63-65
XXV.Future Active Indicative of regô and audiô 65-66
XXVI.Verbs in -iô—Present, Imperfect, and Future Active Indicative of capiôThe Imperative 66-68
XXVII.Passive Voice—Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative of amô and moneô—Perseus and Andromeda 68-71
XXVIII.Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Passive of regô and audiô—Perseus and Andromeda (Continued) 72-73
XXIX.Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Passive of -iô Verbs—Present Passive Infinitive and Imperative 73-75
XXX.Synopses in the Four Conjugations—The Ablative Denoting From—Place from Which, Separation, Personal Agent 75-78
XXXI.Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect of sum—Dialogue 79-81
XXXII.Perfect Active Indicative of the Four Regular Conjugations—Meanings of the Perfect—Perseus and Andromeda (Continued) 81-83
XXXIII.Pluperfect and Future Perfect Active Indicative—Perfect Active Infinitive 84-85
XXXIV.Review of the Active Voice—Perseus and Andromeda (Concluded) 86-87
XXXV.Passive Perfects of the Indicative—Perfect Passive and Future Active Infinitive 88-90
XXXVI.Review of Principal Parts—Prepositions, Yes-or-No Questions 90-93
XXXVII.Conjugation of possumThe Infinitive used as in EnglishAccusative Subject of an Infinitive—The Faithless Tarpeia 93-96
XXXVIII.The Relative Pronoun and the Interrogative Pronoun—Agreement of the Relative—The Faithless Tarpeia (Concluded) 97-101
XXXIX-XLI.The Third Declension—Consonant Stems 101-106
XLII.Review Lesson—Terror Cimbricus 107
XLIII.Third Declension—I-Stems 108-110
XLIV.x Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension—Gender in the Third Declension—The First Bridge over the Rhine 111-112
XLV.Adjectives of the Third Declension—The Romans Invade the Enemy's Country 113-115
XLVI.The Fourth or U-Declension 116-117
XLVII.Expressions of Place—Place to Which, Place from Which, Place at or in Which, the Locative—Declension of domus—Dædalus and Icarus 117-121
XLVIII.The Fifth or Ê-Declension—Ablative of Time—Dædalus and Icarus (Continued) 121-123
XLIX.Pronouns—Personal and Reflexive Pronouns—Dædalus and Icarus (Concluded) 123-126
L.The Intensive Pronoun ipse and the Demonstrative îdem—How Horatius Held the Bridge 126-127
LI.The Demonstratives hic, iste, ille—A German Chieftain Addresses his Followers—How Horatius Held the Bridge (Continued) 128-130
LII.The Indefinite Pronouns—How Horatius Held the Bridge (Concluded) 130-132
LIII.Regular Comparison of Adjectives 133-135
LIV.Irregular Comparison of Adjectives—Ablative with Comparatives 135-136
LV.Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (Continued)—Declension of plûs 137-138
LVI.Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (Concluded)—Ablative of the Measure of Difference 138-139
LVII.Formation and Comparison of Adverbs 140-142
LVIII.Numerals—Partitive Genitive 142-144
LIX.Numerals (Continued)—Accusative of Extent—Cæsar in Gaul 144-146
LX.Deponent Verbs—Prepositions with the Accusative 146-147

PART III. CONSTRUCTIONS

LXI.The Subjunctive Mood—Inflection of the Present—Indicative and Subjunctive Compared 148-152
LXII.The Subjunctive of Purpose 152-153
LXIII.Inflection of the Imperfect Subjunctive—Sequence of Tenses 153-155
LXIV.Inflection of the Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive—Substantive Clauses of Purpose 156-159
LXV.Subjunctive of possumVerbs of Fearing 160-161
LXVI.The Participles—Tenses and Declension 161-164
LXVII.The Irregular Verbs volô, nôlô, mâlôAblative Absolute 164-166
LXVIII.The Irregular Verb fîôSubjunctive of Result 167-168
LXIX.Subjunctive of Characteristic—Predicate Accusative 169-171
LXX.Constructions with cumAblative of Specification 171-173
LXXI.Vocabulary Review—Gerund and GerundivePredicate Genitive 173-177
LXXII.The Irregular Verb Indirect Statements 177-180
LXXIII.Vocabulary Review—The Irregular Verb ferôDative with Compounds 181-183
LXXIV.Vocabulary Review—Subjunctive in Indirect Questions 183-185
LXXV.Vocabulary Review—Dative of Purpose or End for Which 185-186
LXXVI.Vocabulary Review—Genitive and Ablative of Quality or Description 186-188
LXXVII.Review of Agreement—Review of the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative 189-190
LXXVIII.Review of the Ablative 191-192
LXXIX.Review of the Syntax of Verbs 192-193

READING MATTER

Introductory Suggestions 194-195
The Labors of Hercules 196-203
P. Cornelius Lentulus: The Story of a Roman Boy 204-215

APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES

Appendix I. Tables of Declensions, Conjugations, Numerals, etc. 226-260
Appendix II. Rules of Syntax261-264
Appendix III. Reviews265-282
Special Vocabularies283-298
Latin-English Vocabulary299-331
English-Latin Vocabulary332-343

INDEX

344-348

LATIN FOR BEGINNERS

TO THE STUDENT—BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

What is Latin? If you will look at the map of Italy on the opposite page, you will find near the middle of the peninsula and facing the west coast a district called Latium,1 and Rome its capital. The Latin language, meaning the language of Latium, was spoken by the ancient Romans and other inhabitants of Latium, and Latin was the name applied to it after the armies of Rome had carried the knowledge of her language far beyond its original boundaries. As the English of to-day is not quite the same as that spoken two or three hundred years ago, so Latin was not always the same at all times, but changed more or less in the course of centuries. The sort of Latin you are going to learn was in use about two thousand years ago. And that period has been selected because the language was then at its best and the greatest works of Roman literature were being produced. This period, because of its supreme excellence, is called the Golden Age of Roman letters.

1. Pronounce Lâ´shi-um.

The Spread of Latin. For some centuries after Rome was founded, the Romans were a feeble and insignificant people, their territory was limited to Latium, and their existence constantly threatened by warlike neighbors. But after the third century before Christ, Rome's power grew rapidly. She conquered all Italy, then reached out for the lands across the sea and beyond the Alps, and finally ruled over the whole ancient world. The empire thus established lasted for more than four hundred years. The importance of Latin increased with the growth of Roman power, and what had been a dialect spoken by a single tribe became the universal language. Gradually the language changed somewhat, developing differently in different countries. In Italy it has become Italian, in Spain Spanish, and in France French. All these nations, therefore, are speaking a modernized form of Latin.

The Romans and the Greeks. In their career of conquest the Romans came into conflict with the Greeks. The Greeks were inferior to the Romans in military power, but far superior to them in culture. They excelled in art, literature, music, science, and philosophy. Of all these pursuits the Romans were ignorant until contact with Greece revealed to them the value of education and filled them with the thirst for knowledge. And so it came about that while Rome conquered Greece by force of arms, Greece conquered Rome by force of her intellectual superiority and became her schoolmaster. It was soon the established custom for young Romans to go to Athens and to other centers of Greek learning to finish their training, and the knowledge of the Greek language among the educated classes became universal. At the same time many cultured Greeks—poets, artists, orators, and philosophers—flocked to Rome, opened schools, and taught their arts. Indeed, the preëminence of Greek culture became so great that Rome almost lost her ambition to be original, and her writers vied with each other in their efforts to reproduce in Latin what was choicest in Greek literature. As a consequence of all this, the civilization and national life of Rome became largely Grecian, and to Greece she owed her literature and her art.

Rome and the Modern World. After conquering the world, Rome impressed her language, laws, customs of living, and modes of thinking upon the subject nations, and they became Roman; and the world has remained largely Roman ever since. Latin continued to live, and the knowledge of Latin was the only light of learning that burned steadily through the dark ages that followed the downfall of the Roman Empire. Latin was the common language of scholars and remained so even down to the days of Shakespeare. Even yet it is more nearly than any other tongue the universal language of the learned. The life of to-day is much nearer the life of ancient Rome than the lapse of centuries would lead one to suppose. You and I are Romans still in many ways, and if Cæsar and Cicero should appear among us, we should not find them, except for dress and language, much unlike men of to-day.

Latin and English. Do you know that more than half of the words in the English dictionary are Latin, and that you are speaking more or less Latin every day? How has this come about? In the year 1066 William the Conqueror invaded England with an army of Normans. The Normans spoke French—which, you remember, is descended from Latin—and spread their language to a considerable extent over England, and so Norman-French played an important part in the formation of English and forms a large proportion of our vocabulary. Furthermore, great numbers of almost pure Latin words have been brought into English through the writings of scholars, and every new scientific discovery is marked by the addition of new terms of Latin derivation. Hence, while the simpler and commoner words of our mother tongue are Anglo-Saxon, and Anglo-Saxon forms the staple of our colloquial language, yet in the realms of literature, and especially in poetry, words of Latin derivation are very abundant. Also in the learned professions, as in law, medicine, and engineering, a knowledge of Latin is necessary for the successful interpretation of technical and scientific terms.

Why study Latin? The foregoing paragraphs make it clear why Latin forms so important a part of modern education. We have seen that our civilization rests upon that of Greece and Rome, and that we must look to the past if we would understand the present. It is obvious, too, that the knowledge of Latin not only leads to a more exact and effective use of our own language, but that it is of vital importance and of great practical value to any one preparing for a literary or professional career. To this it may be added that the study of Latin throws a flood of light upon the structure of language in general and lays an excellent foundation for all grammatical study. Finally, it has been abundantly proved that there is no more effective means of strengthening the mind than by the earnest pursuit of this branch of learning.

Review Questions. Whence does Latin get its name? Where is Latium? Where is Rome? Was Latin always the same? What sort of Latin are we to study? Describe the growth of Rome's power and the spread of Latin. What can you say of the origin of Italian, French, and Spanish? How did the ancient Greeks and Romans compare? How did Greece influence Rome? How did Rome influence the world? In what sense are we Romans still? What did Latin have to do with the formation of English? What proportion of English words are of Latin origin, and what kind of words are they? Why should we study Latin?


PART I

THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

THE ALPHABET

1. The Latin alphabet contains the same letters as the English except that it has no w and no j.

2. The vowels, as in English, are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters are consonants.

3. I is used both as a vowel and as a consonant. Before a vowel in the same syllable it has the value of a consonant and is called I consonant.

Thus in Iû-li-us the first i is a consonant, the second a vowel.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS1

1. N.B. The sounds of the letters are best learned by hearing them correctly pronounced. The matter in this section is, therefore, intended for reference rather than for assignment as a lesson. As a first step it is suggested that the teacher pronounce the examples in class, the pupils following.

4. Latin was not pronounced like English. The Romans at the beginning of the Christian era pronounced their language substantially as described below.

5. The vowels have the following sounds:

Vowels2Latin Examples
â as in father

a like the first a in aha´, never as in hat

hâc, stâs
a´-mat, ca-nâs
ê as in they
e as in met
tê´-la, mê´-ta
te´-net, mer´-cês
î as in machine
i as in bit
ser´-tî, prâ´-tî
si´-tis, bi´-bî
ô as in holy
o as in wholly, never as in hot
Rô´-ma, ô´-ris
mo´-do, bo´-nôs

û as in rude, or as oo in boot

u as in full, or as oo in foot

û´-mor, tû´-ber
ut, tû´-tus
2. Long vowels are marked ¯, short ones [)].
{Transcriber's Addendum: Short vowels are not marked in this version of the text.}

Note. It is to be observed that there is a decided difference in sound, except in the case of a, between the long and the short vowels. It is not merely a matter of quantity but also of quality.

6. In diphthongs (two-vowel sounds) both vowels are heard in a single syllable.

DiphthongsLatin Examples
ae as ai in aisle
au as ou in out
tae´-dae
gau´-det
ei as ei in eight

eu as e´[oo] (a short e followed by a short u in one syllable)

dein´-de
seu
oe like oi in toil

ui like [oo]´i (a short u followed by a short i in one syllable. Cf. English we)

foe´-dus
cui, huic

Note. Give all the vowels and diphthongs their proper sounds and do not slur over them in unaccented syllables, as is done in English.

7. Consonants are pronounced as in English, except that

ConsonantsLatin Examples

c is always like c in cat, never as in cent

g is always like g in get, never as in gem

i consonant is always like y in yes

n before c, qu, or g is like ng in sing (compare the sound of n in anchor)

ca´-dô, ci´-bus, cê´-na
ge´-mô, gig´-nô
iam, io´-cus
an´-co-ra (ang´-ko-ra)

qu, gu, and sometimes su before a vowel have the sound of qw, gw, and sw. Here u has the value of consonant v and is not counted a vowel

in´-quit, quî, lin´-gua, san´-guis, suâ´-de-ô

s is like s in sea, never as in ease

t is always like t in native, never as in nation

ro´-sa, is
ra´-ti-ô, nâ´-ti-ô

v is like w in wine, never as in vine

x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs) and is like x in extract, not as in exact

vî´-num, vir
ex´-trâ, ex-âc´-tus

bs is like ps and bt like pt

ch, ph, and th are like c, p, t

urbs, ob-ti´-ne-ô

pul´-cher, Phoe´-bê, the-â´-trum

a. In combinations of consonants give each its distinct sound. Doubled consonants should be pronounced with a slight pause between the two sounds. Thus pronounce tt as in rat-trap, not as in rattle; pp as in hop-pole, not as in upper. Examples, mit´-tô, Ap´pi-us, bel´-lum.

SYLLABLES

8. A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. Thus aes-tâ´-te has three syllables, au-di-en´-dus has four.

a. Two vowels with a consonant between them never make one syllable, as is so often the case in English. Compare English inside with Latin în-sî´-de.

9. Words are divided into syllables as follows:

1. A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second. Thus a-mâ´-bi-lis, me-mo´-ri-a, in-te´-re-â, a´-best, pe-rê´-git.3

3. In writing and printing it is customary to divide the parts of a compound, as inter-eâ, ab-est, sub-âctus, per-êgit, contrary to the correct phonetic rule.

2. Combinations of two or more consonants:

a. A consonant followed by l or r goes with the l or r. Thus pû´-bli-cus, a´-grî.

Exception. Prepositional compounds of this nature, as also ll and rr, follow rule b. Thus ab´-lu-ô, ab-rum´-pô, il´-le, fer´-rum.

b. In all other combinations of consonants the first consonant goes with the preceding vowel.4 Thus mag´-nus, e-ges´-tâs, vic-tô´-ri-a, hos´-pes, an´-nus, su-bâc´-tus.

4. The combination nct is divided nc-t, as fûnc-tus, sânc-tus.

3. The last syllable of a word is called the ul´-ti-ma; the one next to the last, the pe-nult´; the one before the penult, the an´-te-pe-nult´.

10. EXERCISE

Divide the words in the following passage into syllables and pronounce them, placing the accent as indicated:

Vâ´de ad formî´cam, Ô pi´ger, et cônsî´derâ vi´âs e´ius et di´sce sapie´ntiam: quae cum nôn ha´beat du´cem nec praeceptô´rem nec prî´ncipem, pa´rat in aestâ´te ci´bum si´bi et co´ngregat in me´sse quod co´medat.

[Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise: which, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer and gathereth her food in the harvest.]

QUANTITY

11. The quantity of a vowel or a syllable is the time it takes to pronounce it. Correct pronunciation and accent depend upon the proper observance of quantity.

12. Quantity of Vowels. Vowels are either long (¯) or short. In this book the long vowels are marked. Unmarked vowels are to be considered short.

1. A vowel is short before another vowel or h; as po-ê´-ta, tra´-hô.

2. A vowel is short before nt and nd, before final m or t, and, except in words of one syllable, before final l or r. Thus a´-mant, a-man´-dus, a-mâ´-bam, a-mâ´-bat, a´-ni-mal, a´-mor.

3. A vowel is long before nf, ns, nx, and nct. Thus în´-fe-rô, re´-gêns, sân´-xî, sânc´-tus.

4. Diphthongs are always long, and are not marked.

13. Quantity of Syllables. Syllables are either long or short, and their quantity must be carefully distinguished from that of vowels.

1. A syllable is short,

a. If it ends in a short vowel; as a´-mô, pi´-gri.

Note. In final syllables the short vowel may be followed by a final consonant. Thus the word me-mo´-ri-am contains four short syllables. In the first three a short vowel ends the syllable, in the last the short vowel is followed by a final consonant.

2. A syllable is long,

a. If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, as cû´-rô, poe´-nae, aes-tâ´-te.

b. If it ends in a consonant which is followed by another consonant, as cor´-pus, mag´-nus.

Note. The vowel in a long syllable may be either long or short, and should be pronounced accordingly. Thus in ter´-ra, in´-ter, the first syllable is long, but the vowel in each case is short and should be given the short sound. In words like saxum the first syllable is long because x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs).

3. In determining quantity h is not counted a consonant.

Note. Give about twice as much time to the long syllables as to the short ones. It takes about as long to pronounce a short vowel plus a consonant as it does to pronounce a long vowel or a diphthong, and so these quantities are considered equally long. For example, it takes about as long to say cur´-rô as it does cû´-rô, and so each of these first syllables is long. Compare mol´-lis and mô´-lis, â-mis´-sî and â-mi´-sî.

ACCENT

14. Words of two syllables are accented on the first, as mên´-sa, Cae´-sar.

15. Words of more than two syllables are accented on the penult if the penult is long. If the penult is short, accent the antepenult. Thus mo-nê´-mus, re´-gi-tur, a-gri´-co-la, a-man´-dus.

Note. Observe that the position of the accent is determined by the length of the syllable and not by the length of the vowel in the syllable. (Cf. § 13. 2, Note.)

16. Certain little words called enclit´ics5 which have no separate existence, are added to and pronounced with a preceding word. The most common are -que, and; -ve, or; and -ne, the question sign. The syllable before an enclitic takes the accent, regardless of its quantity. Thus populus´que, dea´que, rêgna´ve, audit´ne.

5. Enclitic means leaning back, and that is, as you see, just what these little words do. They cannot stand alone and so they lean back for support upon the preceding word.

HOW TO READ LATIN

17. To read Latin well is not so difficult, if you begin right. Correct habits of reading should be formed now. Notice the quantities carefully, especially the quantity of the penult, to insure your getting the accent on the right syllable. (Cf. § 15.) Give every vowel its proper sound and every syllable its proper length. Then bear in mind that we should read Latin as we read English, in phrases rather than in separate words. Group together words that are closely connected in thought. No good reader halts at the end of each word.

18. Read the stanzas of the following poem by Longfellow, one at a time, first the English and then the Latin version. The syllables inclosed in parentheses are to be slurred or omitted to secure smoothness of meter.

EXCELSIOR [HIGHER]! 6

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!
Cadêbant noctis umbrae, dum
Ibat per vîcum Alpicum
Gelû nivequ(e) adolêscêns,
Vêxillum cum signô ferêns,
Excelsior!
His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!
Frôns trîstis, micat oculus
Velut ê vâgînâ gladius;
Sonantque similês tubae
Accentûs lingu(ae) incognitae,
Excelsior!
In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!
In domibus videt clârâs
Focôrum lûcês calidâs;
Relucet glaciês âcris,
Et rumpit gemitûs labrîs,
Excelsior!
"Try not the Pass!" the old man said;
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!"
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!
Dîcit senex, "Nê trânseâs!
Suprâ nigrêscit tempestâs;
Lâtus et altus est torrêns."
Clâra vênit vôx respondêns,
Excelsior!
At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!
Iam lûcêscêbat, et frâtrês
Sânctî Bernardî vigilês
Ôrâbant precês solitâs,
Cum vôx clâmâvit per aurâs,
Excelsior!
A traveler, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!
Sêmi-sepultus viâtor
Can(e) â fîdô reperîtur,
Comprêndêns pugnô gelidô
Illud vêxillum cum signô,
Excelsior!
There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!
Iacet corpus exanimum
Sed lûce frîgidâ pulchrum;
Et caelô procul exiêns
Cadit vôx, ut Stella cadêns,
Excelsior!
6. Translation by C. W. Goodchild in Praeco Latinus, October, 1898.

PART II

WORDS AND FORMS

LESSON I

FIRST PRINCIPLES

19. Subject and Predicate. 1. Latin, like English, expresses thoughts by means of sentences. A sentence is a combination of words that expresses a thought, and in its simplest form is the statement of a single fact. Thus,

Galba is a farmer
Galba est agricola
The sailor fights
Nauta pugnat

In each of these sentences there are two parts:

SubjectGalba
Galba

The sailor
Nauta
Predicateis a farmer
est agricola

fights
pugnat

2. The subject is that person, place, or thing about which something is said, and is therefore a noun or some word which can serve the same purpose.

a. Pronouns, as their name implies (pro, "instead of," and noun), often take the place of nouns, usually to save repeating the same noun, as, Galba is a farmer; he is a sturdy fellow.

3. The predicate is that which is said about the subject, and consists of a verb with or without modifiers.

a. A verb is a word which asserts something (usually an act) concerning a person, place, or thing.

20. The Object. In the two sentences, The boy hit the ball and The ball hit the boy, the same words are used, but the meaning is different, and depends upon the order of the words. The doer of the act, that about which something is said, is, as we have seen above, the subject. That to which something is done is the direct object of the verb. The boy hit the ball is therefore analyzed as follows:

SubjectPredicate
The boyhit the ball
(verb) (direct object)

a. A verb whose action passes over to the object directly, as in the sentence above, is called a transitive verb. A verb which does not admit of a direct object is called intransitive, as, I walk, he comes.

21. The Copula. The verb to be in its different forms—are, is, was, etc.—does not tell us anything about the subject; neither does it govern an object. It simply connects the subject with the word or words in the predicate that possess a distinct meaning. Hence it is called the copula, that is, the joiner or link.

22. In the following sentences pronounce the Latin and name the nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, predicates, copulas:

1.America est patria mea
America is fatherland my
2.Agricola fîliam amat
(The) farmer (his) daughter loves
3.Fîlia est Iûlia
(His) daughter is Julia
4.Iûlia et agricola sunt in însulâ
Julia and (the) farmer are on (the) island
5.Iûlia aquam portat
Julia water carries
6.Rosam in comîs habet
(A) rose in (her) hair (she) has
7.Iûlia est puella pulchra
Julia is (a) girl pretty
8.Domina fîliam pulchram habet
(The) lady (a) daughter beautiful has

a. The sentences above show that Latin does not express some words which are necessary in English. First of all, Latin has no article the or a; thus agricola may mean the farmer, a farmer, or simply farmer. Then, too, the personal pronouns, I, you, he, she, etc., and the possessive pronouns, my, your, his, her, etc., are not expressed if the meaning of the sentence is clear without them.

LESSON II

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

23. Inflection. Words may change their forms to indicate some change in sense or use, as, is, are; was, were; who, whose, whom; farmer, farmer's; woman, women. This is called inflection. The inflection of a noun, adjective, or pronoun is called its declension, that of a verb its conjugation.

24. Number. Latin, like English, has two numbers, singular and plural. In English we usually form the plural by adding -s or -es to the singular. So Latin changes the singular to the plural by changing the ending of the word. Compare

Naut-a pugnat
The sailor fights
Naut-ae pugnant
The sailors fight

25. Rule. Nouns that end in -a in the singular end in -ae in the plural.

26. Learn the following nouns so that you can give the English for the Latin or the Latin for the English. Write the plural of each.

agri´cola, farmer (agriculture)1
aqua, water (aquarium)
causa, cause, reason
do´mina, lady of the house, mistress (dominate)
filia, daughter (filial)
fortû´na, fortune
fuga, flight (fugitive)
iniû´ria, wrong, injury
lûna, moon (lunar)
nauta, sailor (nautical)
puel´la, girl
silva, forest (silvan)
terra, land (terrace)
1. The words in parentheses are English words related to the Latin. When the words are practically identical, as causa, cause, no comparison is needed.

27. Compare again the sentences

Nauta pugna-t
The sailor fights
 Nautae pugna-nt
The sailors fight

In the first sentence the verb pugna-t is in the third person singular, in the second sentence pugna-nt is in the third person plural.

28. Rule. Agreement of Verb. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject.

29. Rule. In the conjugation of the Latin verb the third person singular active ends in -t, the third person plural in -nt. The endings which show the person and number of the verb are called personal endings.

30. Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each. The personal pronouns he, she, it, etc., which are necessary in the inflection of the English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the personal endings take their place. Of course, if the verb's subject is expressed we do not translate the personal ending by a pronoun; thus nauta pugnat is translated the sailor fights, not the sailor he fights.

ama-the (she, it)loves, is loving, does love (amity, amiable)
labô´ra-t"   "   "labors, is laboring, does labor
nûntia-t2"   "   "announces, is announcing, does announce
porta-t"   "   "carries, is carrying, does carry (porter)
pugna-t"   "   "fights, is fighting, does fight (pugnacious)
2. The u in nûntiô is long by exception. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

31. EXERCISES

I. 1. The daughter loves, the daughters love. 2. The sailor is carrying, the sailors carry. 3. The farmer does labor, the farmers labor. 4. The girl is announcing, the girls do announce. 5. The ladies are carrying, the lady carries.

II. 1. Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant. 2. Puella amat, puellae amant. 3. Agricola portat, agricolae portant. 4. Fîlia labôrat, fîliae labôrant. 5. Nauta nûntiat, nautae nûntiant. 6. Dominae amant, domina amat.

[Illustration: seated lady
Caption: DOMINA]

LESSON III

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

32. Declension of Nouns. We learned above (§§ 19, 20) the difference between the subject and object, and that in English they may be distinguished by the order of the words. Sometimes, however, the order is such that we are left in doubt. For example, the sentence The lady her daughter loves might mean either that the lady loves her daughter, or that the daughter loves the lady.

1. If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the words, but by the endings of the words themselves. Compare the following sentences:

Domina fîliam amat
Fîliam domina amat
Amat fîliam domina
Domina amat fîliam
The lady loves her daughter
Fîlia dominam amat
Dominam fîlia amat
Amat dominam fîlia
Fîlia amat dominam
The daughter loves the lady

a. Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in -a and the object in -am. The form of the noun shows how it is used in the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on the essential meaning.

2. As stated above (§ 23), this change of ending is called declension, and each different ending produces what is called a case. When we decline a noun, we give all its different cases, or changes of endings. In English we have three cases,—nominative, possessive, and objective; but, in nouns, the nominative and objective have the same form, and only the possessive case shows a change of ending, by adding 's or the apostrophe. The interrogative pronoun, however, has the fuller declension, who? whose? whom?

33. The following table shows a comparison between English and Latin declension forms, and should be thoroughly memorized:

English CasesLatin Cases
Declension of who?Name of case and useDeclension of domina and translationName of case and use
S
i
n
g
u
l
a
r
Who?

Nominative—
case of the subject

do´min-a
the lady

Nominative—
case of the subject

Whose?

Possessive—
case of the possessor

domin-ae
the lady's

Genitive—
case of the possessor

Whom?

Objective—
case of the object

domin-am
the lady

Accusative—
case of the direct object

P
l
u
r
a
l
Who?

Nominative—
case of the subject

domin-ae
the ladies

Nominative—
case of the subject

Whose?

Possessive—
case of the possessor

domin-â´rum
the ladies'
of the ladies
Genitive—
case of the possessor
Whom?Objective—
case of the object
domin-âs
the ladies
Accusative—
case of the direct object

When the nominative singular of a noun ends in -a, observe that

a. The nominative plural ends in -ae.

b. The genitive singular ends in -ae and the genitive plural in -ârum.

c. The accusative singular ends in -am and the accusative plural in -âs.

d. The genitive singular and the nominative plural have the same ending.

34. EXERCISE

Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning. Then give the number and case, and the use of each form. Where the same form stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses.

1. Silva, silvâs, silvam. 2. Fugam, fugae, fuga. 3. Terrârum, terrae, terrâs. 4. Aquâs, causam, lûnâs. 5. Fîliae, fortûnae, lûnae. 6. Iniûriâs, agricolârum, aquârum. 7. Iniûriârum, agricolae, puellâs. 8. Nautam, agricolâs, nautâs. 9. Agricolam, puellam, silvârum.

LESSON IV

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

35. We learned from the table (§ 33) that the Latin nominative, genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative, possessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same way. This will be made even clearer by the following sentence:

Fîlia agricolae nautam amat,
the farmer's daughter (or the daughter of the farmer) loves the sailor

What is the subject? the direct object? What case is used for the subject? for the direct object? What word denotes the possessor? In what case is it?

36. Rule. Nominative Subject. The subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative and answers the question Who? or What?

37. Rule. Accusative Object. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom? or What?

38. Rule. Genitive of the Possessor. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers the question Whose?

[Illustration: Diana shoots an arrow at a bear
Caption: DIANA SAGITTAS PORTAT ET FERAS NECAT]

39. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I. 1. Diâna est dea. 2. Lâtôna est dea. 3. Diâna et Lâtôna sunt deae. 4. Diâna est dea lûnae. 5. Diâna est fîlia Lâtônae. 6. Lâtôna Diânam amat. 7. Diâna est dea silvârum. 8. Diâna silvam amat. 9. Diâna sagittâs portat. 10. Diâna ferâs silvae necat. 11. Ferae terrârum pugnant.

For the order of words imitate the Latin above.

II. 1. The daughter of Latona does love the forests. 2. Latona's daughter carries arrows. 3. The farmers' daughters do labor. 4. The farmer's daughter loves the waters of the forest. 5. The sailor is announcing the girls' flight. 6. The girls announce the sailors' wrongs. 7. The farmer's daughter labors. 8. Diana's arrows are killing the wild beasts of the land.

40. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. The answers may be found in the exercises preceding.

1. Quis est Diâna?
2. Cuius fîlia est Diâna?
3. Quis Diânam amat?
4. Quis silvam amat?
5. Quis sagittâs portat?
6. Cuius fîliae labôrant?

LESSON V

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

41. The Dative Case. In addition to the relationships between words expressed by the nominative, genitive (possessive), and accusative (objective) cases, there are other relationships, to express which in English we use such words as from, with, by, to, for, in, at.1

1. Words like to, for, by, from, in, etc., which define the relationship between words, are called prepositions.

Latin, too, makes frequent use of such prepositions; but often it expresses these relations without them by means of case forms which English does not possess. One of the cases found in the Latin declension and lacking in English is called the dative.

42. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the dative singular ends in -ae and the dative plural in -îs.

Note. Observe that the genitive singular, the dative singular, and the nominative plural all have the same ending, -ae; but the uses of the three cases are entirely different. The general meaning of the sentence usually makes clear which case is intended.

a. Form the dative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, causa, fortûna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina.

43. The Dative Relation. The dative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions to, towards, for.

These prepositions are often used in English in expressions of motion, such as She went to town, He ran towards the horse, Columbus sailed for America. In such cases the dative is not used in Latin, as motion through space is foreign to the dative relation. But the dative is used to denote that to or towards which a benefit, injury, purpose, feeling, or quality is directed, or that for which something serves or exists.

a. What dative relations do you discover in the following?

The teacher gave a prize to John because he replied so promptly to all her questions—a good example for the rest of us. It is a pleasure to us to hear him recite. Latin is easy for him, but it is very hard for me. Some are fitted for one thing and others for another.

44. The Indirect Object. Examine the sentence

Nauta fugam nûntiat, the sailor announces the flight

Here the verb, nûntiat, governs the direct object, fugam, in the accusative case. If, however, we wish to mention the persons to whom the sailor announces the flight, as, The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, the verb will have two objects:

1. Its direct object, flight (fugam)
2. Its indirect object, farmers

According to the preceding section, to the farmers is a relation covered by the dative case, and we are prepared for the following rule:

45. Rule. Dative Indirect Object. The indirect object of a verb is in the Dative.

a. The indirect object usually stands before the direct object.

46. We may now complete the translation of the sentence The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, and we have

Nauta agricolîs fugam nûntiat

47. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

Point out the direct and indirect objects and the genitive of the possessor.

I. 1. Quis nautîs pecûniam dat? 2. Fîliae agricolae nautîs pecûniam dant. 3. Quis fortûnam pugnae nûntiat? 4. Galba agricolîs fortunam pugnae nûntiat. 5. Cui domina fâbulam nârrat? 6. Fîliae agricolae domina fâbulam nârrat. 7. Quis Diânae corônam dat? 8. Puella Diânae corônam dat quia Diânam amat. 9. Dea lûnae sagittâs portat et ferâs silvârum necat. 10. Cuius victôriam Galba nûntiat? 11. Nautae victôriam Galba nûntiat.

Imitate the word order of the preceding exercise.

II. 1. To whom do the girls give a wreath? 2. The girls give a wreath to Julia, because Julia loves wreaths. 3. The sailors tell the ladies2 a story, because the ladies love stories. 4. The farmer gives his (§ 22. a) daughter water. 5. Galba announces the cause of the battle to the sailor. 6. The goddess of the moon loves the waters of the forest. 7. Whose wreath is Latona carrying? Diana's.

2. Observe that in English the indirect object often stands without a preposition to to mark it, especially when it precedes the direct object.

LESSON VI

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

48. The Ablative Case. Another case, lacking in English but found in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab´la-tive.

49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular ends in and the ablative plural in -îs.

a. Observe that the final -a of the nominative is short, while the final -â of the ablative is long, as,

Nom. fîlia Abl. fîliâ

b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.

c. Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, causa, fortûna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina.

50. The Ablative Relation. The ablative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions from, with, by, at, in. It denotes

1. That from which something is separated, from which it starts, or of which it is deprived—generally translated by from.

2. That with which something is associated or by means of which it is done—translated by with or by.

3. The place where or the time when something happens—translated by in or at.

a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following?

In our class there are twenty boys and girls. Daily at eight o'clock they come from home with their books, and while they are at school they study Latin with great zeal. In a short time they will be able to read with ease the books written by the Romans. By patience and perseverance all things in this world can be overcome.

51. Prepositions. While, as stated above (§ 41), many relations expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the accusative or ablative.

52. Rule. Object of a Preposition. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the Accusative or Ablative case.

53. Prepositions denoting the ablative relations from, with, in, on, are naturally followed by the ablative case. Among these are

â1 or ab, from, away from
, from, down from
ê1 or ex, from, out from, out of
cum, with
in, in, on

1. â and ê are used only before words beginning with a consonant; ab and ex are used before either vowels or consonants.

1. Translate into Latin, using prepositions. In the water, on the land, down from the forest, with the fortune, out of the forests, from the victory, out of the waters, with the sailors, down from the moon.

54. Adjectives. Examine the sentence

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess

In this sentence parva (little) and bonam (good) are not nouns, but are descriptive words expressing quality. Such words are called adjectives,2 and they are said to belong to the noun which they describe.

2. Pick out the adjectives in the following: "When I was a little boy, I remember that one cold winter's morning I was accosted by a smiling man with an ax on his shoulder. 'My pretty boy,' said he, 'has your father a grindstone?' 'Yes, sir,' said I. 'You are a fine little fellow,' said he. 'Will you let me grind my ax on it?'"

You can tell by its ending to which noun an adjective belongs. The ending of parva shows that it belongs to puella, and the ending of bonam that it belongs to deam. Words that belong together are said to agree, and the belonging-together is called agreement. Observe that the adjective and its noun agree in number and case.

55. Examine the sentences

Puella est parva, the girl is little
Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess

In the first sentence the adjective parva is separated from its noun by the verb and stands in the predicate. It is therefore called a predicate adjective. In the second sentence the adjectives parva and bonam are closely attached to the nouns puella and deam respectively, and are called attributive adjectives.

a. Pick out the attributive and the predicate adjectives in the following:

Do you think Latin is hard? Hard studies make strong brains. Lazy students dislike hard studies. We are not lazy.

56. DIALOGUE

Julia and Galba

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I. Quis, Galba, est Diâna?
G. Diâna, Iûlia, est pulchra dea lûnae et silvârum.
I. Cuius fîlia, Galba, est Diâna?
G. Lâtônae fîlia, Iûlia, est Diâna.
I. Quid Diâna portat?
G. Sagittâs Diâna portat.
I. Cûr Diâna sagittâs portat?
G. Diâna sagittâs portat, Iûlia, quod malâs ferâs silvae magnae necat.
I. Amatne Lâtôna fîliam?
G. Amat, et fîlia Lâtônam amat.
I. Quid fîlia tua parva portat?
G. Corônâs pulchrâs fîlia mea parva portat.
I. Cui fîlia tua corônâs pulchrâs dat?
G. Diânae corônâs dat.
I. Quis est cum fîliâ tuâ? Estne sôla?
G. Sôla nôn est; fîlia mea parva est cum ancillâ meâ.

a. When a person is called or addressed, the case used is called the voc´ative (Latin vocâre, "to call"). In form the vocative is regularly like the nominative. In English the name of the person addressed usually stands first in the sentence. The Latin vocative rarely stands first. Point out five examples of the vocative in this dialogue.

b. Observe that questions answered by yes or no in English are answered in Latin by repeating the verb. Thus, if you wished to answer in Latin the question Is the sailor fighting? Pugnatne nauta? you would say Pugnat, he is fighting, or Nôn pugnat, he is not fighting.

LESSON VII

THE FIRST OR Â-DECLENSION

57. In the preceding lessons we have now gone over all the cases, singular and plural, of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a. All Latin nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a belong to the First Declension. It is also called the Â-Declension because of the prominent part which the vowel a plays in the formation of the cases. We have also learned what relations are expressed by each case. These results are summarized in the following table:

CaseNounTranslationUse and General Meaning of Each Case
Singular
Nom.do´min-athe ladyThe subject
Gen.domin-aeof the lady, or the lady'sThe possessor of something
Dat.domin-aeto or for the ladyExpressing the relation to or for, especially the indirect object
Acc.domin-amthe ladyThe direct object
Abl.dominfrom, with, by, in, the ladySeparation (from), association or means (with, by), place where or time when (in, at)
Plural
Nom.domin-aethe ladiesThe same as the singular
Gen.domin-â´rumof the ladies, or the ladies'
Dat.domin-îsto or for the ladies
Acc.domin-âsthe ladies
Abl.domin-îsfrom, with, by, in, the ladies

58. The Base. That part of a word which remains unchanged in inflection and to which the terminations are added is called the base.

Thus, in the declension above, domin- is the base and -a is the termination of the nominative singular.

59. Write the declension of the following nouns, separating the base from the termination by a hyphen. Also give them orally.

pugna, terra, lûna, ancil´la, corô´na, în´sula, silva

60. Gender. In English, names of living beings are either masculine or feminine, and names of things without life are neuter. This is called natural gender. Yet in English there are some names of things to which we refer as if they were feminine; as, "Have you seen my yacht? She is a beauty." And there are some names of living beings to which we refer as if they were neuter; as, "Is the baby here? No, the nurse has taken it home." Some words, then, have a gender quite apart from sex or real gender, and this is called grammatical gender.

Latin, like English, has three genders. Names of males are usually masculine and of females feminine, but names of things have grammatical gender and may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. Thus we have in Latin the three words, lapis, a stone; rûpês, a cliff; and saxum, a rock. Lapis is masculine, rûpês feminine, and saxum neuter. The gender can usually be determined by the ending of the word, and must always be learned, for without knowing the gender it is impossible to write correct Latin.

61. Gender of First-Declension Nouns. Nouns of the first declension are feminine unless they denote males. Thus silva is feminine, but nauta, sailor, and agricola, farmer, are masculine.

62. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

I. 1. Agricola cum fîliâ in casâ habitat. 2. Bona fîlia agricolae cênam parat. 3. Cêna est grâta agricolae1 et agricola bonam fîliam laudat. 4. Deinde fîlia agricolae gallînâs ad cênam vocat. 5. Gallînae fîliam agricolae amant. 6. Malae fîliae bonâs cênâs nôn parant. 7. Fîlia agricolae est grâta dominae. 8. Domina in însulâ magnâ habitat. 9. Domina bonae puellae parvae pecûniam dat.

II. 1. Where does the farmer live? 2. The farmer lives in the small cottage. 3. Who lives with the farmer? 4. (His) little daughter lives with the farmer. 5. (His) daughter is getting (parat) a good dinner for the farmer. 6. The farmer praises the good dinner. 7. The daughter's good dinner is pleasing to the farmer.

1. Note that the relation expressed by the dative case covers that to which a feeling is directed. (Cf. § 43.)

[Illustration: In front of a farmhouse: daughter feeding chickens, father holding a bowl, mother standing"]

What Latin words are suggested by this picture?

63. CONVERSATION

Answer the questions in Latin.

1. Quis cum agricolâ in casâ habitat?
2. Quid bona fîlia agricolae parat?
3. Quem agricola laudat?
4. Vocatne fîlia agricolae gallînâs ad cênam?
5. Cuius fîlia est grâta dominae?
6. Cui domina pecûniam dat?

LESSON VIII

FIRST DECLENSION (Continued)

64. We have for some time now been using adjectives and nouns together and you have noticed an agreement between them in case and in number (§ 54). They agree also in gender. In the phrase silva magna, we have a feminine adjective in -a agreeing with a feminine noun in -a.

65. Rule. Agreement of Adjectives. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.

66. Feminine adjectives in -a are declined like feminine nouns in -a, and you should learn to decline them together as follows:

NounAdjective
domina (base domin-), f., ladybona (base bon-), good
SingularTerminations
Nom.do´minabona-a
Gen.dominaebonae-ae
Dat.dominaebonae-ae
Acc.dominambonam-am
Abl.dominâbonâ
PluralTerminations
Nom.dominaebonae-ae
Gen.dominâ´rumbonâ´rum-ârum
Dat.dominîsbonîs-îs
Acc.dominâsbonâs-âs
Abl.dominîsbonîs-îs

a. In the same way decline together puella mala, the bad girl; ancil´la parva, the little maid; fortû´na magna, great fortune.

67. The words dea, goddess, and fîlia, daughter, take the ending -âbus instead of -îs in the dative and ablative plural. Note the dative and ablative plural in the following declension:

dea bona (bases de- bon-)
SingularPlural
Nom.dea bonadeae bonae
Gen.deae bonaedeâ´rum bonâ´rum
Dat.deae bonaedeâ´bus bonîs
Acc.deam bonamdeâs bonâs
Abl.deâ bonâdea´bus bonîs

a. In the same way decline together fîlîa parva.

68. Latin Word Order. The order of words in English and in Latin sentences is not the same.

In English we arrange words in a fairly fixed order. Thus, in the sentence My daughter is getting dinner for the farmers, we cannot alter the order of the words without spoiling the sentence. We can, however, throw emphasis on different words by speaking them with more force. Try the effect of reading the sentence by putting special force on my, daughter, dinner, farmers.

In Latin, where the office of the word in the sentence is shown by its ending (cf. § 32. 1), and not by its position, the order of words is more free, and position is used to secure the same effect that in English is secured by emphasis of voice. To a limited extent we can alter the order of words in English, too, for the same purpose. Compare the sentences

I saw a game of football at Chicago last November (normal order)
Last November I saw a game of football at Chicago
At Chicago, last November, I saw a game of football

1. In a Latin sentence the most emphatic place is the first; next in importance is the last; the weakest point is the middle. Generally the subject is the most important word, and is placed first; usually the verb is the next in importance, and is placed last. The other words of the sentence stand between these two in the order of their importance. Hence the normal order of words—that is, where no unusual emphasis is expressed—is as follows:

subjectmodifiers of the subjectindirect objectdirect objectadverbverb

Changes from the normal order are frequent, and are due to the desire for throwing emphasis upon some word or phrase. Notice the order of the Latin words when you are translating, and imitate it when you are turning English into Latin.

2. Possessive pronouns and modifying genitives normally stand after their nouns. When placed before their nouns they are emphatic, as fîlia mea, my daughter; mea fîlia, my daughter; casa Galbae, Galba's cottage; Galbae casa, Galba's cottage.

Notice the variety of emphasis produced by writing the following sentence in different ways:

Fîlia mea agricolîs cênam parat (normal order)
Mea fîlia agricolîs parat cênam (mea and cênam emphatic)
Agricolîs fîlia mea cênam parat (agricolîs emphatic)

3. An adjective placed before its noun is more emphatic than when it follows. When great emphasis is desired, the adjective is separated from its noun by other words.

Fîlia mea casam parvam nôn amat (parvam not emphatic)
Fîlia mea parvam casam nôn amat (parvam more emphatic)
Parvam fîlia mea casam nôn amat (parvam very emphatic)

4. Interrogative words usually stand first, the same as in English.

5. The copula (as est, sunt) is of so little importance that it frequently does not stand last, but may be placed wherever it sounds well.

69. EXERCISE

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

Note the order of the words in these sentences and pick out those that are emphatic.

1. Longae nôn sunt tuae viae. 2. Suntne tubae novae in meâ casâ? Nôn sunt. 3. Quis lâtâ in silvâ habitat? Diâna, lûnae clârae pulchra dea, lâtâ in silvâ habitat. 4. Nautae altâs et lâtâs amant aquâs. 5. Quid ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat. 6. Ubi sunt Lesbia et Iûlia? In tuâ casa est Lesbia et Iûlia est in meâ. 7. Estne Italia lâta terra? Longa est Italia, nôn lâta. 8. Cui Galba agricola fâbulam novam nârrat? Fîliâbus dominae clârae fâbulam novam nârrat. 9. Clâra est însula Sicilia. 10. Quem laudat Lâtôna? Lâtôna laudat fîliam.


First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, §§ 502-505


LESSON IX

THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION

70. Latin nouns are divided into five declensions.

The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of the genitive singular. This should always be learned along with the nominative and the gender.

71. The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or O-Declension ends in -us, -er, -ir, or -um. The genitive singular ends in .

72. Gender. Nouns in -um are neuter. The others are regularly masculine.

73. Declension of nouns in -us and -um. Masculines in -us and neuters in -um are declined as follows:

dominus (base domin-), m., masterpîlum (base pîl-), n., spear
Singular
TerminationsTerminations
Nom.do´minus1-uspîlum-um
Gen.dominîpîlî
Dat.dominôpîlô
Acc.dominum-umpîlum-um
Abl.dominôpîlô
Voc.domine-epîlum-um
Plural
Nom.dominîpîla-a
Gen.dominô´rum-ôrumpîlô´rum-ôrum
Dat.dominîs-îspîlîs-îs
Acc.dominôs-ôspîla-a
Abl.dominîs-îspîlîs-îs
1. Compare the declension of domina and of dominus.

a. Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same terminations excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural.

b. The vocative singular of words of the second declension in -us ends in -e, as domine, O master; serve, O slave. This is the most important exception to the rule in § 56. a.

74. Write side by side the declension of domina, dominus, and pîlum. A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five declensions:

a. The vocative, with a single exception (see § 73. b), is like the nominative. That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative plural.

b. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are alike, and in the plural end in -a.

c. The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in -m and the accusative plural in -s.

d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike.

e. Final -i and -o are always long; final -a is short, except in the ablative singular of the first declension.

75. Observe the sentences

Lesbia est bona, Lesbia is good
Lesbia est ancilla, Lesbia is a maidservant

We have learned (§ 55) that bona, when used, as here, in the predicate to describe the subject, is called a predicate adjective. Similarly a noun, as ancilla, used in the predicate to define the subject is called a predicate noun.

76. Rule. Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.

[Illustration: spears
Caption: PILA]

77. DIALOGUE

[Illustration: officer with spear and trumpet
Caption: LEGATUS CUM PILO ET TUBA

Galba and Marcus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

G. Quis, Mârce, est lêgâtus cum pîlô et tubâ?
M. Lêgâtus, Galba, est Sextus.
G. Ubi Sextus habitat?2
M. In oppidô Sextus cum fîliâbus habitat.
G. Amantne oppidânî Sextum?
M. Amant oppidânî Sextum et laudant, quod magnâ cum cônstantiâ pugnat.
G. Ubi, Mârce, est ancilla tua? Cûr nôn cênam parat?
M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equô lêgâtî aquam et frûmentum dat.
G. Cûr nôn servus Sextî equum dominî cûrat?
M. Sextus et servus ad mûrum oppidî properant. Oppidânî bellum parant.3

2. habitat is here translated does live. Note the three possible translations of the Latin present tense:
habitat he lives
he is living
he does live
Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.
3. Observe that the verb parô means not only to prepare but also to prepare for, and governs the accusative case.

78. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.

1. Ubi fîliae Sextî habitant?
2. Quem oppidânî amant et laudant?
3. Quid ancilla equô lêgâtî dat?
4. Cuius equum ancilla cûrat?
5. Quis ad mûrum cum Sextô properat?
6. Quid oppidânî parant?

LESSON X

SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)

79. We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like bona, in agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined like them. Masculine adjectives of this class are declined like dominus, and neuters like pîlum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, are therefore declined as follows:

Masculine Noun and AdjectiveNeuter Noun and Adjective
dominus bonus, the good masterpîlum bonum, the good spear
Bases domin- bon-Bases pîl- bon-
Singular
TerminationsTerminations
Nom.do´minus bonus-uspîlum bonum-um
Gen.dominî bonîpîlî bonî
Dat.dominô bonôpîlô bonô
Acc.dominum bonum-umpîlum bonum-um
Abl.dominô bonôpîlô bonô
Voc.domine bone-epîlum bonum-um
Plural
Nom.dominî bonîpîla bona-a
Gen.dominô´rum bonô´rum-ôrumpîlô´rum bonô´rum-ôrum
Dat.dominîs bonîs-ispîlîs bonîs-îs
Acc.dominôs bonôs-ôspîla bona-a
Abl.dominîs bonîs-îspîlîs bonîs-îs

Decline together bellum longum, equus parvus, servus malus, mûrus altus, frûmentum novum.

80. Observe the sentences

Lesbia ancilla est bona, Lesbia, the maidservant, is good
Fîlia Lesbiae ancillae est bona, the daughter of Lesbia, the maidservant, is good
Servus Lesbiam ancillam amat, the slave loves Lesbia, the maidservant

In these sentences ancilla, ancillae, and ancillam denote the class of persons to which Lesbia belongs and explain who she is. Nouns so related that the second is only another name for the first and explains it are said to be in apposition, and are always in the same case.

81. Rule. Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.

82. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Patria servî bonî, vîcus servôrum bonôrum, bone popule. 2. Populus oppidî magnî, in oppidô magnô, in oppidîs magnîs. 3. Cum pîlîs longîs, ad pîla longa, ad mûrôs lâtôs. 4. Lêgâte male, amîcî legâtî malî, cêna grâta dominô bonô. 5. Frûmentum equôrum parvôrum, domine bone, ad lêgâtôs clârôs. 6. Rhênus est in Germâniâ, patriâ meâ. 7. Sextus lêgâtus pîlum longum portat. 8. Oppidânî bonî Sextô lêgâtô clârâ pecûniam dant. 9. Malî servî equum bonum Mârcî dominî necant. 10. Galba agricola et Iûlia fîlia bona labôrant. 11. Mârcus nauta in însulâ Siciliâ habitat.

II. 1. Wicked slave, who is your friend? Why does he not praise Galba, your master? 2. My friend is from (ex) a village of Germany, my fatherland. 3. My friend does not love the people of Italy. 4. Who is caring for1 the good horse of Galba, the farmer? 5. Mark, where is Lesbia, the maidservant? 6. She is hastening1 to the little cottage2 of Julia, the farmer's daughter.

1. See footnote 1, p. 33. Remember that cûrat is transitive and governs a direct object.
2. Not the dative. (Cf. § 43.)

LESSON XI

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

83. Adjectives of the first and second declensions are declined in the three genders as follows:

Singular
MASCULINEFEMININENEUTER
Nom.bonusbonabonum
Gen.bonîbonaebonî
Dat.bonôbonaebonô
Acc.bonumbonambonum
Abl.bonôbonâbonô
Voc.bonebonabonum
Plural
Nom.bonîbonaebona
Gen.bonôrumbonârumbonôrum
Dat.bonîsbonîsbonîs
Acc.bonôsbonâsbona
Abl.bonîsbonîsbonîs

a. Write the declension and give it orally across the page, thus giving the three genders for each case.

b. Decline grâtus, -a, -um; malus, -a, -um; altus, -a, -um; parvus, -a, -um.

84. Thus far the adjectives have had the same terminations as the nouns. However, the agreement between the adjective and its noun does not mean that they must have the same termination. If the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, the terminations will, in many cases, not be the same. For example, nauta, sailor, is masculine and belongs to the first declension. The masculine form of the adjective bonus is of the second declension. Consequently, a good sailor is nauta bonus. So, the wicked farmer is agricola malus. Learn the following declensions:

85. nauta bonus (bases naut- bon-), m., the good sailor

SingularPlural
Nom.nautabonusnautaebonî
Gen.nautaebonînautârumbonôrum
Dat.nautaebonônautîsbonîs
Acc.nautambonumnautâsbonôs
Abl.nautâbonônautîsbonîs
Voc.nautabonenautaebonî

86. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Est1 in vîcô nauta bonus. 2. Sextus est amîcus nautae bonî. 3. Sextus nautae bonô galeam dat. 4. Populus Rômânus nautam bonum laudat. 5. Sextus cum nautâ bonô praedam portat. 6. Ubi, nauta bone, sunt anna et têla lêgâtî Rômânî? 7. Nautae bonî ad bellum properant. 8. Fâma nautârum bonôrum est clâra. 9. Pugnae sunt grâtae nautîs bonîs. 10. Oppidânî nautâs bonôs cûrant. 11. Cûr, nautae bonî, malî agricolae ad Rhênum properant? 12. Malî agricolae cum bonîs nautîs pugnant.

II. 1. The wicked farmer is hastening to the village with (his) booty. 2. The reputation of the wicked farmer is not good. 3. Why does Galba's daughter give arms and weapons to the wicked farmer? 4. Lesbia invites the good sailor to dinner. 5. Why is Lesbia with the good sailor hastening from the cottage? 6. Sextus, where is my helmet? 7. The good sailors are hastening to the toilsome battle. 8. The horses of the wicked farmers are small. 9. The Roman people give money to the good sailors. 10. Friends care for the good sailors. 11. Whose friends are fighting with the wicked farmers?

1. Est, beginning a declarative sentence, there is.

[Illustration: helmets
Caption: GALEAE]

LESSON XII

NOUNS IN -IUS AND -IUM

87. Nouns of the second declension in -ius and -ium end in in the genitive singular, not in -iî, and the accent rests on the penult; as, fîlî from fîlius (son), praesi´dî from praesi´dium (garrison).

88. Proper names of persons in -ius, and fîlius, end in in the vocative singular, not in -e, and the accent rests on the penult; as, Vergi´lî, O Vergil; fîlî, O son.

a. Observe that in these words the vocative and the genitive are alike.

89. praesidium (base praesidi-), n., garrison fîlius (base fîli-), m., son

Singular
Nom.praesidiumfîlius
Gen.praesi´dîfîlî
Dat.praesidiôfîliô
Acc.praesidiumfîlium
Abl.praesidiôfîliô
Voc.praesidiumfîlî

The plural is regular. Note that the -i- of the base is lost only in the genitive singular, and in the vocative of words like fîlius.

Decline together praesidium parvum; fîlius bonus; fluvius longus, the long river; proelium clârum, the famous battle.

90. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Frûmentum bonae terrae, gladî malî, bellî longî. 2. Cônstantia magna, praesidia magna, clâre Vergi´lî. 3. Male serve, Ô clârum oppidum, male fîlî, fîliî malî, fîlî malî. 4. Fluvî longî, fluviî longî, fluviôrum longôrum, fâma praesi´dî magnî. 5. Cum gladiîs parvîs, cum deâbus clârîs, ad nautâs clârôs. 6. Multôrum proeliôrum, praedae magnae, ad proelia dûra.

Germânia

II. Germânia, patria Germânôrum, est clâra terra. In Germâniâ sunt fluviî multî. Rhênus magnus et lâtus fluvius Germâniae est. In silvîs lâtîs Germâniae sunt ferae multae. Multi Germânii in oppidîs magnis et in vîcîs parvîs habitant et multî sunt agricolae bonî. Bella Germânôrum sunt magna et clâra. Populus Germâniae bellum et proelia amat et saepe cum finitimîs pugnat. Fluvius Rhênus est fînitimus oppidîs1 multîs et clârîs.

1. Dative with fînitimus. (See § 43.)

LESSON XIII

SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)

91. Declension of Nouns in -er and -ir. In early Latin all the masculine nouns of the second declension ended in -os. This -os later became -us in words like servus, and was dropped entirely in words with bases ending in -r, like puer, boy; ager, field; and vir, man. These words are therefore declined as follows:

92. puer, m., boy ager, m., field vir, m., man

Base puer-Base agr-Base vir-
SingularTerminations
Nom.pueragervir——
Gen.puerîagrîvirî
Dat.puerôagrôvirô
Acc.puerumagrumvirum-um
Abl.puerôagrôvirô
Plural
Nom.puerîagrîvirî
Gen.puerôrumagrôrumvirôrum-ôrum
Dat.puerîsagrîsvirîs-îs
Acc.puerôsagrôsvirôs-ôs
Abl.puerîsagrîsvirîs-îs

a. The vocative case of these words is like the nominative, following the general rule (§ 74. a).

b. The declension differs from that of servus only in the nominative and vocative singular.

c. Note that in puer the e remains all the way through, while in ager it is present only in the nominative. In puer the e belongs to the base, but in ager (base agr-) it does not, and was inserted in the nominative to make it easier to pronounce. Most words in -er are declined like ager. The genitive shows whether you are to follow puer or ager.

93. Masculine adjectives in -er of the second declension are declined like nouns in -er. A few of them are declined like puer, but most of them like ager. The feminine and neuter nominatives show which form to follow, thus,

Masc.Fem.Neut.
lîberlîberalîberum(free)is like puer
pulcherpulchrapulchrum(pretty)is like ager

For the full declension in the three genders, see § 469. b. c.

94. Decline together the words vir lîber, terra lîbera, frûmentum lîberum, puer pulcher, puella pulchra, oppidum pulchrum

95. Italia1

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

Magna est Italiae fâma, patriae Rômânôrum, et clâra est Rôma, domina orbis terrârum.2 Tiberim,3 fluvium Rômânum, quis nôn laudat et pulchrôs fluviô fînitimôs agrôs? Altôs mûrôs, longa et dûra bella, clârâs victôriâs quis nôn laudat? Pulchra est terra Italia. Agrî bonî agricolîs praemia dant magna, et equî agricolârum côpiam frûmentî ad oppida et vîcôs portant. In agrîs populî Rômânî labôrant multî servî. Viae Italiae sunt longae et lâtae. Fînitima Italiae est însula Sicilia.

1. In this selection note especially the emphasis as shown by the order of the words.
2. orbis terrârum, of the world.
3. Tiberim, the Tiber, accusative case.

96. DIALOGUE

Marcus and Cornelius

[Illustration: legionary
Caption: LEGIONARIUS]

C. Ubi est, Mârce, fîlius tuus? Estne in pulchrâ terrâ Italiâ?
M. Nôn est, Cornêlî, in Italiâ. Ad fluvium Rhênum properat cum côpiîs Rômânîs quia est4 fâma Novî bellî cum Germânîs. Lîber Germâniae populus Rômânôs Nôn amat.
C. Estne fîlius tuus copiârum Rômânârum lêgâtus?
M. Lêgâtus nôn est, sed est apud legiônâriôs.
C. Quae5 arma portat6?
M. Scûtum magnum et lôrîcam dûram et galeam pulchram portat.
C. Quae têla portat?
M. Gladium et pîlum longum portat.
C. Amatne lêgâtus fîlium tuum?
M. Amat, et saepe fîliô meô praemia pulchra et praedam multam dat.
C. Ubi est terra Germânôrum?
M. Terra Germânôrum, Cornêlî est fînitima Rhênô, fluviô magnô et altô.

4. est, before its subject, there is; so sunt, there are.
5. Quae, what kind of, an interrogative adjective pronoun.
6. What are the three possible translations of the present tense?

LESSON XIV

THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

97. Observe the sentences

This is my shield
This shield is mine

In the first sentence my is a possessive adjective; in the second mine is a possessive pronoun, for it takes the place of a noun, this shield is mine being equivalent to this shield is my shield. Similarly, in Latin the possessives are sometimes adjectives and sometimes pronouns.

98. The possessives my, mine, your, yours, etc. are declined like adjectives of the first and second declensions.

Singular
1st Pers.meus, mea, meummy, mine
2d Pers.tuus, tua, tuumyour, yours
3d Pers.suus, sua, suumhis (own), her (own), its (own)
Plural
1st Pers.noster, nostra, nostrumour, ours
2d Pers.vester, vestra, vestrumyour, yours
3d Pers.suus, sua, suumtheir (own), theirs

Note. Meus has the irregular vocative singular masculine , as mî fîlî, O my son.

a. The possessives agree with the name of the thing possessed in gender, number, and case. Compare the English and Latin in

Sextus is calling his boy
Julia is calling her boy
Sextus
Iûlia
suum puerum vocat

Observe that suum agrees with puerum, and is unaffected by the gender of Sextus or Julia.

b. When your, yours, refers to one person, use tuus; when to more than one, vester; as,

Lesbia, your wreaths are pretty
Girls, your wreaths are pretty
Corônae tuae, Lesbia, sunt pulchrae
Corônae vestrae, puellae, sunt pulchrae

c. Suus is a reflexive possessive, that is, it usually stands in the predicate and regularly refers back to the subject. Thus, Vir suôs servôs vocat means The man calls his (own) slaves. Here his (suôs) refers to man (vir), and could not refer to any one else.

d. Possessives are used much less frequently than in English, being omitted whenever the meaning is clear without them. (Cf. § 22. a.) This is especially true of suus, -a, -um, which, when inserted, is more or less emphatic, like our his own, her own, etc.

99. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. 1. Mârcus amîcô Sextô cônsilium suum nûntiat 2. Est côpia frûmentî in agrîs nostrîs. 3. Amîcî meî bonam cênam ancillae vestrae laudant 4. Tua lôrîca, mî fîlî, est dûra. 5. Scûta nostra et têla, mî amîce, in castrls Rômânîs sunt. 6. Suntne virî patriae tuae lîberî? Sunt. 7. Ubi, Cornêlî, est tua galea pulchra? 8. Mea galea, Sexte, est in casâ meâ. 9. Pîlum longum est tuum, sed gladius est meus. 10. Iûlia gallînâs suâs pulchrâs amat et gallînae dominam suam amant. 11. Nostra castra sunt vestra. 12. Est côpia praedae in castrîs vestrîs. 13. Amîcî tuî miserîs et aegrîs cibum et pecûniam saepe dant.

II. 1. Our teacher praises Mark's industry. 2. My son Sextus is carrying his booty to the Roman camp.1 3. Your good girls are giving aid to the sick and wretched.2 4. There are 3 frequent battles in our villages. 5. My son, where is the lieutenant's food? 6. The camp is mine, but the weapons are yours.

1. Not the dative. Why?
2. Here the adjectives sick and wretched are used like nouns.
3. Where should sunt stand? Cf. I. 2 above.

[Illustration: a farmer plowing with oxen
Caption: AGRICOLA ARAT]

LESSON XV

THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH

100. Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (§ 50) there is none more important than that expressed in English by the preposition with. This little word is not so simple as it looks. It does not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be translated by cum. This will become clear from the following sentences:

a. Mark is feeble with (for or because of) want of food
b. Diana kills the beasts with (or by) her arrows
c. Julia is with Sextus
d. The men fight with great steadiness

a. In sentence a, with want (of food) gives the cause of Mark's feebleness. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of cause:

Mârcus est înfîrmus inopiâ cibî

b. In sentence b, with (or by) her arrows tells by means of what Diana kills the beasts. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of means:

Diâna sagittîs suîs ferâs necat

c. In sentence c we are told that Julia is not alone, but in company with Sextus. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative with the preposition cum, and the construction is called the ablative of accompaniment:

Iûlia est cum Sextô

d. In sentence d we are told how the men fight. The idea is one of manner. This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with cum, unless there is a modifying adjective present, in which case cum may be omitted. This construction is called the ablative of manner:

Virî (cum) cônstantiâ magnâ pugnant

101. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative denoting with:

102. Rule. Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what?

103. Rule. Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? With what?

N.B. Cum must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or means.

104. Rule. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom?

105. Rule. Ablative of Manner. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? In what manner?

106. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following passage, and what question does each answer?

The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din, attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the stream was swollen with (or by) the rain. Because of this many were swept away by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue, with great difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore.

107. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. The Romans prepare for War. Rômânî, clârus Italiae populus, bellum parant. Ex agrîs suîs, vicîs, oppidîsque magnô studiô virî validî ad arma properant. Iam lêgatî cum legiônariîs ex Italiâ ad Rhênum, fluvium Germâniae altum et lâtum, properant, et servî equîs et carrîs cibum frûmentumque ad castra Rômâna portant. Inopiâ bonôrum têlôrum înfirmî sunt Germânî, sed Rômânî armâti galeîs, lôrîcîs, scûtîs, gladiîs, pîlîsque sunt validî.

II. 1. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great diligence. 2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting with the Germans. 3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long spears. 4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus? Lesbia is with my friends in Galba's cottage. 5. Many are sick because of bad water and for lack of food. 6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, are hastening with horses and wagons.

LESSON XVI

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and dative singular of all genders:

Masc.Fem.Neut.
Gen.-îus-îus-îus
Dat.

Otherwise they are declined like bonus, -a, -um. Learn the list and the meaning of each:

alius, alia, aliud, other, another (of several)
alter, altera, alterum, the one, the other (of two)
ûnus, -a, -um, one, alone; (in the plural) only
ûllus, -a, -um, any
nûllus, -a, -um, none, no
sôlus, -a, -um, alone
tôtus, -a, -um, all, whole, entire
uter, utra, utrum, which? (of two)
neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither (of two)

109. PARADIGMS

Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.nûllusnûllanûllumaliusaliaaliud
Gen.nûllî´usnûllî´usnûllî´usalî´usalî´usalî´us
Dat.nûllînûllînûllîaliîaliîaliî
Acc.nûllumnûllamnûllumaliumaliamaliud
Abl.nûllônûllânûllôaliôaliâaliô
The Plural is Regular

a. Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in -d of alius. The genitive alîus is rare. Instead of it use alterîus, the genitive of alter.

b. These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of pronouns (see § 114). For this reason these adjectives are sometimes called the pronominal adjectives.

110. Learn the following idioms:

alter, -era, -erum ... alter, -era, -erum, the one ... the other (of two)
alius, -a, -ud ... alius, -a, -ud, one ... another (of any number)
aliî, -ae, -a ... aliî, -ae, -a, some ... others

EXAMPLES

1. Alterum oppidum est magnum, alterum parvum, the one town is large, the other small (of two towns).

2. Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud înfîrmum, one town is strong, another weak (of towns in general).

3. Aliî gladiôs, aliî scûta portant, some carry swords, others shields.

111. EXERCISES

I. 1. In utrâ casâ est Iûlia? Iûlia est in neutrâ casâ. 2. Nûllî malô puerô praemium dat magister. 3. Alter puer est nauta, alter agricola. 4. Aliî virî aquam, aliî terram amant. 5. Galba ûnus (or sôlus) cum studiô labôrat. 6. Estne ûllus carrus in agrô meô? 7. Lesbia est ancilla alterîus dominî, Tullia alterîus. 8. Lesbia sôla cênam parat. 9. Cêna nûllîus alterîus ancillae est bona. 10. Lesbia nûllî aliî virô cênam dat.

Note. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before and not after their nouns.

II. 1. The men of all Germany are preparing for war. 2. Some towns are great and others are small. 3. One boy likes chickens, another horses. 4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort. 5. Our whole village is suffering for (i.e. weak because of) lack of food. 6. The people are already hastening to the other town. 7. Among the Romans (there) is no lack of grain.

LESSON XVII

THE DEMONSTRATIVE IS, EA, ID

112. A demonstrative is a word that points out an object definitely, as this, that, these, those. Sometimes these words are pronouns, as, Do you hear these? and sometimes adjectives, as, Do you hear these men? In the former case they are called demonstrative pronouns, in the latter demonstrative adjectives.

113. Demonstratives are similarly used in Latin both as pronouns and as adjectives. The one used most is

is, masculine; ea, feminine; id, neuter

Singularthis
that
Pluralthese
those

114. Is is declined as follows. Compare its declension with that of alius, § 109.

Base e-
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.iseaideî (or iî)eaeea
Gen.eiuseiuseiuseôrumeârumeôrum
Dat.eîs (or iîs)eîs (or iîs)eîs (or iîs)
Acc.eumeamideôseâsea
Abl.eîs (or iîs)eîs (or iîs)eîs (or iîs)

Note that the base e- changes to i- in a few cases. The genitive singular eius is pronounced eh´yus. In the plural the forms with two i's are preferred and the two i's are pronounced as one. Hence, pronounce as î and iîs as îs.

115. Besides being used as demonstrative pronouns and adjectives the Latin demonstratives are regularly used for the personal pronoun he, she, it. As a personal pronoun, then, is would have the following meanings:

Sing. Nom.is, he; ea, she; id, it
Gen.eius, of him or his; eius, of her, her, or hers; eius, of it or its
Dat., to or for him; , to or for her; , to or for it
Acc.eum, him; eam, her; id, it
Abl., with, from, etc., him; , with, from, etc., her; , with, from, etc., it
Plur. Nom. or , eae, ea, they
Gen.eôrum, eârum, eôrum, of them, their
Dat.eîs or iîs, eîs or iîs, eîs or iîs, to or for them
Acc.eôs, eâs, ea, them
Abl.eîs or iîs, eîs or iîs, eîs or iîs, with, from, etc., them

116. Comparison between suus and is. We learned above (§ 98. c) that suus is a reflexive possessive. When his, her (poss.), its, their, do not refer to the subject of the sentence, we express his, her, its by eius, the genitive singular of is, ea, id; and their by the genitive plural, using eôrum to refer to a masculine or neuter antecedent noun and eârum to refer to a feminine one.

EXAMPLES

Galba calls his (own) son, Galba suum fîlium vocat
Galba calls his son (not his own, but another's), Galba eius fîlium vocat
Julia calls her (own) children, Iûlia suôs lîberôs vocat
Julia calls her children (not her own, but another's), Iûlia eius lîberôs vocat
The men praise their (own) boys, virî suôs puerôs laudant
The men praise their boys (not their own, but others'), virî eôrum puerôs laudant

117. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

1. He praises her, him, it, them. 2. This cart, that report, these teachers, those women, that abode, these abodes. 3. That strong garrison, among those weak and sick women, that want of firmness, those frequent plans.

4. The other woman is calling her chickens (her own). 5. Another woman is calling her chickens (not her own). 6. The Gaul praises his arms (his own). 7. The Gaul praises his arms (not his own). 8. This farmer often plows their fields. 9. Those wretched slaves long for their master (their own). 10. Those wretched slaves long for their master (not their own). 11. Free men love their own fatherland. 12. They love its villages and towns.

118. DIALOGUE1

Cornelius and Marcus

M. Quis est vir, Cornêlî, cum puerô parvô? Estne Rômânus et lîber?
C. Rômânus nôn est, Mârce. Is vir est servus et eius domicilium est in silvîs Galliae.
M. Estne puer fîlius eius servî an alterîus?
C. Neutrîus fîlius est puer. Is est fîlius lêgâtî Sextî.
M. Quô puer cum eô servô properat?
C. Is cum servô properat ad lâtôs Sextî agrôs.2 Tôtum frûmentum est iam mâtûrum et magnus servôrum numerus in Italiae3 agrîs labôrat.
M. Agricolaene sunt Gallî et patriae suae agrôs arant?
C. Nôn agricolae sunt. Bellum amant Gallî, nôn agrî cultûram. Apud eôs virî pugnant et fêminae auxiliô lîberôrum agrôs arant parantque cibum.
M. Magister noster puerîs puellîsque grâtâs Gallôrum fâbulâs saepe nârrat et laudat eôs saepe.
C. Mala est fortûna eôrum et saepe miserî servî multîs cum lacrimîs patriam suam dêsîderant.

1. There are a number of departures from the normal order in this dialogue. Find them, and give the reason.
2. When a noun is modified by both a genitive and an adjective, a favorite order of words is adjective, genitive, noun.
3. A modifying genitive often stands between a preposition and its object.

Second Review, Lessons IX-XVII, §§ 506-509


LESSON XVIII

CONJUGATION: THE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE TENSES OF SUM

119. The inflection of a verb is called its conjugation (cf. § 23). In English the verb has but few changes in form, the different meanings being expressed by the use of personal pronouns and auxiliaries, as, I am carried, we have carried, they shall have carried, etc. In Latin, on the other hand, instead of using personal pronouns and auxiliary verbs, the form changes with the meaning. In this way the Romans expressed differences in tense, mood, voice, person, and number.

120. The Tenses. The different forms of a verb referring to different times are called its tenses. The chief distinctions of time are present, past, and future:

1. The present, that is, what is happening now, or what usually happens, is expressed by the Present Tense
2. The past, that is, what was happening, used to happen, happened, has happened, or had happened, is expressed by the Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect Tenses
3. The future, that is, what is going to happen, is expressed by the Future and Future Perfect Tenses

121. The Moods. Verbs have inflection of mood to indicate the manner in which they express action. The moods of the Latin verb are the indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive.

a. A verb is in the indicative mood when it makes a statement or asks a question about something assumed as a fact. All the verbs we have used thus far are in the present indicative.

122. The Persons. There are three persons, as in English. The first person is the person speaking (I sing); the second person the person spoken to (you sing); the third person the person spoken of (he sings). Instead of using personal pronouns for the different persons in the two numbers, singular and plural, the Latin verb uses the personal endings (cf. § 22 a; 29). We have already learned that -t is the ending of the third person singular in the active voice and -nt of the third person plural. The complete list of personal endings of the active voice is as follows:

SingularPlural
1st Pers.I-m or we-mus
2d Pers.thou or you-syou-tis
3d Pers.he, she, it-tthey-nt

123. Most verbs form their moods and tenses after a regular plan and are called regular verbs. Verbs that depart from this plan are called irregular. The verb to be is irregular in Latin as in English. The present, imperfect, and future tenses of the indicative are inflected as follows:

Present Indicative
SINGULARPLURAL
1st Pers.su-m, I amsu-mus, we are
2d Pers.e-s, you1 arees-tis, you1 are
3d Pers.es-t, he, she, or it issu-nt, they are
Imperfect Indicative
1st Pers.er-a-m, I waser-â´-mus, we were
2d Pers.er-â-s, you wereer-â´-tis, you were
3d Pers.er-a-t, he, she, or it waser-â-nt, they were
Future Indicative
1st Pers.er-ô, I shall beer´-i-mus, we shall be
2d Pers.er-i-s, you will beer´-i-tis, you will be
3d Pers.er-i-t, he will beer-u-nt, they will be

a. Be careful about vowel quantity and accent in these forms, and consult §§ 12.2; 14; 15.

1. Observe that in English you are, you were, etc. may be either singular or plural. In Latin the singular and plural forms are never the same.

124. DIALOGUE

The Boys Sextus and Marcus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

S. Ubi es, Mârce? Ubi est Quîntus? Ubi estis, amîcî?
M. Cum Quîntô, Sexte, in silvâ sum. Nôn sôlî sumus; sunt in silvâ multî aliî puerî.
S. Nunc laetus es, sed nûper nôn laetus erâs. Cûr miser erâs?
M. Miser eram quia amîcî meî erant in aliô vicô et eram sôlus. Nunc sum apud sociôs meôs. Nunc laetî sumus et erimus.
S. Erâtisne in lûdo hodiê?
M. Hodiê nôn erâmus in lûdô, quod magister erat aeger.
S. Eritisne mox in lûdô?
M. Amîcî meî ibi erunt, sed ego (I) nôn erô.
S. Cûr nôn ibi eris? Magister, saepe irâtus, inopiam tuam studî dîligentiaeque nôn laudat.
M. Nûper aeger eram et nunc înfîrmus sum.

125. EXERCISE

1. You are, you were, you will be, (sing. and plur.). 2. I am, I was, I shall be. 3. He is, he was, he will be. 4. We are, we were, we shall be. 5. They are, they were, they will be.

6. Why were you not in school to-day? I was sick. 7. Lately he was a sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8. To-day I am happy, but lately I was wretched. 9. The teachers were happy because of the boys' industry.

[Illustration: Roman boys in school
Caption: PUERI ROMANI IN LUDO]

LESSON XIX

THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS · PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMÔ AND MONEÔ

126. There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These conjugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the present conjugation-stem.1 This vowel is called the distinguishing vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive.

1. The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached. It is often identical with the base (cf. § 58). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional terminations. This point is further explained in § 230.

Below is given the present infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel.

ConjugationPres. Infin.Pres. StemDISTINGUISHING
VOWEL
I.amâ´re, to loveamâ-â
II.monê´re, to advisemonê-ê
III.re´gere, to rulerege-e
IV.audî´re, to hearaudi-î

a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive.

Note. The present infinitive of sum is esse, and es- is the present stem.

127. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

128. The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and of the second conjugation is as follows:

a´mô, amâ´re (love)mo´neô, monê´re (advise)
Pres. Stem amâ-Pres. Stem monê-PERSONAL
ENDINGS
Sing. 1. a´mô, I lovemo´neô, I advise
2. a´mâs, you lovemo´nês, you advise-s
3. a´mat, he (she, it) lovesmo´net, he (she, it) advises-t
Plur. 1. amâ´mus, we lovemonê´mus, we advise-mus
2. amâ´tis, you lovemonê´tis, you advise-tis
3. a´mant, they lovemo´nent, they advise-nt

1. The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to the present stem, and its first person uses -o and not -m. The form amô is for amâ-ô, the two vowels â-ô contracting to ô. In moneô there is no contraction. Nearly all regular verbs ending in -eo belong to the second conjugation.

2. Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before another vowel (monê-ô = mo´neô), and before final -t (amat, monet) and -nt (amant, monent). Compare § 12. 2.

129. Like amô and moneô inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs2:

2. The only new verbs in this list are the five of the second conjugation which are starred. Learn their meanings.
Indicative PresentInfinitive Present
a´rô, I plowarâ´re, to plow
cû´rô, I care forcûrâ´re, to care for
*dê´leô, I destroydêlê´re, to destroy
dêsî´derô, I long fordêsîderâ´re, to long for
,3 I giveda´re, to give
*ha´beô, I havehabê´re, to have
ha´bitô, I live, I dwellhabitâ´re, to live, to dwell
*iu´beô, I orderiubê´re, to order
labô´rô, I laborlabôrâ´re, to labor
lau´dô, I praiselaudâ´re, to praise
mâtû´rô, I hastenmâtûrâ´re, to hasten
*mo´veô, I movemovê´re, to move
nâr´rô, I tellnârrâ´re, to tell
ne´cô, I killnecâ´re, to kill
nûn´tiô, I announcenûntiâ´re, to announce
pa´rô, I prepareparâ´re, to prepare
por´tô, I carryportâ´re, to carry
pro´perô, I hastenproperâ´re, to hasten
pug´nô, I fightpugnâ´re, to fight
*vi´deô, I seevidê´re, to see
vo´cô, I callvocâ´re, to call
3. Observe that in dô, dare, the a is short, and that the present stem is da- and not dâ-. The only forms of that have a long are dâs (pres. indic.), (pres. imv.), and dâns (pres. part.).

130. The Translation of the Present. In English there are three ways of expressing present action. We may say, for example, I live, I am living, or I do live. In Latin the one expression habitô covers all three of these expressions.

131. EXERCISES

Give the voice, mood, tense, person, and number of each form.

I. 1. Vocâmus, properâtis, iubent. 2. Movêtis, laudâs, vidês. 3. Dêlêtis, habêtis, dant. 4. Mâtûrâs, dêsîderat, vidêmus. 5. Iubet, movent, necat. 6. Nârrâmus, movês, vident. 7. Labôrâtis, properant, portâs, parant. 8. Dêlet, habêtis, iubêmus, dâs.

N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in translating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention.

II. 1. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow. 2. They care for, they are caring for, they do care for. 3. You give, you are having, you do have (sing.). 4. We destroy, I do long for, they are living. 5. He calls, they see, we are telling. 6. We do fight, we order, he is moving, he prepares. 7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce.

LESSON XX

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMÔ AND MONEÔ

132. Tense Signs. Instead of using auxiliary verbs to express differences in tense, like was, shall, will, etc., Latin adds to the verb stem certain elements that have the force of auxiliary verbs. These are called tense signs.

133. Formation and Inflection of the Imperfect. The tense sign of the imperfect is -bâ-, which is added to the present stem. The imperfect consists, therefore, of three parts:

Present StemTense SignPERSONAL
ENDING
amâ-ba-m
lovingwasI

The inflection is as follows:

Conjugation IConjugation II
SINGULAR PERSONAL
ENDINGS
1. amâ´bam, I was lovingmonê´bam, I was advising-m
2. amâ´bâs, you were lovingmonê´bâs, you were advising-s
3. amâ´bat, he was lovingmonê´bat, he was advising-t
PLURAL
1. amâbâ´mus, we were lovingmonêbâ´mus, we were advising-mus
2. amâbâ´tis, you were lovingmonêbâ´tis, you were advising-tis
3. amâ´bant, they were lovingmonê´bant, they were advising-nt

a. Note that the â of the tense sign -bâ- is shortened before -nt, and before m and t when final. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129.

134. Meaning of the Imperfect. The Latin imperfect describes an act as going on or progressing in past time, like the English past-progressive tense (as, I was walking). It is the regular tense used to describe a past situation or condition of affairs.

135. EXERCISES

I. 1. Vidêbâmus, dêsîderâbat, mâtûrâbâs. 2. Dabant, vocâbâtis, dêlêbâmus. 3. Pugnant, laudâbâs, movêbâtis. 4. Iubêbant, properâbâtis, portâbâmus. 5. Dabâs, nârrâbant, labôrâbâtis. 6. Vidêbant, movêbâs, nûntiâbâmus. 7. Necâbat, movêbam, habêbat, parâbâtis.

II. 1. You were having (sing. and plur.), we were killing, they were laboring. 2. He was moving, we were ordering, we were fighting. 3. We were telling, they were seeing, he was calling. 4. They were living, I was longing for, we were destroying. 5. You were giving, you were moving, you were announcing, (sing. and plur.). 6. They were caring for, he was plowing, we were praising.

136. Ni´obe and her Children

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

Niobê, rêgina Thêbânôrum, erat pulchra fêmina sed superba. Erat superba nôn sôlum fôrmâ1 suâ marîtîque potentiâ1 sed etiam magnô lîberôrum numerô.1 Nam habêbat2 septem fîliôs et septem fîliâs. Sed ea superbia erat rêgînae3 causa magnae trîstitiae et lîberîs3 causa dûrae poenae.

Note. The words Niobê, Thêbânôrum, and marîtî will be found in the general vocabulary. Translate the selection without looking up any other words.

1. Ablative of cause.
2. Translate had; it denotes a past situation. (See § 134.)
3. Dative, cf. § 43.

LESSON XXI

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMÔ AND MONEÔ

137. The tense sign of the Future Indicative in the first and second conjugations is -bi-. This is joined to the present stem of the verb and followed by the personal ending, as follows:

Present StemTense SignPERSONAL
ENDING
amâ-bi-s
lovewillyou

138. The Future Active Indicative is inflected as follows.

Conjugation IConjugation II
SINGULAR
1. amâ´, I shall lovemonê´, I shall advise
2. amâ´bis, you will lovemonê´bis, you will advise
3. amâ´bit, he will lovemonê´bit, he will advise
PLURAL
1. amâ´bimus, we shall lovemonê´bimus, we shall advise
2. amâ´bitis will lovemonê´bitis, you will advise
3. amâ´bunt, they will lovemonê´bunt, they will advise

a. The personal endings are as in the present. The ending -bô in the first person singular is contracted from -bi-ô. The -bi- appears as -bu- in the third person plural. Note that the inflection is like that of erô, the future of sum. Pay especial attention to the accent.

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129.

139. EXERCISES

I. 1. Movêbitis, laudâbis, arâbô. 2. Dêlêbitis, vocâbitis, dabunt. 3. Mâtûrâbis, dêsîderâbit, vidêbimus. 4. Habêbit, movêbunt, necâbit. 5. Nârrâbimus, monêbis, vidêbunt. 6. Labôrâbitis, cûrâbunt, dabis. 7. Habitâbimus, properâbitis, iubêbunt, parâbit. 8. Nûntiâbô, portâbimus, iubêbô.

II. 1. We shall announce, we shall see, I shall hasten. 2. I shall carry, he will plow, they will care for. 3. You will announce, you will move, you will give, (sing. and plur.). 4. We shall fight, we shall destroy, I shall long for. 5. He will call, they will see, you will tell (plur.). 6. They will dwell, we shall order, he will praise. 7. They will labor, we shall kill, you will have (sing. and plur.), he will destroy.

140. Niobe and her Children (Concluded)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apollô et Diâna erant lîberî Lâtônae. Iîs Thêbânî sacra crêbra parâbant.1 Oppidânî amâbant Lâtônam et lîberôs eius. Id superbae rêgînae erat molestum. "Cûr," inquit, "Lâtônae et lîberîs sacra parâtis? Duôs lîberôs habet Lâtôna; quattuordecim habeô ego. Ubi sunt mea sacra?" Lâtôna iîs verbîs2 îrâta lîberôs suôs vocat. Ad eam volant Apollô Diânaque et sagittîs3 suîs miserôs lîberôs rêgînae superbae dêlent. Niobê, nûper laeta, nunc misera, sedet apud lîberôs interfectôs et cum perpetuîs lacrimîs4 eôs dêsîderat.

Note. Consult the general vocabulary for Apollô, inquit, duôs, and quattuordecim. Try to remember the meaning of all the other words.

1. Observe the force of the imperfect here, used to prepare, were in the habit of preparing; so amâbant denotes a past situation of affairs. (See § 134.)
2. Ablative of cause.
3. Ablative of means.
4. This may be either manner or accompaniment. It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinction. It was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case.

LESSON XXII

REVIEW OF VERBS · THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES

141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of sum and the verbs in § 129.

142. We learned in § 43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in § 44 that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases where grâtus, agreeable to, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we had molestus, annoying to, followed by that case. The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule:

143. Rule. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites.

144. Among such adjectives memorize the following:

idôneus, -a, -um, fit, suitable (for)
amîcus, -a, -um, friendly (to)
inimicus, -a, -um, hostile (to)
grâtus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to)
molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), troublesome (to)
fînitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to)
proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next (to)

145. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rômânî terram idôneam agrî cultûrae habent. 2. Gallî côpiîs Rômânîs inimîcî erant. 3. Cui dea Lâtôna amîca non erat? 4. Dea Lâtôna superbae rêgînae amîca nôn erat. 5. Cibus noster, Mârce, erit armâtîs virîs grâtus. 6. Quid erat molestum populîs Italiae? 7. Bella longa cum Gallîs erant molesta populîs Italiae. 8. Agrî Germânôrum fluviô Rhênô fînitimî erant. 9. Rômânî ad silvam oppidô proximam castra movêbant. 10. Nôn sôlum fôrma sed etiam superbia rêgînae erat magna. 11. Mox rêgîna pulchra erit aegra trîstitiâ. 12. Cûr erat Niobê, rêgîna Thêbânôrum, laeta? Laeta erat Niobê multîs fîliîs et fîliâbus.

II. 1. The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty queen. 2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also to Diana. 3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona. 4. The punishment of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana. 5. The Romans will move their forces to a large field1 suitable for a camp. 6. Some of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to the Gauls.

1. Why not the dative?

146. Cornelia and her Jewels

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apud antîquâs dominâs, Cornêlia, Âfricânî fîlia, erat2 maximê clâra. Fîliî eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et Gâius Gracchus. Iî puerî cum Cornêliâ in oppidô Rômâ, clârô Italiae oppidô, habitâbant. Ibi eôs cûrâbat Cornêlia et ibi magnô cum studiô eôs docêbat. Bona fêmina erat Cornêlia et bonam disciplînam maximê amâbat.

Note. Can you translate the paragraph above? There are no new words.

2. Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or progressive action, or describe a state of affairs. (Cf. § 134.)

LESSON XXIII

PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGÔ AND AUDIÔ

147. As we learned in § 126, the present stem of the third conjugation ends in -e, and of the fourth in . The inflection of the Present Indicative is as follows:

Conjugation IIIConjugation IV
re´gô, re´gere (rule)au´dio, audî´re (hear)
Pres. Stem rege-Pres. Stem audî-
SINGULAR
1. re´gô, I ruleau´diô, I hear
2. re´gis, you ruleau´dîs, you hear
3. re´git, he (she, it) rulesau´dit, he (she, it) hears
PLURAL
1. re´gimus, we ruleaudî´mus, we hear
2. re´gitis, you ruleaudî´tis, you hear
3. re´gunt, they ruleau´diunt, they hear

1. The personal endings are the same as before.

2. The final short -e- of the stem rege- combines with the in the first person, becomes -u- in the third person plural, and becomes -i- elsewhere. The inflection is like that of erô, the future of sum.

3. In audiô the personal endings are added regularly to the stem audî-. In the third person plural -u- is inserted between the stem and the personal ending, as audi-u-nt. Note that the long vowel of the stem is shortened before final -t just as in amô and moneô. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

Note that -i- is always short in the third conjugation and long in the fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf. § 12. 1, 2.)

148. Like regô and audiô inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs:

Indicative PresentInfinitive Present
agô, I driveagere, to drive
dîcô, I saydîcere, to say
dûcô, I leaddûcere, to lead
mittô, I sendmittere, to send
mûniô, I fortifymûnîre, to fortify
reperiô, I findreperîre, to find
veniô, I comevenîre, to come

149. EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis agit? Cûr venit? Quem mittit? Quem dûcis? 2. Quid mittunt? Ad quem veniunt? Cuius castra mûniunt? 3. Quem agunt? Venîmus. Quid puer reperit? 4. Quem mittimus? Cuius equum dûcitis? Quid dîcunt? 5. Mûnîmus, venîtis, dîcit. 6. Agimus, reperîtis, mûnîs. 7. Reperis, ducitis, dîcis. 8. Agitis, audimus, regimus.

II. 1. What do they find? Whom do they hear? Why does he come? 2. Whose camp are we fortifying? To whom does he say? What are we saying? 3. I am driving, you are leading, they are hearing. 4. You send, he says, you fortify (sing. and plur.). 5. I am coming, we find, they send. 6. They lead, you drive, he does fortify. 7. You lead, you find, you rule, (all plur.).

150. Cornelia and her Jewels (Concluded)

Proximum domicîliô Cornêliae erat pulchrae Campânae domicilium. Campâna erat superba nôn sôlum fôrmâ suâ sed maximê ôrnâmentîs suîs. Ea1 laudâbat semper. "Habêsne tû ûlla ornâmenta, Cornêlia?" inquit. "Ubi sunt tua ôrnâmenta?" Deinde Cornêlia fîliôs suôs Tiberium et Gâium vocat. "Puerî meî," inquit, "sunt mea ôrnâmenta. Nam bonî lîberî sunt semper bonae fêminae ôrnâmenta maximê clâra."

Note. The only new words here are Campâna, semper, and .

1. Ea, accusative plural neuter.

[Illustration: Cornelia with her sons
Caption: "PUERI MEI SUNT MEA ORNAMENTA"]

LESSON XXIV

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGÔ AND AUDIÔ · THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL INTRANSITIVE VERBS

151. PARADIGMS

Conjugation IIIConjugation IV
SINGULAR
1. regê´bam, I was rulingaudiê´bam, I was hearing
2. regê´bâs, you were ridingaudiê´bâs, you were hearing
3. regê´bat, he was rulingaudiê´bat, he was hearing
PLURAL
1. regêbâ´mus, we were rulingaudiêbâ´mus, we were hearing
2. regêbâ´tis, you were rulingaudiêbâ´tis, you were hearing
3. regê´bant, they were rulingaudiê´bant, they were hearing

1. The tense sign is -bâ-, as in the first two conjugations.

2. Observe that the final -e- of the stem is lengthened before the tense sign -bâ-. This makes the imperfect of the third conjugation just like the imperfect of the second (cf. monêbam and regêbam).

3. In the fourth conjugation -ê- is inserted between the stem and the tense sign -bâ- (audi-ê-ba-m).

4. In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 148.

152. EXERCISES

I. 1. Agêbat, veniêbat, mittêbat, dûcêbant. 2. Agêbant, mittêbant, dûcêbas, mûniêbant. 3. Mittêbâmus, dûcêbâtis, dîcêbant. 4. Mûniêbâmus, veniêbâtis, dîcêbâs. 5. Mittêbâs, veniêbâmus, reperiêbat. 6. Reperiêbâs, veniêbâs, audiêbâtis. 7. Agêbâmus, reperiêbâtis, mûniêbat. 8. Agêbâtis, dîcêbam, mûniêbam.

II. 1. They were leading, you were driving (sing. and plur.), he was fortifying. 2. They were sending, we were finding, I was coming. 3. You were sending, you were fortifying, (sing. and plur.), he was saying. 4. They were hearing, you were leading (sing. and plur.), I was driving. 5. We were saying, he was sending, I was fortifying. 6. They were coming, he was hearing, I was finding. 7. You were ruling (sing. and plur.), we were coming, they were ruling.

153. The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs. We learned above (§ 20. a) that a verb which does not admit of a direct object is called an intransitive verb. Many such verbs, however, are of such meaning that they can govern an indirect object, which will, of course, be in the dative case (§ 45). Learn the following list of intransitive verbs with their meanings. In each case the dative indirect object is the person or thing to which a benefit, injury, or feeling is directed. (Cf. § 43.)

crêdô, crêdere, believe (give belief to)
faveô, favêre, favor (show favor to)
noceô, nocêre, injure (do harm to)
pâreô, pârêre, obey (give obedience to)
persuâdeô, persuâdêre, persuade (offer persuasion to)
resistô, resistere, resist (offer resistance to)
studeô, studêre, be eager for (give attention to)

154. Rule. Dative with Intransitive Verbs. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crêdô, faveô, noceô, pâreô, persuâdeô, resistô, studeô, and others of like meaning.

155. EXERCISE

1. Crêdisne verbîs sociôrum? Multî verbîs eôrum nôn crêdunt. 2. Meî fînitimî cônsiliô tuô nôn favêbunt, quod bellô student. 3. Tiberius et Gâius disciplînae dûrae nôn resistêbant et Cornêliae pârêbant. 4. Dea erat inimîca septem fîliâbus rêgînae. 5. Dûra poena et perpetua trîstitia rêgînae nôn persuâdêbunt. 6. Nûper ea resistêbat et nunc resistit potentiae Lâtônae. 7. Mox sagittae volâbunt et lîberîs miserîs nocêbunt.

LESSON XXV

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGÔ AND AUDIÔ

156. In the future tense of the third and fourth conjugations we meet with a new tense sign. Instead of using -bi-, as in the first and second conjugations, we use -â-1 in the first person singular and -ê- in the rest of the tense. In the third conjugation the final -e- of the stem is dropped before this tense sign; in the fourth conjugation the final -î- of the stem is retained.2

1. The -â- is shortened before -m final, and -ê- before -t final and before -nt. (Cf. § 12. 2.)
2. The -î- is, of course, shortened, being before another vowel. (Cf. § 12. 1.)

157. PARADIGMS

Conjugation IIIConjugation IV
SINGULAR
1. re´gam, I shall ruleau´diam, I shall hear
2. re´gês, you will ruleau´diês, you will hear
3. re´get, he will ruleau´diet, he will hear
PLURAL
1. regê´mus, we shall ruleaudiê´mus, we shall hear
2. regê´tis, you will ruleaudiê´tis, you will hear
3. re´gent, they will ruleau´dient, they will hear

1. Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the present of the second, excepting in the first person singular.

2. In the same manner inflect the verbs given in § 148.

158. EXERCISES

I. 1. Dîcet, dûcêtis, mûniêmus. 2. Dîcent, dîcêtis, mittêmus. 3. Mûnient, venient, mittent, agent. 4. Dûcet, mittês, veniet, aget. 5. Mûniet, reperiêtis, agêmus. 6. Mittam, veniêmus, regent. 7. Audiêtis, veniês, reperiês. 8. Reperiet, agam, dûcêmus, mittet. 9. Vidêbitis, sedêbô, vocâbimus.

II. 1. I shall find, he will hear, they will come. 2. I shall fortify, he will send, we shall say. 3. I shall drive, you will lead, they will hear. 4. You will send, you will fortify, (sing. and plur.), he will say. 5. I shall come, we shall find, they will send.

6. Who3 will believe the story? I4 shall believe the story. 7. Whose friends do you favor? We favor our friends. 8. Who will resist our weapons? Sextus will resist your weapons. 9. Who will persuade him? They will persuade him. 10. Why were you injuring my horse? I was not injuring your horse. 11. Whom does a good slave obey? A good slave obeys his master. 12. Our men were eager for another battle.

3. Remember that quis, who, is singular in number.
4. Express by ego, because it is emphatic.

LESSON XXVI

VERBS IN -IÔ OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION · THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

159. There are a few common verbs ending in -iô which do not belong to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. The fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the ending of the infinitive. (Cf. § 126.) Compare

audiô, audî´re (hear), fourth conjugation
capiô, ca´pere (take), third conjugation

160. The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of capiô are inflected as follows:

capiô, capere, take
Pres. Stem cape-
PresentImperfectFuture
SINGULAR
1. ca´piôcapiê´bamca´piam
2. ca´piscapiê´bâsca´piês
3. ca´pitcapiê´batca´piet
PLURAL
1. ca´pimuscapiêbâ´muscapiê´mus
2. ca´pitiscapiêbâ´tiscapiê´tis
3. ca´piuntcapiê´bantca´pient

1. Observe that capiô and the other -iô verbs follow the fourth conjugation wherever in the fourth conjugation two vowels occur in succession. (Cf. capiô, audiô; capiunt, audiunt; and all the imperfect and future.) All other forms are like the third conjugation. (Cf. capis, regis; capit, regit; etc.)

2. Like capiô, inflect

faciô, facere, make, do
fugiô, fugere, flee
iaciô, iacere, hurl
rapiô, rapere, seize

161. The Imperative Mood. The imperative mood expresses a command; as, come! send! The present tense of the imperative is used only in the second person, singular and plural. The singular in the active voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The plural is formed by adding -te to the singular.

ConjugationSingularPlural
I.amâ, love thouamâ´te, love ye
II.monê, advise thoumonê´te, advise ye
III.(a)rege, rule thoure´gite, rule ye
(b)cape, take thouca´pite, take ye
IV.audî, hear thouaudî´te, hear ye
sum (irregular)es, be thoueste, be ye

1. In the third conjugation the final -e- of the stem becomes -i- in the plural.

2. The verbs dîcô, say; dûcô, lead; and faciô, make, have the irregular forms dîc, dûc, and fac in the singular.

3. Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of veniô, dûcô, vocô, doceô, laudô, dîcô, sedeô, agô, faciô, mûniô, mittô, rapiô.

162. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fugient, faciunt, iaciêbat. 2. Dêlê, nûntiâte, fugiunt. 3. Venîte, dîc, faciêtis. 4. Dûcite, iaciam, fugiêbant. 5. Fac, iaciêbâmus, fugimus, rapite. 6. Sedête, reperî, docête. 7. Fugiêmus, iacient, rapiês. 8. Reperient, rapiêbâtis, nocent. 9. Favête, resistê, pârêbitis.

10. Volâ ad multâs terrâs et dâ auxilium. 11. Ego têla mea capiam et multâs ferâs dêlêbô. 12. Quis fâbulae tuae crêdet? 13. Este bonî, puerî, et audîte verba grâta magistrî.

II. 1. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons. 2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts. 3. She will give aid to the weak.1 4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will flee. 5. Romans, tell2 the famous story to your children.

1. Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. § 99. II. 3.)
2. Imperative. The imperative generally stands first, as in English.

Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, §§ 510-512


LESSON XXVII

THE PASSIVE VOICE · PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMÔ AND MONEÔ

163. The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action; as,

The lion——> killed——> the hunter

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its subject as receiving an action; as,

The lion <—— was killed <—— by the hunter

Note the direction of the arrows.

164. Passive Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings. They are as follows:

Sing.1. -r, IPlur.1. -mur, we
2. -ris, -re, you2. -minî, you
3. -tur, he, she, it3. -ntur, they

a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign.

165. PARADIGMS

amô, amâremonêo, monêre
Pres. Stem amâ-Pres. Stem monê-
Present IndicativePERSONAL
ENDINGS
Sing.a´mor, I am loved mo´neor, I am advised -or1
amâ´ris or amâ´re, you are loved monê´ris or monê´re, you are advised -ris or -re
amâ´tur, he is loved monê´tur, he is advised -tur
Plur.amâ´mur, we are loved monê´mur, we are advised -mur
amâ´minî, you are loved monê´minî, you are advised -mini
aman´tur, they are loved monen´tur, they are advised -ntur
 
Imperfect Indicative (Tense Sign -bâ-)
Sing.amâ´bar, I was being loved monê´bar, I was being advised -r
amâbâ´ris or amâbâ´re, you were being loved monêbâ´ris or monêbâ´re, you were being advised -ris or -re
amâbâ´tur, he was being loved monêbâ´tur, he was being advised -tur
Plur.amâbâ´mur, we were being loved monêbâ´mur, we were being advised -mur
amâbâ´minî, you were being loved monêbâ´minî, you were being advised -minî
amâban´tur, they were being loved monêban´tur, they were being advised -ntur
 
Future (Tense Sign -bi-)
Sing.amâ´bor, I shall be loved monê´bor, I shall be advised -r
amâ´beris or amâ´bere, you will be loved monê´beris or monê´bere, you will be advised -ris or -re
amâ´bitur, he will be loved monê´bitur, he will be advised -tur
Plur.amâ´bimur, we shall be loved monê´bimur, we shall be advised -mur
amâbi´minî, you will be loved monêbi´minî, you will be advised -minî
amâbun´tur, they will be loved monêbun´tur, they will be advised -ntur
1. In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or.

1. The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active.

2. In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, -be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural.

3. Inflect laudô, necô, portô, moveô, dêleô, iubeô, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

166. Intransitive verbs, such as mâtûrô, I hasten; habitô, I dwell, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject.

167. EXERCISES

I. 1. Laudâris or laudâre, laudâs, datur, dat. 2. Dabitur, dabit, vidêminî, vidêtis. 3. Vocâbat, vocâbâtur, dêlêbitis, dêlêbiminî. 4. Parâbâtur, parâbat, cûrâs, cûrâris or cûrâre. 5. Portâbantur, portâbant, vidêbimur, vidêbimus. 6. Iubêris or iubêre, iubês, laudâbâris or laudâbâre, laudâbâs. 7. Movêberis or movêbere, movêbis, dabantur, dabant. 8. Dêlentur, dêlent, parâbâmur, parâbâmus.

II. 1. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you were carrying, you were being carried. 2. I see, I am seen, it was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered. 3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are praising, we are being praised. 4. I am called, I call, you will have, you are cared for. 5. They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved.

[Illustration: Perseus saves Andromeda
Caption: PERSEUS ANDROMEDAM SERVAT]

168. Per´seus and Androm´eda

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Perseus fîlius erat Iovis,2 maximî3 deôrum. Dê eô multâs fabulâs nârrant poêtae. Eî favent deî, eî magica arma et âlâs dant. Eîs têlîs armâtus et âlîs frêtus ad multâs terrâs volâbat et mônstra saeva dêlêbat et miserîs înfîrmîsque auxilium dabat. Aethiopia est terra Âfricae. Eam terram Cêpheus5 regêbat. Eî6 Neptûnus, maximus aquârum deus, erat îrâtus et mittit7 mônstrum saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi mônstrum nôn sôlum lâtîs pulchrîsque Aethiopiae agrîs nocêbat sed etiam domicilia agricolârum dêlêbat, et multôs virôs, fêminâs, lîberôsque necâbat. Populus ex agrîs fugiêbat et oppida mûrîs validîs mûniêbat. Tum Cêpheus magnâ trîstitiâ commôtus ad Iovis ôrâculum properat et ita dîcit: "Amîcî meî necantur; agrî meî vâstantur. Audî verba mea, Iuppiter. Dâ miserîs auxilium. Age mônstrum saevum ex patriâ."

2. Iovis, the genitive of Iuppiter.
3. Used substantively, the greatest. So below, l. 4, miserîs and înfîrmîs are used substantively.
4. Pronounce in two syllables, Ce´pheus.
5. , at him, dative with îrâtus.
6. The present is often used, as in English, in speaking of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and exciting.

LESSON XXVIII

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF REGÔ AND AUDIÔ

169. Review the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of regô and audiô, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§§ 490, 491).

a. Observe that the tense signs of the imperfect and future are the same as in the active voice, and that the passive personal endings (§ 164) are added instead of the active ones.

b. Note the slight irregularity in the second person singular present of the third conjugation. There the final -e- of the stem is not changed to -i-, as it is in the active. We therefore have re´geris or re´gere, not re´giris, re´gire.

c. Inflect agô, dîcô, dûcô, mûniô, reperiô, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

170. EXERCISES

I. 1. Agêbat, agêbâtur, mittêbat, mittêbâtur, dûcêbat. 2. Agunt, aguntur, mittuntur, mittunt, mûniunt. 3. Mittor, mittar, mittam, dûcêre, dûcere. 4. Dîcêmur, dîcimus, dîcêmus, dîcimur, mûniêbaminî. 5. Dûcitur, dûciminî, reperîmur, reperiar, agitur. 6. Agêbâmus, agêbâmur, reperîris, reperiêminî. 7. Mûnîminî, veniêbam, dûcêbar, dîcêtur. 8. Mittiminî, mittitis, mittêris, mitteris, agêbâminî. 9. Dîcitur, dîcit, mûniuntur, reperient, audientur.

II. 1. I was being driven, I was driving, we were leading, we were being led, he says, it is said. 2. I shall send, I shall be sent, you will find, you will be found, they lead, they are led. 3. I am found, we are led, they are driven, you were being led (sing. and plur.). 4. We shall drive, we shall be driven, he leads, he is being led, they will come, they will be fortified. 5. They were ruling, they were being ruled, you will send, you will be sent, you are sent, (sing. and plur.). 6. He was being led, he will come, you are said (sing. and plur.).

171. Perseus and Andromeda (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Tum ôrâculum ita respondet: "Mala est fortûna tua. Neptûnus, magnus aquârum deus, terrae Aethiopiae inimîcus, eâs poenâs mittit. Sed parâ îrâtô deô sacrum idôneum et mônstrum saevum ex patriâ tuâ agêtur. Andromeda fîlia tua est mônstrô grâta. Dâ eam mônstrô. Servâ câram patriam et vîtam populî tuî." Andromeda autem erat puella pulchra. Eam amâbat Cêpheus maximê.

LESSON XXIX

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF -IÔ VERBS · PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE

172. Review the active voice of capiô, present, imperfect, and future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§ 492).

a. The present forms capior and capiuntur are like audior, audiuntur, and the rest of the tense is like regor.

b. In like manner inflect the passive of iaciô and rapiô.

173. The Infinitive. The infinitive mood gives the general meaning of the verb without person or number; as, amâre, to love. Infinitive means unlimited. The forms of the other moods, being limited by person and number, are called the finite, or limited, verb forms.

174. The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as follows:

Conj.Pres. StemPres. Infinitive ActivePres. Infinitive Passive
I.amâ-amâ´re, to loveamâ´, to be loved
II.monê-monê´re, to advisemonê´, to be advised
III.rege-re´gere, to rulere´gî, to be ruled
cape-ca´pere, to takeca´pî, to be taken
IV.audî-audî´re, to hearaudî, to be heard

1. Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to the present stem.

a. The present infinitive of sum is esse. There is no passive.

2. Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the active by changing final -e to , except in the third conjugation, which changes final -ere to .

3. Give the active and passive present infinitives of doceô, sedeô, volô, cûrô, mittô, dûcô, mûniô, reperiô, iaciô, rapiô.

175. The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as follows:

Active1Passive
CONJ.SING.PLUR.SING.PLUR.
I.a´mâamâ´teamâ´re, be thou lovedamâ´minî, be ye loved
II.mo´nêmonê´temonê´re, be thou advisedmonê´minî, be ye advised
III.re´gere´gitere´gere, be thou ruled regi´minî, be ye ruled
ca´peca´piteca´pere, be thou takencapi´minî, be ye taken
IV.au´dîaudî´teaudî´re, be thou heardaudî´minî, be ye heard

1. Observe that the second person singular of the present passive imperative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and plural are like the second person singular2 and plural, respectively, of the present passive indicative.

2. Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs in § 174. 3.

1. For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from § 161.
2. That is, using the personal ending -re. A form like amâre may be either indicative, infinitive, or imperative.

176. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Tum Perseus âlîs ad terrâs multâs volabit. 2. Mônstrum saevum per aquâs properat et mox agrôs nostrôs vâstâbit. 3. Sî autem Cêpheus ad ôrâculum properâbit, ôrâculum ita respondêbit. 4. Quis têlîs Perseî superâbitur? Multa mônstra têlîs eius superâbuntur. 5. Cum cûrîs magnîs et lacrimîs multîs agricolae ex domiciliîs cârîs aguntur. 6. Multa loca vâstâbantur et multa oppida dêlêbantur. 7. Mônstrum est validum, tamen superâbitur. 8. Crêdêsne semper verbîs ôrâculî? Ego iîs non semper crêdam. 9. Pârêbitne Cêpheus ôrâculô? Verba ôrâculî eî persuâdêbunt. 10. Si nôn fugiêmus, oppidum capiêtur et oppidânî necâbuntur. 11. Vocâte puerôs et nârrâte fâbulam clâram dê mônstrô saevô.

II. 1. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou. 2. To lead, to be led, be ye seized, fortify thou. 3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou, to be found. 4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken. 5. Find thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified.

LESSON XXX

SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS · THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM

177. You should learn to give rapidly synopses of the verbs you have had, as follows:1

Conjugation IConjugation II
Indicative
ACTIVEPASSIVEACTIVEPASSIVE
Pres.a´môa´mormo´neômo´neor
Imperf.amâ´bamamâ´barmonê´bammonê´bar
Fut.amâ´boamâ´bormonê´bomonê´bor
Imperative
Pres.a´mâamâ´remo´nêmonê´re
Infinitive
Pres.amâ´reamâ´monê´remonê´
 
Conjugation IIIConjugation III
(-iô verbs)
Indicative
ACTIVEPASSIVEACTIVEPASSIVE
Pres.re´gôre´gorca´piôca´pior
Imperf.regê´bamregê´barcapiê´bamcapiê´bar
Fut.re´gamre´garca´piamca´piar
Imperative
Pres.re´gere´gereca´peca´pere
Infinitive
Pres.re´gerere´gîca´pereca´pî
 
Conjugation IV
Indicative
ACTIVEPASSIVE
Pres.au´dau´dior
Imperf.audiê´bamaudiê´bar
Fut.au´diamau´diar
Imperative
Pres.au´dîaudî´re
Infinitive
Pres.audî´reaudî´rî
1. Synopses should be given not only in the first person, but in other persons as well, particularly in the third singular and plural.

1. Give the synopsis of rapiô, mûniô, reperiô, doceô, videô, dîcô, agô, laudô, portô, and vary the person and number.

178. We learned in § 50 that one of the three relations covered by the ablative case is expressed in English by the preposition from. This is sometimes called the separative ablative, and it has a number of special uses. You have already grown familiar with the first mentioned below.

179. Rule. Ablative of the Place From. The place from which is expressed by the ablative with the prepositions â or ab, , ê or ex.

Agricolae ex agrîs veniunt, the farmers come from the fields

a. â or ab denotes from near a place; ê or ex, out from it; and , down from it. This may be represented graphically as follows:

_________
      â or ab  |         |  ê or ex
  /____________|    _____|_____________\
  \            |  Place  |             /
               |_________|
                    |
                    | dê
                    |
                    V

180. Rule. Ablative of Separation. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning.

a. If the separation is actual and literal of one material thing from another, the preposition â or ab, ê or ex, or is generally used. If no actual motion takes place of one thing from another, no preposition is necessary.

(a)Perseus terram â mônstrîs lîberat
Perseus frees the land from monsters (literal separation— actual motion is expressed)
(b)Perseus terram trîstitiâ lîberat
Perseus frees the land from sorrow (figurative separation— no actual motion is expressed)

181. Rule. Ablative of the Personal Agent. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition â or ab.

a. In this construction the English translation of â, ab is by rather than from. This ablative is regularly used with passive verbs to indicate the person by whom the act was performed.

Mônstrum â Perseô necâtur, the monster is being slain by (lit. from) Perseus

b. Note that the active form of the above sentence would be Perseus monstrum necat, Perseus is slaying the monster. In the passive the object of the active verb becomes the subject, and the subject of the active verb becomes the ablative of the personal agent, with â or ab.

c. Distinguish carefully between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent. Both are often translated into English by the preposition by. (Cf. § 100. b.) Means is a thing; the agent or actor is a person. The ablative of means has no preposition. The ablative of the personal agent has â or ab. Compare

Fera sagittâ necâtur, the wild beast is killed by an arrow
Fera â Diânâ necâtur, the wild beast is killed by Diana

Sagittâ, in the first sentence, is the ablative of means; â Diânâ, in the second, is the ablative of the personal agent.

182. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Viri inopiâ cibî dêfessî ab eô locô discêdent. 2. Gerinânî castrîs Rômânîs adpropinquâbant, tamen lêgâtus côpiâs â proeliô continêbat. 3. Multa Gallôrum oppida ab Rômanîs capientur. 4. Tum Rômânî tôtum populum eôrum oppidôrum gladiîs pîlîsque interficient. 5. Oppidânî Rômânîs resistent, sed defessî longô proelîo fugient. 6. Multî ex Galliâ fugiêbant et in Germânôrum vicîs habitâbant. 7. Miserî nautae vulnerantur ab inimîcîs2 saevîs et cibô egent. 8. Discêdite et date virîs frûmentum et côpiam vînî. 9. Côpiae nostrae â proeliô continêbantur ab Sextô lêgatô. 10. Id oppidum ab prôvinciâ Rômânâ longê aberat.

II. 1. The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the goddess Diana. 2. They were without food and without wine. 3. Then Galba and seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 4. Already they are not far away from the land, and they see armed men on a high place. 5. They are kept from the land by the men with spears and arrows. 6. The men kept hurling their weapons down from the high place with great eagerness.

2. inimîcîs, here used as a noun. See vocabulary.

LESSON XXXI

PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM

183. Principal Parts. There are certain parts of the verb that are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the principal parts.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the present, the past, and the past participle; as go, went, gone; see, saw, seen, etc.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the first person singular of the present indicative, the present infinitive, the first person singular of the perfect indicative, and the perfect passive participle.

184. Conjugation Stems. From the principal parts we get three conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. We have already learned about the present stem, which is found from the present infinitive (cf. § 126. a). The other two stems are the perfect stem and the participial stem.

185. The Perfect Stem. The perfect stem of the verb is formed in various ways, but may always be found by dropping from the first person singular of the perfect, the third of the principal parts. From the perfect stem are formed the following tenses:

The Perfect Active Indicative
The Pluperfect Active Indicative (English Past Perfect)
The Future Perfect Active Indicative

All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or future time respectively.

186. The Endings of the Perfect. The perfect active indicative is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and are as follows:

Sing.1. , IPlur.1. -imus, we
2. -istî, you2. -istis, you
3. -it, he, she, it3. -êrunt or -êre, they

187. Inflection of sum in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative:

Pres. Indic.Pres. Infin.Perf. Indic.
Prin. Partssumessefuî
Perfect Stem fu-
Perfect
SINGULARPLURAL
fu´î, I have been, I wasfu´imus, we have been, we were
fuis´, you have been, you werefuis´tis, you have been, you were
fu´it, he has been, he wasfuê´runt or fuê´re, they have been, they were
Pluperfect (Tense Sign -erâ-)
fu´eram, I had beenfuerâ´mus, we had been
fu´erâs, you had beenfuerâ´tis, you had been
fu´erat, he had beenfu´erant, they had been
Future Perfect (Tense Sign -erâ-)
fu´erô, I shall have beenfue´rimus, we shall have been
fu´eris, you will have beenfue´ritis, you will have been
fu´erit, he will have beenfu´erint, they will have been

1. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect.

2. Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding eram, the imperfect of sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -erâ-.

3. Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding erô, the future of sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in -erint, not in -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-.

4. All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on the perfect stem and inflected in the same way.

188. DIALOGUE

The Boys Titus, Marcus, and Quintus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

M. Ubi fuistis, Tite et Quînte?
T. Ego in meô lûdô fuî et Quîntus in suô lûdô fuit. Bonî puerî fuimus. Fuitne Sextus in vîcô hodiê?
M. Fuit. Nûper per agrôs proximôs fluviô properâbat. Ibi is et Cornêlius habent nâvigium.
T. Nâvigium dîcis? Aliî1 nârrâ eam fâbulam!
M. Vêrô (Yes, truly), pulchrum et novum nâvigium!
Q. Cuius pecûniâ2 Sextus et Cornêlius id nâvigium parant? Quis iîs pecûniam dat?
M. Amîcî Cornêlî multum habent aurum et puer pecûniâ nôn eget.
T. Quô puerî nâvigâbunt? Nâvigâbuntne longê â terrâ?
M. Dubia sunt cônsilia eôrum. Sed hodiê, crêdô, sî ventus erit idôneus, ad maximam însulam nâvigâbunt. Iam anteâ ibi fuêrunt. Tum autem ventus erat perfidus et puerî magnô in perîculô erant.
Q. Aqua ventô commôta est inimîca nautîs semper, et saepe perfidus ventus nâvigia rapit, agit, dêletque. Iî puerî, sî nôn fuerint maximê attentî, îrâtâ aquâ et validô ventô superâbuntur et ita interficientur.

1. Dative case. (Cf. § 109.)
2. Ablative of means.

189. EXERCISE

1. Where had the boys been before? They had been in school. 2. Where had Sextus been? He had been in a field next to the river. 3. Who has been with Sextus to-day? Cornelius has been with him. 4. Who says so? Marcus. 5. If the wind has been suitable, the boys have been in the boat. 6. Soon we shall sail with the boys. 7. There3 will be no danger, if we are (shall have been) careful.4

3. The expletive there is not expressed, but the verb will precede the subject, as in English.
4. This predicate adjective must be nominative plural to agree with we.

LESSON XXXII

THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS

190. Meanings of the Perfect. The perfect tense has two distinct meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present perfect, or perfect with have, and denotes that the action of the verb is complete at the time of speaking; as, I have finished my work. As this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the perfect definite.

The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened sometime in the past; as, I finished my work. As no definite time is specified, this is called the perfect indefinite. It corresponds to the ordinary use of the English past tense.

a. Note carefully the difference between the following tenses:

Iwas finishing
used to finish
my work (imperfect, § 134)
I finished my work (perfect indefinite)
I have finished my work (perfect definite)

When telling a story the Latin uses the perfect indefinite to mark the different forward steps of the narrative, and the imperfect to describe situations and circumstances that attend these steps. If the following sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used?

"Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home."

191. Inflection of the Perfect. We learned in § 186 that any perfect is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows:

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
amâvîmonuîrêxîcêpîaudîvî
I have loved
I loved
or did love
I have advised
I advised
or did advise
I have ruled
I ruled
or did rule
I have taken
I took
or did take
I have heard
I heard
or did hear
Perfect Stems
amâv-monu-rêx-cêp-audîv-
Singular
1. amâ´vîmo´nuîrê´xîcê´pîaudî´vî
2. amâvis´monuis´rêxis´cêpis´audîvis´
3. amâ´vitmo´nuitrê´xitcê´pitaudî´vit
Plural
1. amâ´vimusmonu´imusrê´ximuscê´pimusaudî´vimus
2. amâvis´tismonuis´tisrêxis´tiscêpis´tisaudîvis´tis
3. amâvê´runt or amâvê´re monuê´runt or monuê´re rêxê´runt or rêxê´re cêpê´runt or cêpê´re audîvê´runt or audîvê´re

1. The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. This shows the absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly.

2. Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding -vî to the present stem. Like amâvî inflect parâvî, vocâvî, cûrâvî, laudâvî.

3. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it.

192. Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects:

Pres. Indic.Pres. Infin.Perf. Indic.
darededîgive
dêleôdêlêredêlêvîdestroy
habeôhabêrehabuîhave
moveômovêremôvîmove
pâreôpârêrepâruîobey
prohibeôprohibêreprohîbuîrestrain, keep from
videôvidêrevîdîsee
dîcôdîceredîxîsay
discêdôdiscêderediscessîdepart
dûcôdûceredûxîlead
faciôfacerefêcîmake, do
mittômitteremîsîsend
mûniômûnîremûnîvîfortify
veniôvenîrevênîcome

193. Perseus and Andromeda (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

Cêpheus, adversâ fortûnâ maximê commôtus, discessit et multîs cum lacrimîs populô Aethiopiae verba ôrâculî nârrâvit. Fâta Andromedae, puellae pulchrae, â tôtô populô dêplôrâbantur, tamen nûllum erat auxilium. Deinde Cêpheus cum plênô trîstitiae animô câram suam fîliam ex oppidî portâ ad aquam dûxit et bracchia eius ad saxa dûra revînxit. Tum amîcî puellae miserae longê discessêrunt et diû mônstrum saevum exspectâvêrunt.

Tum forte Perseus, âlîs frêtus, super Aethiopiam volâbat. Vîdit populum, Andromedam, lacrimâs, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram dêscendit. Tum Cêpheus eî tôtâs cûrâs nârrâvit et ita dîxit: "Pârêbô verbîs ôrâculî, et prô patriâ fîliam meam dabô; sed sî id mônstrum interficiês et Andromedam servâbis, tibi (to you) eam dabô."

LESSON XXXIII

PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE · PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE

194.

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
amômoneôregôcapiôaudiô
Perfect Stemsamâv-monu-rêx-cêp-audîv-
Pluperfect Indicative Active
Tense Sign -erâ-
SINGULAR
I had lovedI had advisedI had ruledI had takenI had heard
1. amâ´verammonu´eramrê´xeramcê´peramaudî´veram
2. amâ´verâsmonu´erâsrê´xerâscê´perâsaudî´verâs
3. amâ´veratmonu´eratrê´xeratcê´perataudî´verat
PLURAL
1. amâverâ´musmonuerâ´musrêxerâ´muscêperâ´musaudîverâ´mus
2. amâverâ´tismonuerâ´tisrêxerâ´tiscêperâ´tisaudîverâ´tis
3. ama´verantmonu´erantrê´xerantcê´perantaudî´verant
 
Future Perfect Indicative Active
Tense Sign -eri-
SINGULAR
I shall have loved I shall have advised I shall have ruled I shall have taken I shall have heard
1. amâ´verômonu´erôrê´xerôcê´perôaudî´verô
2. amâ´verismonu´erisrê´xeriscê´perisaudî´veris
3. amâ´veritmonu´eritrê´xeritcê´peritaudî´verit
PLURAL
1. amâve´rimusmonue´rimusrêxe´rimuscêpe´rimusaudîve´rimus
2. amâve´ritismonue´ritisrêxe´ritiscêpe´ritisaudîve´ritis
3. amâ´verintmonu´erintrê´xerintcê´perintaudî´verint

1. Observe that these are all inflected alike and the rules for formation given in § 187. 2-4 hold good here.

2. In like manner inflect the pluperfect and future perfect indicative active of , portô, dêleô, moveô, habeô, dîcô, discêdô, faciô, veniô, mûniô.

195. The Perfect Active Infinitive. The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem.

Conj.Perfect StemPerfect Infinitive
I.amâv-amâvis´se, to have loved
II.monu-monuis´se, to have advised
III.(a)rêx-rêxis´se, to have ruled
(b)cêp-cêpis´se, to have taken
IV.audîv-audîvis´se, to have heard
sumfu-fuis´se, to have been

1. In like manner give the perfect infinitive active of , portô, dêleô, moveô, habeô, dîcô, discêdô, faciô, veniô, mûniô.

196. EXERCISES

I. 1. Habuistî, môvêrunt, miserant. 2. Vîdit, dîxeris, dûxisse. 3. Mîsistis, pâruêrunt, discesserâmus. 4. Mûnîvit, dederam, mîserô. 5. Habuerimus, dêlêvî, pâruit, fuisse. 6. Dederâs, mûnîveritis, vênerâtis, mîsisse. 7. Vênerâs, fêcisse, dederâtis, portâveris.

8. Quem verba ôrâculî môverant? Populum verba ôrâculî môverant. 9. Cui Cêpheus verba ôrâculî nârrâverit? Perseô Cêpheus verba ôrâculî nârrâverit. 10. Amîcî ab Andromedâ discesserint. 11. Mônstrum saevum domicilia multa dêlêverat. 12. Ubi mônstrum vîdistis? Id in aquâ vîdimus. 13. Quid mônstrum faciet? Mônstrum Andromedam interficiet.

II. 1. They have obeyed, we have destroyed, I shall have had. 2. We shall have sent, I had come, they have fortified. 3. I had departed, he has obeyed, you have sent (sing. and plur.). 4. To have destroyed, to have seen, he will have given, they have carried. 5. He had destroyed, he has moved, you have had (sing. and plur.). 6. I have given, you had moved (sing. and plur.), we had said. 7. You will have made (sing. and plur.), they will have led, to have given.

8. Who had seen the monster? Andromeda had seen it. 9. Why had the men departed from1 the towns? They had departed because the monster had come. 10. Did Cepheus obey2 the oracle3? He did.

1. ex. What would ab mean?
2. Did ... obey, perfect tense.
3. What case?

LESSON XXXIV

REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE

197. A review of the tenses of the indicative active shows the following formation:

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE Present = First of the principal parts
Imperfect = Present stem + -ba-m
Future = Present stem + -bô, Conj. I and II
-a-m, Conj. III and IV
Perfect = Third of the principal parts
Pluperfect = Perfect stem + -era-m
Future Perfect = Perfect stem + -erô

198. The synopsis of the active voice of amô, as far as we have learned the conjugation, is as follows:

Principal Parts amô, amâre, amâvî

Pres. Stem amâ- Perf. Stem amâv-
Indic. Pres. amôIndic. Perf. amâvî
Imperf. amâbamPluperf. amâveram
Fut. amâ Fut. perf. amâverô
Pres. Imv. amâ
Pres. Infin. amâre Perf. Infin. amâvisse

1. Learn to write in the same form and to give rapidly the principal parts and synopsis of parô, , laudô, dêleô, habeô, moveô, pâreô, videô, dîcô, discêdô, dûcô, mittô, capiô, muniô, veniô.1

1. Learn to give synopses rapidly, and not only in the first person singular but in any person of either number.

199. Learn the following principal parts:2

Pres. Indic.Pres. Infin.Perf. Indic.
Irregular
Verbs
sum
ab´sum
esse
abes´se
dare
fuî
â´fuî
dedî
be
be away
give
Conjugation
II
contineô
doceô
egeô
faveô
iubeô
noceô
persuâdeô
respondeô
sedeô
studeô
continêre
docêre
egêre
favêre
iubêre
nocêre
persuâdêre
respondêre
sedêre
studêre
continuî
docuî
eguî
fâvî
iussî
nocuî
persuâsî
respondî
sêdî
studuî
hold in, keep
teach
need
favor
order
injure
persuade
reply
sit
be eager
Conjugation
III
agô
crêdô
fugiô
iaciô
interficiô
rapiô
resis´tô
agere
crêdere
fugere
iacere
interficere
rapere
resis´tere
êgî
crêdidî
fûgî
iêcî
interfêcî
rapuî
re´stitî
drive
believe
flee
hurl
kill
seize
resist
Conjugation
IV
repe´riôreperî´rerep´perîfind
2. These are all verbs that you have had before, and the perfect is the only new form to be learned.

200. Perseus and Andromeda (Concluded)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Read the whole story.

Perseus semper proeliô studêbat3 et respondit,3 "Verba tua sunt maximê grâta," et laetus arma sua magica parâvit.3 Subitô mônstrum vidêtur; celeriter per aquam properat et Andromedae adpropinquat. Eius amîcî longê absunt et misera puella est sôla. Perseus autem sine morâ super aquam volâvit.3 Subitô dêscendit3 et dûrô gladiô saevum mônstrum graviter vulnerâvit.3 Diû pugnâtur,4 diû proelium est dubium. Dênique autem Perseus mônstrum interfêcit3 et victôriam reportâvit.3 Tum ad saxum vênit3 et Andromedam lîberâvit3 et eam ad Cêpheum dûxit.3 Is, nûper miser, nunc laetus, ita dîxit3: "Tuô auxiliô, mî amîce, câra fîlia mea est lîbera; tua est Andromeda." Diû Perseus cum Andromedâ ibi habitâbat3 et magnopere â tôtô populô amâbâtur.3

3. See if you can explain the use of the perfects and imperfects in this passage.
4. The verb pugnâtur means, literally, it is fought; translate freely, the battle is fought, or the contest rages. The verb pugnô in Latin is intransitive, and so does not have a personal subject in the passive. A verb with an indeterminate subject, designated in English by it, is called impersonal.

LESSON XXXV

THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE · THE PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE

201. The fourth and last of the principal parts (§ 183) is the perfect passive participle. From it we get the participial stem on which are formed the future active infinitive and all the passive perfects.

1. Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time given in full:

Conj.Pres. Indic.Pres. Infin.Perf. Indic.Perf. Pass. Part
I.amôamâ´-reamâ´v-îamâ´t-us
This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation.
II.mo´neômonê´-remo´nu-îmo´nit-us
III.regôre´ge-rerêx-îrêct-us
ca´piôca´pe-recêp-îcapt-us
IV.au´diôaudî´-reaudî´v-îaudî´t-us

2. The base of the participial stem is found by dropping -us from the perfect passive participle.

202. In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle; as, I have been loved, I had been loved, I shall have been loved.

Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as

Perfect passive, amâ´tus sum, I have been or was loved
Pluperfect passive, amâ´tus eram, I had been loved
Future perfect passive, amâ´tus erô, I shall have been loved

1. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of moneô, regô, capiô, and audiô, and give the English meanings.

203. Nature of the Participle. A participle is partly verb and partly adjective. As a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an adjective it is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender, number, and case.

204. The perfect passive participle is declined like bonus, bona, bonum, and in the compound tenses (§ 202) it agrees as a predicate adjective with the subject of the verb.

Examples in
Singular
Vir laudâtus est, the man was praised, or has been praised
Puella laudâta est, the girl was praised, or has been praised
Cônsilium laudâtum est, the plan was praised, or has been praised
Examples in
Plural
Virî laudâtî sunt, the men were praised, or have been praised
Puellae laudâtae sunt, the girls were praised, or have been praised
Cônsilia laudâta sunt, the plans were praised, or have been praised

1. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive of amô, moneô, regô, capiô, and audiô (§§ 488-492).

205. The perfect passive infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the perfect passive participle; as, amâ´t-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been loved; mo´nit-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been advised.

1. Form the perfect passive infinitive of regô, capiô, audiô, and give the English meanings.

206. The future active infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the future active participle. This participle is made by adding -ûrus, -a, -um to the base of the participial stem. Thus the future active infinitive of amô is amat-û´rus (-a, -um) esse, to be about to love.

a. Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive we use all three conjugation stems:

Present, amâre (present stem), to love
Perfect, amâvisse (perfect stem), to have loved
Future, amâtûrus esse (participial stem), to be about to love

1. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of laudô, moneô, regô, capiô, audiô, with the English meanings.

207. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fâbula Andromedae nârrâta est. 2. Multae fâbulae â magistrô nârrâtae sunt. 3. Ager ab agricolâ validô arâtus erat. 4. Agrî ab agricolîs validîs arâtî erant. 5. Aurum â servô perfidô ad domicilium suum portâtum erit. 6. Nostra arma â lêgâtô laudâta sunt. Quis vestra arma laudâvit? 7. Ab ancillâ tuâ ad cênam vocâtae sumus. 8. Andromeda mônstrô nôn data est, quia mônstrum â Perseô necâtum erat.

II. 1. The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, the towns will have been laid waste. 2. The oracles were heard, the oracle was heard, the oracles had been heard. 3. The oracle will have been heard, the province had been captured, the boats have been captured. 4. The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the girls will have been advised. 5. The towns had been ruled, we shall have been captured, you will have been heard.

LESSON XXXVI

REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS · PREPOSITIONS YES-OR-NO QUESTIONS

208. The following list shows the principal parts of all the verbs you have had excepting those used in the paradigms. The parts you have had before are given for review, and the perfect participle is the only new form for you to learn. Sometimes one or more of the principal parts are lacking, which means that the verb has no forms based on that stem. A few verbs lack the perfect passive participle but have the future active participle in -ûrus, which appears in the principal parts instead.

Irregular Verbs
sum
absum
1
esse
abesse
dare
fuî
âfuî
dedî
futûrus
âfutûrus
datus
be
be away
give
1. is best classed with the irregular verbs because of the short a in the present and participial stems.
Conjugation I
portôportâreportâvîportâtuscarry
So for all verbs of this conjugation thus far used.
Conjugation II
contineô
dêleô
doceô
egeô
faveô
iubeô
moveô
noceô
pâreô
persuâdeô
prohibeô
respondeô
sedeô
studeô
videô
continêre
dêlêre
docêre
egêre
favêre
iubêre
movêre
nocêre
pârêre
persuâdêre
prohibêre
respondêre
sedêre
studêre
vidêre
continuî
dêlêvî
docuî
eguî
fâvî
iussî
môvî
nocuî
pâruî
persuâsî
prohibuî
respondî
sêdî
studuî
vîdî
contentus
dêlêtus
doctus
——
fautûrus
iussus
môtus
nocitûrus
——
persuâsus
prohibitus
respônsus
-sessus
——
vîsus
hold in, keep
destroy
teach
lack
favor
order
move
injure
obey
persuade (from)
restrain, keep
reply
sit
be eager
see
Conjugation III
agô
crêdô
dîcô
discêdô
dûcô
faciô2
fugiô
iaciô
interficiô
mittô
rapiô
resistô
agere
crêdere
dîcere
discêdere
dûcere
facere
fugere
iacere
interficere
mittere
rapere
resistere
êgî
crêdidî
dîxî
discessî
dûxî
fêcî
fûgî
iêcî
interfêcî
mîsî
rapuî
restitî
âctus
crêditus
dictus
discessus
ductus
factus
fugitûrus
iactus
interfectus
missus
raptus
——
drive
believe
say
depart
lead
make
flee
hurl
kill
send
seize
resist
Conjugation IV
mûniô
reperiô
veniô
mûnîre
reperîre
venîre
mûnîvî
rep´perî
vênî
mûnîtus
repertus
ventus
fortify
find
come
2. faciô has an irregular passive which will be presented later.

209. Prepositions. 1. We learned in §§ 52, 53 that only the accusative and the ablative are used with prepositions, and that prepositions expressing ablative relations govern the ablative case. Those we have had are here summarized. The table following should be learned.

â or ab, from, by
cum, with
, down from, concerning
ê or ex, out from, out of
prô, before, in front of; for, in behalf of
sine, without

2. Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the accusative (§ 52). Of these we have had the following:

ad, to
apud, among
per, through

There are many others which you will meet as we proceed.

3. The preposition in when meaning in or on governs the ablative; when meaning to, into, against (relations foreign to the ablative) in governs the accusative.

210. Yes-or-No Questions. Questions not introduced by some interrogative word like who, why, when, etc., but expecting the answer yes or no, may take one of three forms:

1. Is he coming? (Asking for information. Implying nothing as to the answer expected.)
2. Is he not coming? (Expecting the answer yes.)
3. He isn´t coming, is he? (Expecting the answer no.)

These three forms are rendered in Latin as follows:

1. Venitne? is he coming?
2. Nônne venit? is he not coming?
3. Num venit? he isn´t coming, is he?

a. -ne, the question sign, is usually added to the verb, which then stands first.

b. We learned in § 56. b that yes-or-no questions are usually answered by repeating the verb, with or without a negative. Instead of this, ita, vêrô, certê, etc. (so, truly, certainly, etc.) may be used for yes, and nôn, minimê, etc. for no if the denial is emphatic, as, by no means, not at all.

211. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

I. 1. Nônne habêbat Cornêlia ôrnâmenta aurî? Habêbat. 2. Num Sextus lêgâtus scûtum in dextrô bracchiô gerêbat? Nôn in dextrô, sed sinistrô in bracchiô Sextus scûtum gerêbat. 3. Frûstrâ bella multa ab Gallîs gesta erant. 4. Ubi oppidum â perfidô Sextô occupâtum est, oppidânî miserî gladiô interfectî sunt. 5. Id oppidum erat plênum frûmentî. 6. Nônne Sextus ab oppidânîs frûmentum postulâvit? Vêrô, sed iî recûsâvêrunt frûmentum dare. 7. Cûr oppidum ab Sextô dêlêtum est? Quia frûmentum recûsâtum est. 8. Ea victôria nôn dubia erat. 9. Oppidânî erant dêfessî et armîs egêbant. 10. Num fugam temptâvêrunt? Minimê.

II. 1. Where was Julia standing? She was standing where you had ordered. 2. Was Julia wearing any ornaments? She had many ornaments of gold. 3. Did she not attempt flight when she saw the danger? She did. 4. Who captured her? Galba captured her without delay and held her by the left arm. 5. She didn´t have the lady's gold, did she? No, the gold had been taken by a faithless maid and has been brought back.


Fourth Review, Lessons XXVII-XXXVI, §§ 513-516


LESSON XXXVII

CONJUGATION OF POSSUM · THE INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH

212. Learn the principal parts of possum, I am able, I can, and its inflection in the indicative and infinitive. (Cf. § 495.)

a. Possum, I can, is a compound of potis, able, and sum, I am.

213. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative. The infinitive (cf. § 173) is a verbal noun. Used as a noun, it has the constructions of a noun. As a verb it can govern a case and be modified by an adverb. The uses of the infinitive are much the same in Latin as in English.

1. In English certain verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like are used with an object clause consisting of a substantive in the objective case and an infinitive, as, he commanded the men to flee. Such object clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the substantive is said to be the subject of the infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, some verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like are used with an object clause consisting of an infinitive with a subject in the accusative case, as, Is virôs fugere iussit, he commanded the men to flee.

214. Rule. Subject of the Infinitive. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative.

215. The Complementary Infinitive. In English a verb is often followed by an infinitive to complete its meaning, as, the Romans are able to conquer the Gauls. This is called the complementary infinitive, as the predicate is not complete without the added infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, verbs of incomplete predication are completed by the infinitive. Among such verbs are possum, I am able, I can; properô, mâtûrô, I hasten; temptô, I attempt; as

Rômânî Gallôs superâre possunt, the Romans are able to (or can) conquer the Gauls
Bellum gerere mâtûrant, they hasten to wage war

a. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb.

Malî puerî esse bonî nôn possunt, bad boys are not able to (or cannot) be good.

Observe that bonî agrees with puerî.

216. The Infinitive used as a Noun. In English the infinitive is often used as a pure noun, as the subject of a sentence, or as a predicate nominative. For example, To conquer (= conquering) is pleasing; To see (= seeing) is to believe (= believing). The same use of the infinitive is found in Latin, especially with est, as

Superâre est grâtum, to conquer is pleasing
Vidêre est crêdere, to see is to believe

a. In the construction above, the infinitive often has a subject, which must then be in the accusative case, as

Galbam superâre inimîcôs est grâtum multîs,
for Galba to conquer his enemies is pleasing to many

b. An infinitive used as a noun is neuter singular. Thus, in the sentence superâre est grâtum, the predicate adjective grâtum is in the neuter nominative singular to agree with superâre the subject.

217. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Magister lûdî lîberôs cum dîligentiâ labôrâre iussit. 2. Egêre cibô et vinô est virîs molestum. 3. Virî armâtî vetuêrunt Gallôs castra ibi pônere. 4. Estne lêgâtus in castellô an in mûrô? Is est prô portâ. 5. Ubi nostrî1 fugere incêpêrunt, lêgâtus ab vestrîs1 captus est. 6. Gallî castellum ibi oppugnâverant ubi praesidium erat înfîrmum. 7. Aliî pugnâre temptâbant, aliî portâs petêbant. 8. Fêminae prô domiciliîs sedêbant neque resistere validîs Gallîs poterant. 9. Bellum est saevum, nec înfîrmîs nec miserîs favet. 10. Sed virî arma postulâbant et studêbant Gallôs dê mûrîs agere. 11. Id castellum ab Gallîs occupârî Rômânîs nôn grâtum erit. 12. Gallî ubi â Rômânîs victî sunt, esse lîberî2 cessâvêrunt. 13. Diû sine aquâ vîvere nôn potestis.

1. Supply men. nostri, vestrî, and suî are often used as nouns in this way.
2. Not children. The Romans used lîberî either as an adjective, meaning free, or as a noun, meaning the free, thereby signifying their free-born children. The word was never applied to children of slaves.

II. 1. The girl began daily to carry water from the river to the gates. 2. The Gauls had pitched their camp in a place suitable for a battle. 3. For a long time they tried in vain to seize the redoubt. 4. Neither did they cease to hurl weapons against3 the walls. 5. But they were not able to (could not) take the town.

3. in with the accusative.

218. The Faithless Tarpe´ia

Sabînî ôlim cum Rômânîs bellum gerêbant et multâs victôriâs reportâverant. Iam agrôs proximôs mûrîs vâstâbant, iam oppidô adpropinquâbant. Rômânî autem in Capitôlium fûgerant et longê perîculô aberant. Mûrîs validîs et saxîs altîs crêdêbant. Frûstrâ Sabînî têla iaciêbant, frûstrâ portâs dûrâs petêbant; castellum occupâre nôn poterant. Deinde novum cônsilium cêpêrunt.4

Tarpêia erat puella Rômâna pulchra et superba. Cotîdiê aquam côpiîs Rômânîs in Capitôlium portâbat. Eî5 nôn nocêbant Sabînî, quod ea sine armîs erat neque Sabînî bellum cum fêminîs lîberîsque gerêbant. Tarpêia autem maximê amâbat ôrnâmenta aurî. Cotîdiê Sabînôrum ôrnâmenta vidêbat et mox ea dêsîderâre incipiêbat. Eî ûnus ex6 Sabînîs dîxit, "Dûc côpiâs Sabînâs intrâ portâs, Tarpêia, et maxima erunt praemia tua."

4. cônsilium capere, to make a plan. Why is the perfect tense used here and the imperfect in the preceding sentences? Explain the use of tenses in the next paragraph.
5. Dative with nocêbant. (Cf. § 154.)
6. ex, out of, i.e. from the nuumber of; best translated of.

[Illustration: Tarpeia opens the gate for the soldiers
Caption: TARPEIA PUELLA PERFIDA]

LESSON XXXVIII

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

219. Sentences are simple, compound, or complex.

a. A simple sentence is a sentence containing but one statement, that is, one subject and one predicate: The Romans approached the town.

b. A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independent statements: The Romans approached the town | and | the enemy fled.

Note. An independent statement is one that can stand alone; it does not depend upon another statement.

c. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent statement and one or more dependent statements: When the Romans approached the town | the enemy fled.

Note. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on or qualifies another statement; thus the enemy fled is independent, and when the Romans approached the town is dependent or subordinate.

d. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. In a complex sentence the independent statement is called the main clause and the dependent statement the subordinate clause.

220. Examine the complex sentence

The Romans killed the men who were taken

Here are two clauses:

a. The main clause, The Romans killed the men

b. The subordinate clause, who were taken

The word who is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun men. It also connects the subordinate clause who were taken with the noun men. Hence the clause is an adjective clause. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a substantive is called a relative pronoun, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is called its antecedent. The relative pronouns in English are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.

221. The relative pronoun in Latin is quî, quae, quod, and it is declined as follows:

SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quîquaequodquîquaequae
Gen.cuiuscuiuscuiusquôrumquârumquôrum
Dat.cuicuicuiquibusquibusquibus
Acc.quemquamquodquôsquâsquae
Abl.quôquâquôquibusquibusquibus

1. Review the declension of is, § 114, and note the similarity in the endings. The forms quî, quae, and quibus are the only forms showing new endings.

Note. The genitive cuius and the dative cui are pronounced c[oo]i´y[oo]s (two syllables) and c[oo]i (one syllable).

222. The Relative Pronoun is translated as follows:1

Masc. and Fem.Neut.
Nom.who, thatwhich, what, that
Gen.of whom, whoseof which, of what, whose
Dat.to or for whomto or for which, to or for what
Acc.whom, thatwhich, what, that
Abl.from, etc., whomfrom, etc., which or what
1. This table of meanings need not be memorized. It is inserted for reference when translating.

a. We see from the table above that quî, when it refers to a person, is translated by some form of who or by that; and that when it refers to anything else it is translated by which, what, or that.

223. Note the following sentences:

The Romans killed the men who were taken
The Romans killed the woman who was taken
Rômânî interfêcêrunt virôs quî captî sunt
Rômânî interfêcêrunt fêminam quae capta est

In the first sentence who (quî) refers to the antecedent men (virôs), and is masculine plural. In the second, who (quae) refers to woman (fêminam), and feminine singular. From this we learn that the relative must agree with its antecedent in gender and number. In neither of the sentences are the antecedents and relatives in the same case. Virôs and fêminam are accusatives, and quî and quae are nominatives, being the subjects of the subordinate clauses. Hence

224. Rule. Agreement of the Relative. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause.

225. Interrogative Pronouns. An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that asks a question. In English the interrogatives are who? which? what? In Latin they are quis? quid? (pronoun) and quî? quae? quod? (adjective).

226. Examine the sentences

a. Who is the man? Quis est vir?
b. What man is leading them? Quî vir eôs dûcit?

In a, who is an interrogative pronoun. In b, what is an interrogative adjective. Observe that in Latin quis, quid is the pronoun and quî, quae, quod is the adjective.

227. 1. The interrogative adjective quî, quae, quod is declined just like the relative pronoun. (See § 221.)

2. The interrogative pronoun quis, quid is declined like quî, quae, quod in the plural. In the singular it is declined as follows:

Masc. and Fem.Neut.
Nom.quis, who?quid, what? which?
Gen.cuius, whose?cuius, whose?
Dat.cui, to or for whom?cui, to or for what or which?
Acc.quem, whom?quid, what? which?
Abl.quô, from, etc., whom?quô, from, etc., which or what?

Note. Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis and quid.

228. EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis est aeger? Servus quem amô est aeger. 2. Cuius scûtum habês? Scûtum habeô quod lêgâtus ad castellum mîsit. 3. Cui lêgâtus suum scûtum dabit? Fîliô meô scûtum dabit. 4. Ubi Germânî antîquî vîvêbant? In terrâ quae est proxima Rhênô Germânî vîvêbant. 5. Quibuscum2 Germânî bellum gerêbant? Cum Rômânîs, qui eôs superâre studêbant, Germânî bellum gerêbant. 6. Quî virî castra pônunt? Iî sunt virî quôrum armîs Germânî victî sunt. 7. Quibus têlîs côpiae nostrae eguêrunt? Gladiîs et telîs nostrae côpiae eguêrunt. 8. Â quibus porta sinistra tenêbâtur? Â sociîs porta sinistra tenêbâtur. 9. Quae prôvinciae â Rômânîs occupâtae sunt? Multae prôvinciae â Rômânîs occupâtae sunt. 10. Quibus virîs deî favêbunt? Bonîs virîs deî favêbunt.

2. cum is added to the ablative of relative, interrogative, and personal pronouns instead of being placed before them.

[Illustration: warriors coming home to Gaul
Caption: GERMANI ANTIQUI]

II. 1. What victory will you announce? 2. I will announce to the people the victory which the sailors have won. 3. The men who were pitching camp were eager for battle. 4. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by the troops which Sextus had sent. 5. They could not resist our forces, but fled from that place without delay.

229. The Faithless Tarpeia (Concluded)3

Tarpêia, commôta ôrnamentîs Sabînôrum pulchrîs, diû resistere nôn potuit et respondit: "Date mihi4 ôrnâmenta quae in sinistrîs bracchîs geritis, et celeriter côpiâs vestrâs in Capitôlium dûcam." Nec Sabînî recûsâvêrunt, sed per dûrâs magnâsque castellî portâs properâvêrunt quô5 Tarpêia dûxit et mox intrâ validôs et altôs mûrôs stâbant. Tum sine morâ in6 Tarpêiam scûta graviter iêcêrunt; nam scûta quoque in sinistrîs bracchiîs gerêbant. Ita perfida puella Tarpêia interfecta est; ita Sabînî Capitôlium occupâvêrunt.

3. Explain the use of the tenses in this selection.
4. to me.
5. quô = whither, to the place where. Here quo is the relative adverb. We have had it used before as the interrogative adverb, whither? to what place?
6. upon.

LESSON XXXIX

THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS

230. Bases and Stems. In learning the first and second declensions we saw that the different cases were formed by adding the case terminations to the part of the word that did not change, which we called the base. If to the base we add in the first declension, and -o in the second, we get what is called the stem. Thus porta has the base port- and the stem portâ-; servus has the base serv- and the stem servo-.

These stem vowels, -â- and -o-, play so important a part in the formation of the case terminations that these declensions are named from them respectively the Â- and O-Declensions.

231. Nouns of the Third Declension. The third declension is called the Consonant or I-Declension, and its nouns are classified according to the way the stem ends. If the last letter of the stem is a consonant, the word is said to have a consonant stem; if the stem ends in -i-, the word is said to have an i-stem. In consonant stems the stem is the same as the base. In i-stems the stem is formed by adding -i- to the base. The presence of the i makes a difference in certain of the cases, so the distinction is a very important one.

232. Consonant stems are divided into two classes:

I. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular.

II. Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular.

CLASS I

233. Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows:

prînceps, m., chiefmîles, m., soldierlapis, m., stone
Bases or
Stems
prîncip-mîlit-lapid-
SingularTerminations
M. and F.
Nom.prîncepsmîleslapis-s
Gen.prîn´cipismîlitislapidis-is
Dat.prîn´cipîmîlitîlapidî
Acc.prîn´cipemmîlitemlapidem-em
Abl.prîn´cipemîlitelapide-e
Plural
Nom.prîn´cipêsmîlitêslapidês-ês
Gen.prîn´cipummîlitumlapidum-um
Dat.prînci´pibusmîlitibuslapidibus-ibus
Acc.prîn´cipêsmîlitêslapidês-ês
Abl.prînci´pibusmîlitibuslapidibus-ibus
 
rêx, m., kingiûdex, m., judgevirtûs, f., manliness
Bases or
Stems
rêg-iûdic-virtût-
Nom.rêxiûdexvirtûs-s
Gen.rêgisiûdicisvirtû´tis-is
Dat.rêgîiûdicîvirtû´tî
Acc.rêgemiûdicemvirtû´tem-em
Abl.rêgeiûdicevirtû´te-e
Plural
Nom.rêgêsiûdicêsvirtû´tês-ês
Gen.rêgumiûdicumvirtû´tum-um
Dat.rêgibusiûdicibusvirtû´tibus-ibus
Acc.rêgêsiûdicêsvirtû´tês-ês
Abl.rêgibusiûdicibusvirtû´tibus-ibus

1. The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singular.

2. Most nouns of two syllables, like prînceps (prîncip-), mîles (mîlit-), iûdex (iûdic-), have i in the base, but e in the nominative.

a. lapis is an exception to this rule.

3. Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the nominative:

a. A final -t or -d is dropped before -s; thus mîles for mîlets, lapis for lapids, virtûs for virtûts.

b. A final -c or -g unites with -s and forms -x; thus iûdec + s = iûdex, rêg + s = rêx.

4. Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

In like manner decline dux, ducis, m., leader; eques, equitis, m., horseman; pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier; pês, pedis, m.,foot.

234. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Neque peditês neque equitês occupâre castellum Rômânum poterant. 2. Summâ virtûte mûrôs altôs cotîdiê oppugnâbant. 3. Pedes mîlitum lapidibus quî dê mûrô iaciêbantur saepe vulnerâbantur. 4. Quod novum cônsilium dux cêpit? 5. Is perfidam puellam pulchrîs ôrnâmentîs temptâvit. 6. Quid puella fêcit? 7. Puella commôta aurô mîlitês per portâs dûxit. 8. Tamen praemia quae summô studiô petîverat nôn reportâvit. 9. Apud Rômânôs antîquôs Tarpêia nôn est laudâta.

II. 1. What ship is that which I see? That (illud) ship is the Victory. It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon approach Italy. 2. The judges commanded the savages to be seized and to be killed. 3. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to flee, but were quickly captured by the horsemen. 4. The king led the foot soldiers to the wall from which the townsmen were hurling stones with the greatest zeal.

[Illustration: ship with oars
Caption: NAVIGIUM]

LESSON XL

THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS (Continued)

CLASS II

235. Consonant stems that add no termination in the nominative are declined in the other cases exactly like those that add -s. They may be masculine, feminine, or neuter.

236. PARADIGMS

Masculines and Feminines
cônsul, m., consullegiô, f., legionôrdô, m., rowpater, m., father
Bases or
Stems
cônsul-legiôn-ôrdin-patr-
SingularTerminations
M. and F.
Nom.cônsullegiôôrdôpater
Gen.cônsulislegiônisôrdinispatris-is
Dat.cônsulîlegiônîôrdinîpatrî
Acc.cônsulemlegiônemôrdinempatrem-em
Abl.cônsulelegiôneôrdinepatre-e
Plural
Nom.cônsulêslegiônêsôrdinêspatrês-ês
Gen.cônsulumlegiônumôrdinumpatrum-um
Dat.cônsulibuslegiônibusôrdinibuspatribus-ibus
Acc.cônsulêslegiônêsôrdinêspatrês-ês
Abl.cônsulibuslegiônibusôrdinibuspatribus-ibus

1. With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way.

2. Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -ôn- drop -n- and end in in the nominative, as legiô (base or stem legiôn-), ôrdô (base or stem ôrdin-).

3. Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater (base or stem patr-).

4. Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole declension. Always learn this with the nominative.

237. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Audîsne tubâs, Mârce? Nôn sôlum tubâs audiô sed etiam ôrdinês militum et carrôs impedîmentôrum plênôs vidêre possum. 2. Quâs legiônês vidêmus? Eae legiônês nûper ex Galliâ vênêrunt. 3. Quid ibi fêcêrunt? Studêbantne pugnâre an sine virtûte erant? 4. Multa proelia fêcêrunt1 et magnâs victôriâs et multôs captîvôs reportâvêrunt. 5. Quis est imperâtor eârum legiônum? Caesar, summus Rômânôrum imperâtor. 6. Quis est eques quî pulchram corônam gerit? Is eques est frâter meus. Eî corôna â cônsule data est quia summâ virtûte pugnâverat et â barbarîs patriam servâverat.

II. 1. Who has seen my father to-day? 2. I saw him just now (nûper). He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and sister. 3. When men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they cannot be restrained2 from wrong3. 4. The safety of the soldiers is dear to Cæsar, the general. 5. The chiefs were eager to storm a town full of grain which was held by the consul. 6. The king forbade the baggage of the captives to be destroyed.

1. proelium facere = to fight a battle.
2. contineô. Cf. § 180.
3. Abl. iniûriâ.

LESSON XLI

THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS (Concluded)

238. Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative and are declined as follows:

flûmen, n., rivertempus, n., timeopus, n., workcaput, n., head
Bases or
Stems
flûmin-tempor-oper-capit-
SingularTerminations
Nom.flûmentempusopuscaput
Gen.flûministemporisoperiscapitis -is-is
Dat.flûminîtemperîoperîcapitî
Acc.flûmentempusopuscaput
Abl.flûminetemporeoperecapite-e
Plural
Nom.flûminatemporaoperacapita-a
Gen.flûminumtemporumoperumcapitum-um
Dat.flûminibustemporibusoperibuscapitibus-ibus
Acc.flûminatemporaoperacapita-a
Abl.flûminibustemporibusoperibuscapitibus-ibus

1. Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

2. Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative, as flûmen, base or stem flûmin-.

3. Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor-.

239. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Barbarî ubi Rômam cêpêrunt, maxima rêgum opera dêlêvêrunt. 2. Rômânî multâs calamitâtês â barbarîs accêpêrunt. 3. Ubi erat summus terror apud oppidânôs, animî dubiî eôrum ab ôrâtôre clarô cônfîrmâti sunt. 4. Rôma est in rîpîs fiûminis magnî. 5. Ubi Caesar imperâtor mîlitês suôs arma capere iussit, iî â proeliô continêrî nôn potuêrunt. 6. Ubi proelium factum est, imperâtor reperîrî nôn potuit. 7. Imperâtor sagittâ in capite vulnerâtus erat et stâre nôn poterat. 8. Eum magnô labôre pedes ex proeliô portâvit. 9. Is bracchiîs suîs imperâtôrem tenuit et eum ex perîculîs summîs servâvit. 10. Virtûte suâ bonus mîles ab imperâtôre corônam accêpit.

II. 1. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. 2. Before the gates he was received by the townsmen. 3. A famous orator praised him and said, "By your labors you have saved the fatherland from disaster." 4. The words of the orator were pleasing to the victor. 5. To save the fatherland was a great task.

[Illustration: garland with text "civis observatos"
Caption: CORONA]

LESSON XLII

REVIEW LESSON

240. Review the paradigms in §§ 233, 236, 238; and decline all nouns of the third declension in this selection.

Terror Cimbricus1

Ôlim Cimbrî et Teutonês, populî Germâniae, cum fêminîs lîberîsque Italiae adpropinquâverant et côpiâs Rômânâs maximô proeliô vîcerant. Ubi fuga legiônum nûntiâta est, summus erat terror tôtîus Rômae, et Rômânî, graviter commôtî, sacra crêbra deîs faciêbant et salûtem petêbant.

Tum Mânlius ôrâtor animôs populî ita cônfîrmâvit:—"Magnam calamitâtem accêpimus. Oppida nostra â Cimbrîs Teutonibusque capiuntur, agricolae interficiuntur, agrî vâstantur, côpiae barbarôrum Rômae adpropinquant. Itaque, nisi novîs animîs proelium novum faciêmus et Germânôs ex patriâ nostrâ sine morâ agêmus, erit nûlla salûs fêminîs nostrîs lîberîsque. Servâte lîberôs! Servâte patriam! Anteâ superâtî sumus quia imperâtôrês nostrî fuêrunt înfîrmî. Nunc Marius, clârus imperâtor, quî iam multâs aliâs victôriâs reportâvit, legiônês dûcet et animôs nostrôs terrôre Cimbricô lîberâre mâtûrâbit."

Marius tum in Âfricâ bellum gerêbat. Sine morâ ex Âfricâ in Italiam vocâtus est. Côpiâs novâs nôn sôlum tôtî Italiae sed etiam prôvinciîs sociôrum imperâvit.2 Disciplînâ autem dûrâ labôribusque perpetuîs mîlitês exercuit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, quî iam proeliô studêbant, ad Germânôrum castra celeriter properâvit. Diû et âcriter pugnâtum est.3 Dênique barbarî fûgêrunt et multî in fugâ ab equitibus sunt interfectî. Marius pater patriae vocâtus est.

1. About the year 100 B.C. the Romans were greatly alarmed by an invasion of barbarians from the north known as Cimbri and Teutons. They were traveling with wives and children, and had an army of 300,000 fighting men. Several Roman armies met defeat, and the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called upon Marius, their greatest general, to save the country. First he defeated the Teutons in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible battle ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed; but the terror Cimbricus continued to haunt the Romans for many a year thereafter.
2. He made a levy (of troops) upon, imperâvit with the acc. and the dat.
3. Cf. § 200. II. 2.

LESSON XLIII

THE THIRD DECLENSION · I-STEMS

241. To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are

1. Masculines and feminines:

a. Nouns in -ês and -îs with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus caedês, caedis, is an i-stem, but mîles, mîlitis, is a consonant stem.

b. Nouns in -ns and -rs.

c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant.

2. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar.

242. The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of consonant stems. Note the following differences:

a. Masculines and feminities have -ium in the genitive plural and -îs or -ês in the accusative plural.

b. Neuters have in the ablative singular, and an -i- in every form of the plural.

243. Masculine and Feminine I-Stems. Masculine and feminine i-stems are declined as follows:

caedês, f., slaughterhostis, m., enemyurbs, f., citycliêns, m., retainer
Stemscaedi-hosti-urbi-clienti-
Basescaed-host-urb-client-
SingularTerminations
M. and F.
Nom.caedêshostisurbscliêns1-s, -is, or -ês
Gen.caedishostisurbisclientis-is
Dat.caedîhostîurbîclientî
Acc.caedemhostemurbemclientem-em (-im)
Abl.caedehosteurbecliente-e ()
Plural
Nom.caedêshostêsurbêsclientês-ês
Gen.caediumhostiumurbiumclientium-ium
Dat.caedibushostibusurbibusclientibus-ibus
Acc.caedîs, -êshostîs, -êsurbîs, -êsclientîs, -ês-îs, -ês
Abl.caedibushostibusurbibusclientibus-ibus
1. Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before -nt. Cf. § 12. 2, 3.

1. avis, cîvis, fînis, ignis, nâvis have the ablative singular in or -e.

2. turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrî or turre.

244. Neuter I-Stems. Neuter i-stems are declined as follows:

însigne, n., decorationanimal, n., animalcalcar, n., spur
Stemsînsigni-animâli-calcâri-
Basesînsign-animâl-calcâr-
SingularTerminations
Nom.însigneanimalcalcar-e or
Gen.însignisanimâliscalcâris-is
Dat.însignîanimâlîcalcârî
Acc.însigneanimalcalcar-e or
Abl.însignîanimâlîcalcârî
Plural
Nom.însigniaanimâliacalcâria-ia
Gen.însigniumanimâliumcalcârium-ium
Dat.însignibusanimâlibuscalcâribus-ibus
Acc.însigniaanimâliacalcâria-ia
Abl.însignibusanimâlibuscalcâribus-ibus

1. Review § 74 and see how it applies to this declension.

2. The final -i- of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative. If not dropped, it is changed to -e.

3. A long vowel is shortened before final -l or -r. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

245. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Quam urbem vidêmus? Urbs quam vidêtis est Rôma. 2. Cîvês Rômânî urbem suam turribus altîs et mûrîs longîs mûnîverant. 3. Ventî nâvîs longâs prohibêbant fînibus hostium adpropinquâre. 4. Imperâtor a clientibus suîs calcâria aurî et alia însignia accêpit. 5. Mîlitês Rômânî cum hostibus bella saeva gessêrunt et eôs caede magnâ superâvêrunt. 6. Alia animâlia terram, alia mare amant. 7. Nâvês longae quae auxilium ad imperâtôrem portâbant ignî ab hostibus dêlêtae sunt. 8. In eô marî avis multâs vîdimus quae longê â terrâ volâverant. 9. Nônne vîdistis nâvîs longâs hostium et ignîs quibus urbs nostra vâstâbâtur? Certê, sed nec caedem cîvium nec fugam clientium vîdimus. 10. Avês et alia animâlia, ubi ignem vîdêrunt, salûtem fugâ petere celeriter incêpêrunt. 11. Num. iûdex in peditum ôrdinibus stâbat? Minimê, iûdex erat apud equitês et equus eius însigne pulchrum gerêbat.

[Illustration: longboats with oars and sails
Caption: NAVES LONGAE]

II. 1. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not able to live. 2. When the general2 heard the rumor, he quickly sent a horseman to the village. 3. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore spurs of gold. 4. He said to the citizens, "Send your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of grain." 5. With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words.3

2. Place first.
3. Not the accusative. Why?

LESSON XLIV

IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION · GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION

246. PARADIGMS

{Transcriber's Note:
The "Stems" are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.}

vîs, f., forceiter, n., march
Stemsvî- and vîri-iter- and itiner-
Basesv- and vîr-iter- and itiner-
Singular
Nom.siter
Gen.vîs (rare)itineris
Dat.vî (rare)itinerî
Acc.vimiter
Abl.itinere
Plural
Nom.vîrêsitinera
Gen.vîriumitinerum
Dat.vîribusitineribus
Acc.vîrîs, or -êsitinera
Abl.vîribusitineribus

247. There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions.1 The following rules, however, are of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered:

1. Masculine are nouns in -or, -ôs, -er, -es (gen. -itis).

a. arbor, tree, is feminine; and iter, march, is neuter.

2. Feminine are nouns in , -is, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant or by any long vowel but ô.

a. Masculine are collis (hill), lapis, mênsis (month), ôrdô, pês, and nouns in -nis and -guis—as ignis, sanguis (blood)—and the four monosyllables

dêns, a tooth
môns, a mountain
pôns, a bridge
fôns, a fountain

3. Neuters are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -us, and caput.

1. Review § 60. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.

248. Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it is determined:

animalcalamitâsflûmenlapisnâvis
aviscaputignislegiôopus
caedêsequesînsignemaresalûs
calcarfînislabormîlesurbs

249. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salûs sociôrum erat semper câra Rômânîs. Ôlim Gallî, amîcî Rômânôrum, multâs iniûriâs ab Germânîs quî trâns flûmen Rhênum vivêbant accêperant. Ubi lêgâtî ab iîs ad Caesarem imperâtôrem Rômânum vênêrunt et auxilium postulâvêrunt, Rômânî magnîs itineribus ad hostium fînîs properâvêrunt. Mox ad rîpâs magnî flûminis vênêrunt. Imperâtor studêbat côpiâs suâs trâns fluvium dûcere, sed nûllâ viâ2 poterat. Nûllâs nâvîs habêbat. Alta erat aqua. Imperâtor autem, vir clârus, numquam adversâ fortûnâ commôtus, novum cônsilium cêpit. Iussit suôs3 in4 lâtô flûmine facere pontem. Numquam anteâ pôns in Rhênô vîsus erat. Hostês ubi pontem quem Rômânî fêcerant vîdêrunt, summô terrôre commôtî, sine morâ fugam parâre incêpêrunt.

II. 1. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the mountain. 2. There were many trees on the opposite hills. 3. We pitched our camp near (ad) a beautiful spring. 4. A march through the enemies' country is never without danger. 5. The time of the month was suitable for the march. 6. The teeth of the monster were long. 7. When the foot soldiers4 saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.5

2. Abl. of manner.
3. suôs, used as a noun, his men.
4. We say build a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on.
5. Place first.

Fifth Review, Lessons XXXVII-XLIV, §§ 517-520


LESSON XLV

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION · I-STEMS

250. Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like bonus, aeger, or lîber), or they are of the third declension.

251. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems, and they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems.

252. Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the nominative for each gender, as, bonus, m.; bona, f.; bonum, n. Such an adjective is called an adjective of three endings. Adjectives of the third declension are of the following classes:

I.Adjectives of three endings—
a different form in the nominative for each gender.
II.Adjectives of two endings—
masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different.
III.Adjectives of one ending—
masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike.

253. Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings; those in -is have two endings; the others have one ending.

CLASS I

254. Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows:

âcer, âcris, âcre, keen, eager
Stem âcri-Base âcr-
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.âcerâcrisâcreâcrêsâcrêsâcria
Gen.âcrisâcrisâcrisâcriumâcriumâcrium
Dat.âcrîâcrîâcrîâcribusâcribusâcribus
Acc.âcremâcremâcreâcrîs, -êsâcrîs, -êsâcria
Abl.âcrîâcrîâcrîâcribusâcribusâcribus

CLASS II

255. Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows:

omnis, omne, every, all1
Stem omni-Base omn-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.omnisomneomnêsomnia
Gen.omnisomnisomniumomnium
Dat.omnîomnîomnibusomnibus
Acc.omnemomneomnîs, êsomnia
Abl.omnîomnîomnibusomnibus
1. omnis is usually translated every in the singular and all in the plural.

CLASS III

256. Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows:

pâr, equal
Stem pari-Base par-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.pârpârparêsparia
Gen.parisparispariumparium
Dat.parîparîparibusparibus
Acc.parempârparîs, êsparia
Abl.parîparîparibusparibus

1. All i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular.

2. Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural.

3. Decline vir âcer, legiô âcris, animal âcre, ager omnis, scûtum omne, proelium pâr.

257. There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems.

258. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. The Romans invade the Enemy's Country. Ôlim peditês Rômânî cum equitibus vêlôcibus in hostium urbem iter faciêbant. Ubi nôn longê âfuêrunt, rapuêrunt agricolam, quî eîs viam brevem et facilem dêmônstrâvit. Iam Rômânî moenia alta, turrîs validâs aliaque opera urbis vidêre poterant. In moenibus stâbant multî prîncipês. Prîncipês ubi vîdêrunt Rômânôs, iussêrunt cîvîs lapidês aliaque têla dê mûrîs iacere. Tum mîlitês fortês continêrî â proeliô nôn poterant et âcer imperâtor signum tubâ darî iussit. Summâ vî omnês mâtûrâvêrunt. Imperâtor Sextô lêgâtô impedîmenta omnia mandâvit. Sextus impedîmenta in summô colle conlocâvit. Grave et âcre erat proelium, sed hostês nôn parês Rômânîs erant. Aliî interfectî, aliî captî sunt. Apud captîvôs erant mâter sororque rêgis. Paucî Rômânôrum ab hostibus vulnerâtî sunt. Secundum proelium Rômânîs erat grâtum. Fortûna fortibus semper favet.

II. 1. Some months are short, others are long. 2. To seize the top of the mountain was difficult. 3. Among the hills of Italy are many beautiful springs. 4. The soldiers were sitting where the baggage had been placed because their feet were weary. 5. The city which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high towers. 6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been faithless.

[Illustration: legionary eagle, SPQR
Caption: AQUILA LEGIONIS]

LESSON XLVI

THE FOURTH OR U-DECLENSION

259. Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter.

260. Masculine nouns end in -us, neuters in . The genitive ends in -ûs.

a. Feminine by exception are domus, house; manus, hand; and a few others.

PARADIGMS

{Transcriber's Note:
The "Stems" are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.}

adventus, m., arrivalcornû, n., horn
Stemsadventu-cornu-
Basesadvent-corn-
SingularTerminations
MASC.NEUT.
Nom.adventuscornû-us
Gen.adventûscornûs-ûs-ûs
Dat.advent (û)cornû-uî (û)
Acc.adventumcornû-um
Abl.adventûcornû
Plural
Nom.adventûscornua-ûs-ua
Gen.adventuumcornuum-uum-uum
Dat.adventibuscornibus-ibus-ibus
Acc.adventûscornua-ûs-ua
Abl.adventibuscornibus-ibus-ibus

1. Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by dropping the ending of the genitive singular.

2. lacus, lake, has the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural; portus, harbor, has either -ubus or -ibus.

3. cornû is the only neuter that is in common use.

261. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Ante adventum Caesaris vêlôcês hostium equitês âcrem impetum in castra fêcêrunt. 2. Continêre exercitum â proeliô nôn facile erat. 3. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiônês ex castrîs dûcî. 4. Prô castrîs cum hostium equitâtû pugnâtum est. 5. Post tempus breve equitâtus trâns flûmen fûgit ubi castra hostium posita erant. 6. Tum victor imperâtor agrôs vâstâvit et vîcôs hostium cremâvit. 7. Castra autem nôn oppugnâvit quia mîlitês erant dêfessî et locus difficilis. 8. Hostês nôn cessâvêrunt iacere têla, quae paucîs nocuêrunt. 9. Post adversum proelium principês Gallôrum lêgâtôs ad Caesarem mittere studêbant, sed populô persuâdêre nôn poterant.

II. 1. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? 2. I did not see it (fem.) on the lake, but I saw it in the harbor. 3. Because of the strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. 4. Cæsar didn´t make an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? 5. No, he made an attack on the left wing. 6. Who taught your swift horse to obey? 7. I trained my horse with my (own) hands, nor was the task difficult. 8. He is a beautiful animal and has great strength.

LESSON XLVII

EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE · THE DECLENSION OF DOMUS

262. We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the following:

Galba ad (or in) oppidum properat
Galba ab ( or ex) oppidô properat
Galba in oppidô habitat

From these expressions we may deduce the following rules:

263. Rule. Accusative of the Place to. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. This answers the question Whither?

264. Rule. Ablative of the Place from. The place from which is expressed by â or ab, , ê or ex, with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? (Cf. Rule, § 179.)

265. Rule. Ablative of the Place at or in. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where?

a. The ablative denoting the place where is called the locative ablative (cf. locus, place).

266. Exceptions. Names of towns, small islands,1 domus, home, rûs, country, and a few other words in common use omit the prepositions in expressions of place, as,

Galba Athênâs properat, Galba hastens to Athens
Galba Athênîs properat, Galba hastens from Athens
Galba Athênîs habitat, Galba lives at (or in) Athens
Galba domum properat, Galba hastens home
Galba rûs properat, Galba hastens to the country
Galba domô properat, Galba hastens from home
Galba rûre properat, Galba hastens from the country
Galba rûrî (less commonly rûre) habitat, Galba lives in the country

a. Names of countries, like Germânia, Italia, etc., do not come under these exceptions. With them prepositions must not be omitted.

1. Small islands are classed with towns because they generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as the name of the island.

267. The Locative Case. We saw above that the place-relation expressed by at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. However, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the ablative excepting in the singular number of the first and second declensions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the genitive singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small islands, domî, at home, and a few other words.

268. Rule. Locative and Locative Ablative. To express the place in which with names of towns and small islands, if they are singular and of the first or second declension, use the locative; otherwise use the locative ablative without a preposition; as,

Galba Rômae habitat, Galba lives at Rome
Galba Corinthî habitat, Galba lives at Corinth
Galba domî habitat, Galba lives at home

Here Rômae, Corinthî, and domî are locatives, being singular and of the first and second declensions respectively. But in

Galba Athênîs habitat, Galba lives at Athens,
Galba Pompêiîs habitat, Galba lives at Pompeii

Athênîs and Pompêiîs are locative ablatives. These words can have no locative case, as the nominatives Athênae and Pompêiî areplural and there is no plural locative case form.

269. The word domus, home, house, has forms of both the second and the fourth declension. Learn its declension (§ 468).

270. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Corinthî omnia însignia aurî â ducibus victôribus rapta erant. 2. Caesar Genâvam exercitum magnîs itineribus dûxit. 3. Quem pontem hostês cremâverant? Pontem in Rhênô hostês cremâverant. 4. Pompêiîs multâs Rômânôrum domôs vidêre poteritis. 5. Rômâ cônsul equô vêlôcî rûs properâvit. 6. Domî cônsulis hominês multî sedêbant. 7. Imperâtor iusserat lêgâtum Athênâs cum multîs nâvibus longîs nâvigâre. 8. Ante moenia urbis sunt ôrdinês arborum altârum. 9. Propter arborês altâs nec lacum nec portum reperîre potuimus. 10. Proeliîs crêbrîs Caesar legiônês suâs quae erant in Galliâ exercêbat. 11. Cotîdiê in locô idoneô castra pônêbat et mûniêbat.

II. 1. Cæsar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.2 2. He had heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. 3. After his arrival Cæsar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. 4. The enemy hastened to retreat, some because3 they were afraid, others because3 of wounds. 5. Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the judges used to sit.4 6. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers; the one lives at Rome, the other in the country.

2. Latin says "by a swift horse." What construction?
3. Distinguish between the English conjunction because (quia or quod) and the preposition because of (propter).
4. used to sit, express by the imperfect.

[Illustration: Daedalus and Icarus
Caption: DAEDALUS ET ICARUS

271. Daed´alus and Ic´arus

Crêta est însula antîqua quae aquâ altâ magnî maris pulsâtur. Ibi ôlim Mînôs erat rêx. Ad eum vênit Daedalus quî ex Graeciâ patriâ fugiêbat. Eum Mînôs rêx benignîs verbîs accêpit et eî domicilium in Crêtâ dedit. 5Quô in locô Daedalus sine cûrâ vîvebat et rêgî multa et clâra opera faciêbat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam câram dêsîderâre incêpit. Domum properâre studêbat, sed rêgî persuâdêre nôn potuit et mare saevum fugam vetâbat.

5. And in this place; quô does not here introduce a subordinate relative clause, but establishes the connection with the preceding sentence. Such a relative is called a connecting relative, and is translated by and and a demonstrative or personal pronoun.

LESSON XLVIII

THE FIFTH OR Ê-DECLENSION · THE ABLATIVE OF TIME

272. Gender. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except diês, day, and merîdiês, midday, which are usually masculine.

273. PARADIGMS

{Transcriber's Note:
The "Stems" are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.}

diês, m., dayrês, f. thing
Stemsdiê-rê-
Basesdi-r-
SingularTerminations
Nom.diêsrês-ês
Gen.diêîreî-êî or -eî
Dat.diêîreî-êî or -eî
Acc.diemrem-em
Abl.diêrê
Plural
Nom.diêsrês-ês
Gen.diêrumrêrum-êrum
Dat.diêbusrêbus-êbus
Acc.diêsrês-ês
Abl.diêbusrêbus-êbus

1. The vowel e which appears in every form is regularly long. It is shortened in the ending -eî after a consonant, as in r-eî; and before -m in the accusative singular, as in di-em. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

2. Only diês and rês are complete in the plural. Most other nouns of this declension lack the plural. Aciês, line of battle, and spês, hope, have the nominative and accusative plural.

274. The ablative relation (§ 50) which is expressed by the prepositions at, in, or on may refer not only to place, but also to time, as at noon, in summer, on the first day. The ablative which is used to express this relation is called the ablative of time.

275. Rule. The Ablative of Time. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.

a. Occasionally the preposition in is found. Compare the English Next day we started and On the next day we started.

276. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. Galba the Farmer. Galba agricola rûrî vîvit. Cotîdiê prîmâ lûce labôrâre incipit, nec ante noctem in studiô suô cessat. Merîdiê Iûlia fîlia eum ad cênam vocat. Nocte pedês dêfessôs domum vertit. Aestâte fîliî agricolae auxilium patrî dant. Hieme agricola eôs in lûdum mittit. Ibi magister pueris multâs fâbulâs dê rêbus gestîs Caesaris nârrat. Aestâte fîliî agricolae perpetuîs labôribus exercentur nec grave agrî opus est iîs molestum. Galba sine ûllâ cûrâ vivit nec rês adversâs timet.

II. 1. In that month there were many battles in Gaul. 2. The cavalry of the enemy made an attack upon Cæsar's line of battle. 3. In the first hour of the night the ship was overcome by the billows. 4. On the second day the savages were eager to come under Cæsar's protection. 5. The king had joined battle, moved by the hope of victory. 6. That year a fire destroyed many birds and other animals. 7. We saw blood on the wild beast's teeth.

277. Daed´alus and Ic´arus (Continued)

Tum Daedalus gravibus cûrîs commôtus fîliô suô Îcarô ita dixit: "Animus meus, Îcare, est plênus trîstitiae nec oculî lacrimîs egent. Discêdere ex Crêtâ, Athênâs properâre, maximê studeô; sed rêx recûsat audîre verba mea et omnem reditûs spem êripit. Sed numquam rêbus adversîs vincar. Terra et mare sunt inimîca, sed aliam fugae viam reperiam." Tum in artîs ignôtâs animum dîmittit et mîrum capit cônsilium. Nam pennâs in ôrdine pônit et vêrâs âlâs facit.

LESSON XLIX

PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED · PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

278. We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. They are divided into the following eight classes:

1. Personal pronouns, which show the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of; as, ego, I; , you; is, he. (Cf. § 279. etc.)

2. Possessive pronouns, which denote possession; as, meus, tuus, suus, etc. (Cf. § 98.)

3. Reflexive pronouns, used in the predicate to refer back to the subject; as, he saw himself. (Cf. § 281.)

4. Intensive pronouns, used to emphasize a noun or pronoun; as, I myself saw it. (Cf. § 285.)

5. Demonstrative pronouns, which point out persons or things; as, is, this, that. (Cf. § 112.)

6. Relative pronouns, which connect a subordinate adjective clause with an antecedent; as, quî, who. (Cf. § 220.)

7. Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question; as, quis, who? (Cf. § 225.)

8. Indefinite pronouns, which point out indefinitely; as, some one, any one, some, certain ones, etc. (Cf. § 296.)

279. The demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id, as we learned in § 115, is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person (he, she, it, they, etc.).

280. The personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I; nôs, we; of the second person, , thou or you; vôs, ye or you. They are declined as follows:

Singular
FIRST PERSONSECOND PERSON
Nom.ego, I, you
Gen.meî, of metuî, of you
Dat.mihi, to or for metibi, to or for you
Acc., me, you
Abl., with, from, etc., me, with, from, etc., you
Plural
Nom.nôs, wevôs, you
Gen.nostrum or nostrî, of usvestrum or vestrî, of you
Dat.nôbîs, to or for usvôbîs, to or for you
Acc.nôs, usvôs, you
Abl.nôbîs, with, from, etc., usvôbîs, with, from, etc., you

1. The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for emphasis or contrast.

281. The Reflexive Pronouns. 1. The personal pronouns ego and may be used in the predicate as reflexives; as,

videô mê, I see myselfvidêmus nôs, we see ourselves
vidês tê, you see yourselfvidêtis vôs, you see yourselves

2. The reflexive pronoun of the third person (himself, herself, itself, themselves) has a special form, used only in these senses, and declined alike in the singular and plural.

Singular and Plural
Gen.suîAcc.
Dat.sibiAbl.
ExamplesPuer sê videt, the boy sees himself
Puella sê videt, the girl sees herself
Animal sê videt, the animal sees itself
Iî sê vident, they see themselves

a. The form is sometimes doubled, sêsê, for emphasis.

3. Give the Latin for

I teach myselfWe teach ourselves
You teach yourselfYou teach yourselves
He teaches himselfThey teach themselves

282. The preposition cum, when used with the ablative of ego, , or suî, is appended to the form, as, mêcum, with me; têcum, with you; nôbîscum, with us; etc.

283. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. 1. Mea mâter est câra mihi et tua mâter est câra tibi. 2. Vestrae litterae erant grâtae nôbis et nostrae litterae erant grâtae vôbîs. 3. Nûntius rêgis quî nôbîscum est nihil respondêbit. 4. Nûntiî pâcem amîcitiamque sibi et suîs sociîs postulâvêrunt. 5. Sî tû arma sûmês, ego rêgnum occupâbô. 6. Uter vestrum est cîvis Rômânus? Neuter nostrum. 7. Eô tempore multî supplicium dedêrunt quia rêgnum petierant. 8. Sûme supplicium, Caesar, dê hostibus patriae âcribus. 9. Prîmâ lûce aliî metû commôtî sêsê fugae mandâvêrunt; aliî autem magnâ virtûte impetum exercitûs nostrî sustinuêrunt. 10. Soror rêgis, ubi dê adversô proeliô audîvit, sêsê Pompêiîs interfêcit.

II. 1. Whom do you teach? I teach myself. 2. The soldier wounded himself with his sword. 3. The master praises us, but you he does not praise. 4. Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but we shall not suffer punishment. 5. Who will march (i.e. make a march) with me to Rome? 6. I will march with you to the gates of the city. 7. Who will show us1 the way? The gods will show you1 the way.

1. Not accusative.

Daed´alus and Ic´arus (Concluded)

284. Puer Îcarus ûnâ2 stâbat et mîrum patris opus vidêbat. Postquam manus ultima3 âlîs imposita est, Daedalus eâs temptâvit et similis avî in aurâs volâvit. Tum âlâs umerîs fîlî adligâvit et docuit eum volâre et dîxit, "Tê vetô, mî fîlî, adpropinquâre aut sôlî aut marî. Sî fluctibus adpropinquâveris,4 aqua âlîs tuîs nocêbit, et sî sôlî adpropinquâveris,4 ignis eâs cremâbit." Tum pater et filius iter difficile incipiunt. Âlâs movent et aurae sêsê committunt. Sed stultus puer verbîs patris nôn pâret. Sôlî adpropinquat. Âlae cremantur et Îcarus in mare dêcidit et vitam âmittit. Daedalus autem sine ûllô perîculô trâns fluctûs ad însulam Siciliam volâvit.

2. Adverb, see vocabulary.
3. manus ultima, the finishing touch. What literally?
4. Future perfect. Translate by the present.

LESSON L

THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN IPSE AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE ÎDEM

285. Ipse means -self (him-self, her-self, etc.) or is translated by even or very. It is used to emphasize a noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, with which it agrees like an adjective.

a. Ipse must be carefully distinguished from the reflexive suî. The latter is always used as a pronoun, while ipse is regularly adjective. Compare

Homô sê videt, the man sees himself (reflexive)
Homô ipse perîculum videt, the man himself (intensive) sees the danger
Homô ipsum perîculum videt, the man sees the danger itself (intensive)

286. Except for the one form ipse, the intensive pronoun is declined exactly like the nine irregular adjectives (cf. §§ 108, 109). Learn the declension (§ 481).

287. The demonstrative îdem, meaning the same, is a compound of is. It is declined as follows:

SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.îdeme´ademidemiî´dem
eî´dem
eae´deme´adem
Gen.eius´demeius´demeius´demeôrun´demeârun´demeôrun´dem
Dat.eî´demeî´demeî´demiîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem
Acc.eun´demean´demidemeôs´demeâs´deme´adem
Dat.eî´demeî´demeî´demiîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem

a. From forms like eundem (eum + -dem), eôrundem (eôrum + -dem), we learn the rule that m before d is changed to n.

b. The forms iîdem, iîsdem are often spelled and pronounced with one î.

288. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Ego et tû1 in eâdem urbe vîvimus. 2. Iter ipsum nôn timêmus sed ferâs saevâs quae in silvâ dênsâ esse dîcuntur. 3. Ôlim nôs ipsî idem iter fêcimus. 4. Eô tempore multâs ferâs vîdimus. 5. Sed nôbîs nôn nocuêrunt. 6. Caesar ipse scûtum dê manibus mîlitis êripuit et in ipsam aciem properâvit. 7. Itaque mîlitês summâ virtûte têla in hostium corpora iêcêrunt. 8. Rômânî quoque gravia vulnera accêpêrunt. 9. Dênique hostês terga vertêrunt et ommîs in partîs2 fûgêrunt. 10. Eâdem hôrâ litterae Rômam ab imperâtôre ipsô missae sunt. 11. Eôdem mênse captîvî quoque in Italiam missî sunt. 12. Sed multî propter vulnera iter difficile trâns montîs facere recûsâbant et Genâvae esse dîcêbantur.

1. Observe that in Latin we say I and you, not you and I.
2. Not parts, but directions.

II. 1. At Pompeii there is a wonderful mountain. 2. When I was in that place, I myself saw that mountain. 3. On the same day many cities were destroyed by fire and stones from that very mountain. 4. You have not heard the true story of that calamity, have you?3 5. On that day the very sun could not give light to men. 6. You yourself ought to tell (to) us that story.

3. Cf. § 210.

289. How Horatius held the Bridge4

Tarquinius Superbus, septimus et ultimus rêx Rômânôrum, ubi in exsilium ab îrâtîs Rômânîs êiectus est, â Porsenâ, rêge Etrûscôrum, auxilium petiit. Mox Porsena magnîs cum côpiîs Rômam vênit, et ipsa urbs summô in perîculô erat. Omnibus in partibus exercitus Rômânus victus erat. Iam rêx montem Iâniculum5 occupâverat. Numquam anteâ Rômânî tantô metû tenêbantur. Ex agrîs in urbem properabânt et summô studiô urbem ipsam mûniêbant.

4. The story of Horatius has been made familiar by Macaulay's well-known poem "Horatius" in his Lays of Ancient Rome. Read the poem in connection with this selection.
5. The Janiculum is a high hill across the Tiber from Rome.

LESSON LI

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS HIC, ISTE, ILLE

290. We have already learned the declension of the demonstrative pronoun is and its use. (Cf. Lesson XVII.) That pronoun refers to persons or things either far or near, and makes no definite reference to place or time. If we wish to point out an object definitely in place or time, we must use hic, iste, or ille. These demonstratives, like is, are used both as pronouns and as adjectives, and their relation to the speaker may be represented graphically thus:

hic           iste           ille
  SPEAKER ---------->-------------->---------------->
          _this_, _he_;  _that_, _he_;  _that_, _he_
            (near);       (remote);     (more remote)

a. In dialogue hic refers to a person or thing near the speaker; iste, to a person or thing near the person addressed; ille, to a person or thing remote from both. These distinctions are illustrated in the model sentences, § 293, which should be carefully studied and imitated.

291. Hic is declined as follows:

SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.hichaechochaehaec
Gen.huiushuiushuiushôrumhârumhôrum
Dat.huichuichuichîshîshîs
Acc.hunchanchochôshâshaec
Abl.hôchâchôchîshîshîs

a. Huius is pronounced h[oo]´y[oo]s, and huic is pronounced h[oo]ic (one syllable).

292. The demonstrative pronouns iste, ista, istud, and ille, illa, illud, except for the nominative and accusative singular neuter forms istud and illud, are declined exactly like ipse, ipsa, ipsum. (See § 481.)

293. MODEL SENTENCES

Is this horse (of mine) strong? Estne hic equus valîdus?
That horse (of yours) is strong, but that one (yonder) is weak Iste equus est validus, sed ille est înfîrmus
Are these (men by me) your friends? Suntne hî amîcî tuî?
Those (men by you) are my friends, but those (men yonder) are enemies Istî sunt amîcî meî, sed illî sunt inimîcî

294. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. A German Chieftain addresses his Followers. Ille fortis Germânôrum dux suôs convocâvit et hôc modô animôs eôrum cônfirmâvit. "Vôs, quî in hîs fînibus vîvitis, in hunc locum convocâvî1 quia mêcum dêbêtis istôs agrôs et istâs domôs ab iniûriîs Rômânôrum liberâre. Hoc nôbîs nôn difficile erit, quod illî hostês hâs silvâs dênsâs, ferâs saevâs quârum vestîgia vident, montês altôs timent. Sî fortês erimus, deî ipsî nôbîs viam salûtis dêmonstrâbunt. Ille sôl, istî oculî calamîtâtês nostrâs vîdêrunt.1 Itaque nômen illîus reî pûblicae Rômânae nôn sôlum nôbis, sed etiam omnibus hominibus quî lîbertâtem amant, est invîsum. Ad arma vôs vocô. Exercête istam prîstinam virtûtem et vincêtis."

II. 1. Does that bird (of yours)2 sing? 2. This bird (of mine)2 sings both3 in summer and in winter and has a beautiful voice. 3. Those birds (yonder)2 in the country don´t sing in winter. 4. Snatch a spear from the hands of that soldier (near you)2 and come home with me. 5. With those very eyes (of yours)2 you will see the tracks of the hateful enemy who burned my dwelling and made an attack on my brother. 6. For (propter) these deeds (rês) we ought to inflict punishment on him without delay. 7. The enemies of the republic do not always suffer punishment.

1. The perfect definite. (Cf. § 190.)
2. English words in parentheses are not to be translated. They are inserted to show what demonstratives should be used. (Cf. § 290.)
3. both ... and, et ... et.

[Illustration: Horatius at the bridge
Caption: HORATIUS PONTEM DEFENDIT

295. How Horatius held the Bridge (Continued)

Altera urbis pars mûrîs, altera flûmine satis mûnîrî vidêbâtur. Sed erat pôns in flûmine quî hostibus iter paene dedit. Tum Horâtius Cocles, fortis vir, magnâ vôce dîxit, "Rescindite pontem, Rômânî! Brevî tempore Porsena in urbem côpiâs suâs trâdûcet." Iam hostês in ponte erant, sed Horâtius cum duôbus (cf. § 479) comitibus ad extrêmam pontis partem properâvit, et hi sôli aciem hostium sustinuêrunt. Tum vêrô cîvês Rômânî pontem â tergô rescindere incipiunt, et hostês frûstrâ Horâtium superâre temptant.

LESSON LII

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

296. The indefinite pronouns are used to refer to some person or some thing, without indicating which particular one is meant. The pronouns quis and quî, which we have learned in their interrogative and relative uses, may also be indefinite; and nearly all the other indefinite pronouns are compounds of quis or quî and declined almost like them. Review the declension of these words, §§ 221, 227.

297. Learn the declension and meaning of the following indefinites:

Masc.Fem.Neut.
quisquid, some one, any one (substantive)
quîqua or quaequod, some, any (adjective), § 483
aliquis aliquid, some one, any one (substantive), § 487
aliquîaliquaaliquod, some, any (adjective), § 487
quîdamquaedamquoddam, quiddam, a certain, a certain one, § 485
quisquam quicquam or quidquam (no plural), any one (at all) (substantive), § 486
quisque quidque, each one, every one (substantive), § 484
quisquequaequequodque, each, every (adjective), § 484

{Transcriber's Note:
In the original text, the combined forms (masculine/feminine) were printed in the "masculine" column.}

Note. The meanings of the neuters, something, etc., are easily inferred from the masculine and feminine.

a. In the masculine and neuter singular of the indefinites, quis-forms and quid-forms are mostly used as substantives, quî-forms and quod-forms as adjectives.

b. The indefinites quis and quî never stand first in a clause, and are rare excepting after , nisi, , num (as, sî quis, if any one; sî quid, if anything; nisi quis, unless some one). Generally aliquis and aliquî are used instead.

c. The forms qua and aliqua are both feminine nominative singular and neuter nominative plural of the indefinite adjectives quî and aliquî respectively. How do these differ from the corresponding forms of the relative quî?

d. Observe that quîdam (quî + -dam) is declined like quî, except that in the accusative singular and genitive plural m of quî becomes n (cf. § 287. a): quendam, quandam, quôrundam, quârundam; also that the neuter has quiddam (substantive) and quoddam (adjective) in the nominative and accusative singular. Quîdam is the least indefinite of the indefinite pronouns, and implies that you could name the person or thing referred to if you cared to do so.

e. Quisquam and quisque (substantive) are declined like quis.

f. Quisquam, any one (quicquam or quidquam, anything), is always used substantively and chiefly in negative sentences. The corresponding adjective any is ûllus, -a, -um (§ 108).

298. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Aliquis dê ponte in flûmen dêcidit sed sine ûllô perîculô servâtus est. 2. Est vêrô in vîtâ cuiusque hominis aliqua bona fortûna. 3. Nê mîlitum quidem1 quisquam in castrîs mânsit. 4. Sî quem meae domî vidês, iubê eum discêdere. 5. Sî quis pontem tenet, nê tantus quidem exercitus capere urbem potest. 6. Urbs nôn satis mûnîta erat et merîdiê rêx quîdam paene côpiâs suâs trâns pontem trâdûxerat. 7. Dênique mîles quîdam armâtus in fluctûs dêsiluit et incolumis ad alteram rîpam oculôs vertit. 8. Quisque illî fortî mîlitî aliquid dare dêbet. 9. Tanta vêrô virtûs Rômânus semper placuit. 10. Ôlim Corinthus erat urbs satis magna et paene par Rômae ipsî; nunc vêrô moenia dêcidêrunt et pauca vestîgia urbis illîus reperîrî possunt. 11. Quisque lîbertâtem amat, et aliquibus vêrô nômen rêgis est invîsum.

II. 1. If you see a certain Cornelius at Corinth, send him to me. 2. Almost all the soldiers who fell down into the waves were unharmed. 3. Not even at Pompeii did I see so great a fire. 4. I myself was eager to tell something to some one. 5. Each one was praising his own work. 6. Did you see some one in the country? I did not see any one. 7. Unless some one will remain on the bridge with Horatius, the commonwealth will be in the greatest danger.

1. Observe that quîdam and quidem are different words.

299. How Horatius held the Bridge (Concluded)

Mox, ubi parva pars pontis mânsit, Horâtius iussit comitês discêdere et sôlus mîrâ cônstantiâ impetum illius tôtius exercitûs sustinêbat. Dênique magnô fragôre pôns in flûmen dêcîdit. Tum vêrô Horâtius tergum vertit et armâtus in aquâs dêsiluit. In eum hostês multa têla iêcêrunt; incolumis autem per fiuctûs ad alteram rîpam trânâvit. Eî propter tantâs rês gestâs populus Rômânus nôn sôlum alia magna praemia dedit sed etiam statuam Horâti in locô pûblicô posuit.


Sixth Review, Lessons XLV-LII, §§ 521-523


LESSON LIII

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

300. The quality denoted by an adjective may exist in either a higher or a lower degree, and this is expressed by a form of inflection called comparison. The mere presence of the quality is expressed by the positive degree, its presence in a higher or lower degree by the comparative, and in the highest or lowest of all by the superlative. In English the usual way of comparing an adjective is by using the suffix -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative; as, positive high, comparative higher, superlative highest. Less frequently we use the adverbs more and most; as, positive beautiful, comparative more beautiful, superlative most beautiful.

In Latin, as in English, adjectives are compared by adding suffixes or by using adverbs.

301. Adjectives are compared by using suffixes as follows:

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
clârus, -a, -um (bright)
(Base clâr-)
clârior, clârîus (brighter) clârissimus, -a, -um (brightest)
brevis, breve (short)
(Base brev-)
brevior, brevius (shorter) brevissimus, -a, -um (shortest)
vêlôx (swift)
(Base veloc-)
vêlôcior, vêlôcius (swifter) vêlôcissimus, -a, -um (swiftest)

a. The comparative is formed from the base of the positive by adding -ior masc. and fem., and -ius neut.; the superlative by adding -issimus, -issima, -issimum.

302. Less frequently adjectives are compared by using the adverbs magis, more; maximê, most; as, idôneus, suitable; magis idôneus, more suitable; maximê idôneus, most suitable.

303. Declension of the Comparative. Adjectives of the comparative degree are declined as follows:

SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom..clâriorclârîusclârîôrêsclâriôra
Gen.clâriôrisclâriôrisclâriôrumclâriôrum
Dat.clâriôrîclâriôrîclâriôribusclâriôribus
Acc.clâriôremclâriusclâriôrêsclâriôra
Abl.clâriôreclâriôreclâriôribusclâriôribus

a. Observe that the endings are those of the consonant stems of the third declension.

b. Compare longus, long; fortis, brave; recêns (base, recent-), recent; and decline the comparative of each.

304. Adjectives in -er form the comparative regularly, but the superlative is formed by adding -rimus, -a, -um to the nominative masculine of the positive; as,

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
âcer, âcris, âcre
(Base acr-)
âcrior, âcriusâcerrimus, -a, -um
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
(Base pulchr-)
pulchrior, pulchriuspulcherrimus, -a, -um
lîber, lîbera, lîberum
(Base lîber-)
lîberior, lîberiuslîberrimus, -a, -um

a. In a similar manner compare miser, aeger, crêber.

305. The comparative is often translated by quite, too, or somewhat, and the superlative by very; as, altior, quite (too, somewhat) high; altissimus, very high.

306. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Quid explôrâtôrês quaerêbant? Explôrâtôrês tempus opportfûissimum itinerî quaerêbant. 2. Mediâ in silvâ ignîs quam crêberrimôs fêcimus, quod ferâs tam audâcis numquam anteâ vîderâmus. 3. Antîquîs temporibus Germânî erant fortiôrês quam Gallî. 4. Caesar erat clârior quam inimîcî1 quî eum necâvêrunt. 5. Quisque scûtum ingêns et pîlum longius gerêbat. 6. Apud barbarôs Germânî erant audâcissimî et fortissimî. 7. Mêns hominum est celerior quam corpus. 8. Virî aliquârum terrârum sunt miserrimî. 9. Corpora Germânôrum erant ingentiôra quam Rômânôrum. 10. Âcerrimî Gallôrum prîncipês sine ûllâ morâ trâns flûmen quoddam equôs vêlôcissimôs trâdûxêrunt. 11. Aestâte diês sunt longiôrês quam hieme. 12. Imperâtor quîdam ab explôrâtôribus dê recentî adventû nâvium longârum quaesîvit.

II. 1. Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest. 2. Certain animals are swifter than the swiftest horse. 3. The Roman name was most hateful to the enemies of the commonwealth. 4. The Romans always inflicted the severest2 punishment on faithless allies. 5. I was quite ill, and so I hastened from the city to the country. 6. Marcus had some friends dearer than Cæsar.3 7. Did you not seek a more recent report concerning the battle? 8. Not even after a victory so opportune did he seek the general's friendship.

1. Why is this word used instead of hostês?
2. Use the superlative of gravis.
3. Accusative. In a comparison the noun after quam is in the same case as the one before it.

N.B. Beginning at this point, the selections for reading will be found near the end of the volume. (See p. 197.)

LESSON LIV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES · THE ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES WITHOUT QUAM

307. The following six adjectives in -lis form the comparative regularly; but the superlative is formed by adding -limus to the base of the positive. Learn the meanings and comparison.

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
facilis, -e, easyfacilior, -iusfacillimus, -a, -um
difficilis, -e, harddifficilior, -iusdifficillimus, -a, -um
similis, -e, likesimilior, -iussimillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, -e, unlikedissimilior, -iusdissimillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e, slendergracilior, -iusgracillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e, lowhumilior, -iushumillimus, -a, -um

308. From the knowledge gained in the preceding lesson we should translate the sentence Nothing is brighter than the sun

Nihil est clârius quam sôl

But the Romans, especially in negative sentences, often expressed the comparison in this way,

Nihil est clârius sôle

which, literally translated, is Nothing is brighter away from the sun; that is, starting from the sun as a standard, nothing is brighter. This relation is expressed by the separative ablative sôle. Hence the rule

309. Rule. Ablative with Comparatives. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative.

310. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Nêmô mîlitês alacriôrês Rômânîs vîdit. 2. Statim imperâtor iussit nûntiôs quam celerrimôs litterâs Rômam portâre. 3. Multa flûmina sunt lêniôra Rhênô. 4. Apud Rômanôs quis erat clârior Caesare? 5. Nihil pulchrius urbe Rômâ vîdî. 6. Subitô multitûdo audacissima magnô clamôre proelium âcrius commîsit. 7. Num est equus tuus tardus? Nôn vêrô tardus, sed celerior aquilâ. 8. Ubi Romae fuî, nêmô erat mihi amicior Sextô. 9. Quaedam mulierês cibum mîlitibus dare cupîvêrunt. 10. Rêx vetuit cîvis ex urbe noctû discêdere. 11. Ille puer est gracilior hâc muliere. 12. Explôrâtor duâs (two) viâs, alteram facilem, alteram difficiliôrem, dêmônstrâvit.

II. 1. What city have you seen more beautiful than Rome? 2. The Gauls were not more eager than the Germans. 3. The eagle is not slower than the horse. 4. The spirited woman did not fear to make the journey by night. 5. The mind of the multitude was quite gentle and friendly. 6. But the king's mind was very different. 7. The king was not like (similar to) his noble father. 8. These hills are lower than the huge mountains of our territory.

Reading Selection

[Illustration: Roman weapons and armor
Caption: ARMA ROMANA]

LESSON LV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued)

311. Some adjectives in English have irregular comparison, as good, better, best; many, more, most. So Latin comparison presents some irregularities. Among the adjectives that are compared irregularly are

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
bonus, -a, -um, goodmelior, meliusoptimus, -a, -um
magnus, -a, -um, greatmaior, maiusmaximus, -a, -um
malus, -a, -um, badpeior, peiuspessimus, -a, -um
multus, -a, -um, much——, plûsplûrimus, -a, -um
multî, -ae, -a, manyplûrês, plûraplûrimî, -ae, -a
parvus, -a, -um, smallminor, minusminimus, -a, -um

312. The following four adjectives have two superlatives. Unusual forms are placed in parentheses.

exterus, -a, -um, outward (exterior, -ius, outer) extrêmus, -a, -um
(extimus, -a, -um)
outermost, last
înferus, -a, -um, low înferior, -ius, lower înfimus, -a, -um
îmus, -a, -um
lowest
posterus, -a, -um, next (posterior, -ius, later) postrêmus, -a, -um
(postumus, -a, -um)
last
superus, -a, -um, above superior, -ius, higher suprêmus, -a, -um
summus, -a, -um
highest

313. Plûs, more (plural more, many, several), is declined as follows:

SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.——plûsplûrêsplûra
Gen.——plûrisplûriumplûrium
Dat.————plûribusplûribus
Acc.——plûsplûrîs, -êsplûra
Abl.——plûreplûribusplûribus

a. In the singular plûs is used only as a neuter substantive.

314. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Reliquî hostês, quî â dextrô cornû proelium commîserant, dê superiôre locô fûgêrunt et sêsê in silvam maximam recêpêrunt. 2. In extrêmâ parte silvae castra hostium posita erant. 3. Plûrimî captîvî ab equitibus ad Caesarem ductî sunt. 4. Caesar vêrô iussit eôs in servitûtem trâdî. 5. Posterô diê magna multitûdô mulierum ab Rômânîs in valle îmâ reperta est. 6. Hae mulierês maximê perterritae adventû Caesaris sêsê occîdere studêbant. 7. Eae quoque plûrîs fâbulâs dê exercitûs Rômânî sceleribus audîverant. 8. Fâma illôrum mîlitum optima nôn erat. 9. In barbarôrum aedificiîs maior côpia frûmentî reperta est. 10. Nêmô crêbrîs proeliîs contendere sine aliquô perîculô potest.

II. 1. The remaining women fled from their dwellings and hid themselves. 2. They were terrified and did not wish to be captured and given over into slavery. 3. Nothing can be worse than slavery. 4. Slavery is worse than death. 5. In the Roman empire a great many were killed because they refused to be slaves. 6. To surrender the fatherland is the worst crime.

Reading Selection

LESSON LVI

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Concluded) · ABLATIVE OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE

315. The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the superlative and have no positive. Forms rarely used are in parentheses.

ComparativeSuperlative
citerior, hither(citimus, hithermost)
interior, inner(intimus, inmost)
prior, formerprîmus, first
propior, nearerproximus, next, nearest
ulterior, furtherultimus, furthest

316. In the sentence Galba is a head taller than Sextus, the phrase a head taller expresses the measure of difference in height between Galba and Sextus. The Latin form of expression would be Galba is taller than Sextus by a head. This is clearly an ablative relation, and the construction is called the ablative of the measure of difference.

Examples Galba est altior capite quam Sextus
Galba is a head taller (taller by a head) than Sextus.
Illud iter ad Italiam est multô brevius
That route to Italy is much shorter (shorter by much)

317. Rule. Ablative of the Measure of Difference. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference.

a. Especially common in this construction are the neuter ablatives

, by this, by that
hôc, by this
multô, by much
nihilô,1 by nothing
paulô, by a little

1. nihil was originally nihilum and declined like pîlum. There is no plural.

318. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Barbarî proelium committere statuêrunt eô magis quod Rômânî înfîrmî esse vidêbantur. 2. Meum cônsilium est multô melius quam tuum quia multô facilius est. 3. Haec via est multô lâtior quam illa. 4. Barbarî erant nihilô tardiôrês quam Rômânî. 5. Tuus equus est paulô celerior quam meus. 6. Iî quî paulô fortiôrês erant prohibuêrunt reliquôs aditum relinquere. 7. Inter illâs cîvitâtês Germânia mîlitês habet optimôs. 8. Propior via quae per hanc vallem dûcit est inter portum et lacum. 9. Servî, quî agrôs citeriôrês incolêbant, priôrês dominôs relinquere nôn cupîvêrunt, quod eôs amâbant. 10. Ultimae Germâniae partês numquam in fidem Rômânôrum vênêrunt. 11. Nam trâns Rhênum aditus erat multô difficilior exercituî Rômânô.

II. 1. Another way much more difficult (more difficult by much) was left through hither Gaul. 2. In ancient times no state was stronger than the Roman empire. 3. The states of further Gaul did not wish to give hostages to Cæsar. 4. Slavery is no better (better by nothing) than death. 5. The best citizens are not loved by the worst. 6. The active enemy immediately withdrew into the nearest forest, for they were terrified by Cæsar's recent victories.

Reading Selection

LESSON LVII

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

319. Adverbs are generally derived from adjectives, as in English (e.g. adj. sweet, adv. sweetly). Like adjectives, they can be compared; but they have no declension.

320. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declensions are formed and compared as follows:

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Adj.
Adv.
cârus, dear
cârê, dearly
cârior
cârius
cârissimus
cârissimê
Adj.
Adv.
pulcher, beautiful
pulchrê, beautifully
pulchrior
pulchrius
pulcherrimus
pulcherrimê
Adj.
Adv.
lîber, free
lîberê, freely
lîberior
lîberius
lîberrimus
lîberrimê

a. The positive of the adverb is formed by adding to the base of the positive of the adjective. The superlative of the adverb is formed from the superlative of the adjective in the same way.

b. The comparative of any adverb is the neuter accusative singular of the comparative of the adjective.

321. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declension are formed like those described above in the comparative and superlative. The positive is usually formed by adding -iter to the base of adjectives of three endings or of two endings, and -ter to the base of those of one ending;1 as,

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Adj.
Adv.
fortis, brave
fortiter, bravely
fortior
fortius
fortissimus
fortissimê
Adj.
Adv.
audâx, bold
audâcter, boldly
audâcior
audâcius
audâcissimus
audâcissimê
1. This is a good working rule, though there are some exceptions to it.

322. Case Forms as Adverbs. As we learned above, the neuter accusative of comparatives is used adverbially. So in the positive or superlative some adjectives, instead of following the usual formation, use the accusative or the ablative singular neuter adverbially; as,

Adj.
Adv.
facilis, easy
facile (acc.), easily
prîmus, first
prîmum (acc.), first
prîmô (abl.), at first
Adj.
Adv.
multus, many
multum (acc.), much
multô (abl.), by much
plûrimus, most
plûrimum (acc.), most

323. Learn the following irregular comparisons:

bene, wellmelius, betteroptimê, best
diû, long (time)diûtius, longerdiûtissimê, longest
magnopere, greatlymagis, moremaximê, most
parum, littleminus, lessminimê, least
prope, nearly, nearpropius, nearerproximê, nearest
saepe, oftensaepius, oftenersaepissimê, oftenest

324. Form adverbs from the following adjectives, using the regular rules, and compare them: laetus, superbus, molestus, amîcus, âcer, brevis, gravis, recêns.

325. Rule. Adverbs. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

326. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Nûlla rês melius gesta est quam proelium illud2 ubi Marius multô minôre exercitû multô maiôrês côpiâs Germânôrum in fugam dedit. 2. Audâcter in Rômânôrum cohortîs hostês impetûs fêcêrunt 3. Marius autem omnês hôs fortissimê sustinuit. 4. Barbarî nihilô fortiôrês erant quam Rômânî. 5. Prîmô barbarî esse superiôrês vidêbantur, tum Rômânî âcrius contendêrunt. 6. Dênique, ubi iam diûtissimê paene aequô proeliô pugnâtum est, barbarî fugam petiêrunt. 7. Quaedam Germânôrum gentês, simul atque rûmôrem illîus calamitâtis audîvêrunt, sêsê in ultimîs regiônibus fînium suôrum abdidêrunt. 8. Rômânî saepius quam hostês vîcêrunt, quod meliôra arma habêbant. 9. Inter omnîs gentîs Rômânî plûrimum valêbant. 10. Hae cohortês simul atque in aequiôrem regiônem sê recêpêrunt, castra sine ûllâ difficultâte posuêrunt.

II. 1. Some nations are easily overcome by their enemies. 2. Germany is much larger than Gaul. 3. Were not the Romans the most powerful among the tribes of Italy? 4. On account of (his) wounds the soldier dragged his body from the ditch with the greatest difficulty. 5. He was able neither to run nor to fight. 6. Who saved him? A certain horseman boldly undertook the matter. 7. The rumors concerning the soldier's death were not true.

2. ille standing after its noun means that well-known, that famous.

Reading Selection

LESSON LVIII

NUMERALS · THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE

327. The Latin numeral adjectives may be classified as follows:

1. Cardinal Numerals, answering the question how many? as, ûnus, one; duo, two; etc.

2. Ordinal Numerals, derived in most cases from the cardinals and answering the question in what order? as, prîmus, first; secundus, second; etc.

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, singulî, one at a time.

328. The Cardinal Numerals. The first twenty of the cardinals are as follows:

1, ûnus6, sex11, ûndecim16, sêdecim
2, duo7, septem12, duodecim17, septendecim
3, três8, octô13, tredecim18, duodêvîgintî
4, quattuor9, novem14, quattuordecim19, ûndêvîgintî
5, quînque10, decem15, quîndecim20, vîgintî

a. Learn also centum = 100, ducentî = 200, mîlle = 1000.

329. Declension of the Cardinals. Of the cardinals only ûnus, duo, três, the hundreds above one hundred, and mîlle used as a noun, are declinable.

a. ûnus is one of the nine irregular adjectives, and is declined like nûllus (cf. §§ 109, 470). The plural of ûnus is used to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning, as, ûna castra, one camp; and with other nouns in the sense of only, as, Gallî ûnî, only the Gauls.

b. Learn the declension of duo, two; três, three; and mîlle, a thousand. (§ 479.)

c. The hundreds above one hundred are declined like the plural of bonus; as,

ducentî, -ae, -a
ducentôrum, -ârum, -ôrum
etc.   etc.   etc.

330. We have already become familiar with sentences like the following:

Omnium avium aquila est vêlôcissima
Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest
Hoc ôrâculum erat omnium clârissimum
This oracle was the most famous of all

In such sentences the genitive denotes the whole, and the word it modifies denotes a part of that whole. Such a genitive, denoting the whole of which a part is taken, is called a partitive genitive.

331. Rule. Partitive Genitive. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive.

a. Words denoting a part are especially pronouns, numerals, and other adjectives. But cardinal numbers excepting mîlle regularly take the ablative with ex or instead of the partitive genitive.

b. Mîlle, a thousand, in the singular is usually an indeclinable adjective (as, mîlle mîlitês, a thousand soldiers), but in the plural it is a declinable noun and takes the partitive genitive (as, decem mîlia mîlitum, ten thousand soldiers).

Examples:

Fortissimî hôrum sunt Germânî
The bravest of these are the Germans
Decem mîlia hostium interfecta sunt
Ten thousand (lit. thousands) of the enemy were slain
Ûna ex captîvîs erat soror rêgis
One of the captives was the king's sister

332. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Caesar maximam partem aedificiôrum incendit. 2. Magna pars mûnîtiônis aquâ flûminis dêlêta est. 3. Gallî huius regiônis quînque mîlia hominum coêgerant. 4. Duo ex meîs frâtribus eundem rûmôrem audîvêrunt. 5. Quis Rômânôrum erat clarior Caesare? 6. Quînque cohortês ex illâ legiône castra quam fortissimê dêfendêbant. 7. Hic locus aberat aequô spatiô1 ab castrîs Caesaris et castrîs Germânôrum. 8. Caesar simul atque pervênit, plûs commeâtûs ab sociîs postulâvit. 9. Nônne mercâtôrês magnitûdinem însulae cognôverant? Longitûdinem sed nôn lâtitûdinem cognôverant. 10. Paucî hostium obtinêbant collem quem explôrâtôrês nostrî vîdêrunt.

II. 1. I have two brothers, and one of them lives at Rome. 2. Cæsar stormed that very town with three legions. 3. In one hour he destroyed a great part of the fortification. 4. When the enemy could no longer2 defend the gates, they retreated to a hill which was not far distant.3 5. There three thousand of them bravely resisted the Romans.4

1. Ablative of the measure of difference.
2. Not longius. Why?
3. Latin, was distant by a small space.
4. Not the accusative.

Reading Selection

LESSON LIX

NUMERALS (Continued) · THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT

333. Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (§ 478). The ordinals are all declined like bonus.

334. The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of bonus. The first three are

singulî, -ae, -a, one each, one by one
bînî, -ae, -a, two each, two by two
ternî, -ae, -a, three each, three by three

335. We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative. We have had such expressions as per plûrimôs annôs, for a great many years; per tôtum diem, for a whole day. Here the space relation is one of extent of time. We could also say per decem pedês, for ten feet, where the space relation is one of extent of space. While this is correct Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no preposition, as,

Vir tôtum diem cucurrit, the man ran for a whole day
Caesar mûrum decem pedês môvit, Cæsar moved the wall ten feet

336. Rule. Accusative of Extent. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative.

a. This accusative answers the questions how long? how far?

b. Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time how long and the ablative of time when, or within which.

Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time in the following:

When did the general arrive? He arrived at two o'clock. How long had he been marching? For four days. How far did he march? He marched sixty-five miles. Where has he pitched his camp? Three miles from the river, and he will remain there several days. The wall around the camp is ten feet high. When did the war begin? In the first year after the king's death.

337. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. Cæsar in Gaul. Caesar bellum in Gallia septem annôs gessit. Prîmô annô Helvêtiôs vîcit, et eôdem annô multae Germanôrum gentês eî sêsê dêdidêrunt. Multôs iam annôs Germânî Gallôs vexabant1 et ducês Germânî côpiâs suâs trâns Rhênum saepe trâdûcêbant.1 Nôn singulî veniêbant, sed multa milia hominum in Galliam contendêbant. Quâ dê causâ prîncipês Galliae concilium convocâvêrunt atque statuêrunt legates ad Caesarem mittere. Caesar, simul atque hunc rûmôrem audîvit, côpiâs suâs sine morâ coêgit. Primâ lûce fortiter cum Germanîs proelium commîsit. Tôtum diem âcriter pugnâtum est. Caesar ipse â dextrô cornû acicm dûxit. Magna pars exercitûs Germânî cecidit. Post magnam caedem paucî multa milia passuum ad flûmen fûgêrunt.

II. 1. Cæsar pitched camp two miles from the river. 2. He fortified the camp with a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart nine feet high. 3. The camp of the enemy was a great way off (was distant by a great space). 4. On the next day he hastened ten miles in three hours. 5. Suddenly the enemy with all their forces made an attack upon (in with acc.) the rear. 6. For two hours the Romans were hard pressed by the barbarians. 7. In three hours the barbarians were fleeing.

1. Translate as if pluperfect.

Reading Selection

LESSON LX

DEPONENT VERBS

338. A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning; as, hortor, I encourage; vereor, I fear. Such verbs are called deponent because they have laid aside (dê-pônere, to lay aside) the active forms.

a. Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted later. (Sec§§ 375, 403.b.)

339. The principal parts of deponents are of course passive in form, as,

Conj. Ihortor, hortârî, hortâtus sum, encourage
Conj. IIvereor, verêrî, veritus sum, fear
Conj. III(a)sequor, sequî, secûtus sum, follow
(b)patior, patî, passus sum, suffer, allow
Conj. IVpartior, partîrî, partîtus sum, share, divide

Learn the synopses of these verbs. (See § 493.) Patior is conjugated like the passive of capiô (§ 492).

340. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

The prepositions with the accusative that occur most frequently are

ante, before
apud, among
circum, around
contrâ, against, contrary to
extrâ, outside of
in, into, in, against, upon
inter, between, among
intrâ, within
ob, on account of (quam ob rem, wherefore, therefore)
per, through, by means of
post, after, behind
propter, on account of, because of
trâns, across, over

a. Most of these you have had before. Review the old ones and learn the new ones. Review the list of prepositions governing the ablative, § 209.

341. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. 1. Três ex lêgâtîs, contrâ Caesaris opîniônem, iter facere per hostium fînîs verêbantur. 2. Quis eôs hortâtus est? Imperâtor eôs hortâtus est et iîs persuâdêre cônâtus est, sed nôn potuit. 3. Quid lêgâtôs perterruit? Aut timor hostium, quî undique premêbant, aut longitûdô viae eôs perterruit. 4. Tamen omnês ferê Caesarem multô magis quam hostîs veritî sunt. 5. Fortissimae gentês Galliae ex Germânîs oriêbantur. 6. Quam ob rem tam fortês erant? Quia nec vînum nec alia quae virtûtem dêlent ad sê portârî patiêbantur. 7. Caesar ex mercâtôribus dê însulâ Britanniâ quaesîvit, sed nihil cognôscere potuit. 8. Itaque ipse statuit hanc terram petere, et mediâ ferê aestâte cum multîs nâvibus longîs profectus est. 9. Magnâ celeritâte iter confêcit et in opportûnissimô locô êgressus est. 10. Barbarî summîs vîribus eum ab însulâ prohibêre cônâtî sunt. 11. Ille autem barbarôs multa mîlia passuum însecûtus est; tamen sine equitâtû eôs cônsequî nôn potuit.

II. 1. Contrary to our expectation, the enemy fled and the cavalry followed close after them. 2. From all parts of the multitude the shouts arose of those who were being wounded. 3. Cæsar did not allow the cavalry to pursue too far.1 4. The cavalry set out at the first hour and was returning2 to camp at the fourth hour. 5. Around the Roman camp was a rampart twelve feet high. 6. Cæsar will delay three days because of the grain supply. 7. Nearly all the lieutenants feared the enemy and attempted to delay the march.

1. Comparative of longê.
2. Will this be a deponent or an active form?

Seventh Review, Lessons LIII-LX, §§ 524-526


[Illustration: man reading scrolls (no caption)]

PART III

CONSTRUCTIONS

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

The preceding part of this book has been concerned chiefly with forms and vocabulary. There remain still to be learned the forms of the Subjunctive Mood, the Participles, and the Gerund of the regular verb, and the conjugation of the commoner irregular verbs. These will be taken up in connection with the study of constructions, which will be the chief subject of our future work. The special vocabularies of the preceding lessons contain, exclusive of proper names, about six hundred words. As these are among the commonest words in the language, they must be mastered. They properly form the basis of the study of words, and will be reviewed and used with but few additions in the remaining lessons.

For practice in reading and to illustrate the constructions presented, a continued story has been prepared and may be begun at this point (see p. 204). It has been divided into chapters of convenient length to accompany progress through the lessons, but may be read with equal profit after the lessons are finished. The story gives an account of the life and adventures of Publius Cornelius Lentulus, a Roman boy, who fought in Cæsar's campaigns and shared in his triumph. The colored plates illustrating the story are faithful representations of ancient life and are deserving of careful study.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXI

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

342. In addition to the indicative, imperative, and infinitive moods, which you have learned, Latin has a fourth mood called the subjunctive. The tenses of the subjunctive are

Present
Imperfect
Perfect
Pluperfect
Active and Passive

343. The tenses of the subjunctive have the same time values as the corresponding tenses of the indicative, and, in addition, each of them may refer to future time. No meanings of the tenses will be given in the paradigms, as the translation varies with the construction used.

344. The present subjunctive is inflected as follows:

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
Active Voice
SINGULAR
1. a´memmo´neamre´gamca´piamau´diam
2. a´mêsmo´neâsre´gâsca´piâsau´diâs
3. a´metmo´neatre´gatca´piatau´diat
PLURAL
1. amê´musmoneâ´musregâ´muscapiâ´musaudiâ´mus
2. amê´tismoneâ´tisregâ´tiscapiâ´tisaudiâ´tis
3. a´mentmo´neantre´gantca´piantau´diant
 
Passive Voice
SINGULAR
1. a´mermo´nearre´garca´piarau´diar
2. amê´ris (-re)moneâ´ris (-re)regâ´ris (-re)capiâ´ris (-re)audiâ´ris (-re)
3. amê´turmoneâ´turregâ´turcapiâ´turaudiâ´tur
PLURAL
1. amê´murmoneâ´murregâ´murcapiâ´muraudiâ´mur
2. amê´minîmoneâ´minîregâ´minîcapiâ´minîaudiâ´minî
3. amen´turmonean´turregan´turcapian´turaudian´tur

a. The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem.

b. The mood sign of the present subjunctive is -ê- in the first conjugation and -â- in the others. It is shortened in the usual places (cf. § 12), and takes the place of the final vowel of the stem in the first and third conjugations, but not in the second and fourth.

c. The personal endings are the same as in the indicative.

d. In a similar way inflect the present subjunctive of cûrô, iubeô, sûmô, iaciô, mûniô.

345. The present subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is inflected as follows:

Sing. 1. sim
2. sîs
3. sit
Plur. 1. sîmus
2. sîtis
3. sint

346. The Indicative and Subjunctive Compared. 1. The two most important of the finite moods are the indicative and the subjunctive. The indicative deals with facts either real or assumed. If, then, we wish to assert something as a fact or to inquire after a fact, we use the indicative.

2. On the other hand, if we wish to express a desire or wish, a purpose, a possibility, an expectation, or some such notion, we must use the subjunctive. The following sentences illustrate the difference between the indicative and the subjunctive ideas.

Indicative IdeasSubjunctive Ideas
1.He is brave
Fortis est
1.May he be brave
Fortis sit (idea of wishing)
2.We set out at once
Statim proficîscimur
2.Let us set out at once
Statim proficîscâmur (idea of willing)
3.You hear him every day
Cotîdiê eum audîs
3.You can hear him every day
Cotîdiê eum audiâs (idea of possibility)
4.He remained until the ship arrived
Mânsit dum nâvis pervênit
4.He waited until the ship should arrive
Exspectâvit dum nâvis pervenîret1 (idea of expectation)
5.Cæsar sends men who find the bridge
Caesar mittit hominês quî pontem reperiunt
5.Cæsar sends men who are to find (or to find) the bridge
Caesar hominês mittit quî pontem reperiant (idea of purpose)
1. pervenîret, imperfect subjunctive.

Note. From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be used in either independent or dependent clauses; but it is far more common in the latter than in the former.

347. EXERCISE

Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation?

There have been times in the history of our country when you might be proud of being an American citizen. Do you remember the day when Dewey sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy's fleet? You might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly giving his orders. He did not even wait until the mines should be removed from the harbor's mouth, but sailed in at once. Let us not despair of our country while such valor exists, and may the future add new glories to the past.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXII

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE

348. Observe the sentence

Caesar hominês mittit quî pontem reperiant,
Cæsar sends men to find the bridge

The verb reperiant in the dependent clause is in the subjunctive because it tells us what Cæsar wants the men to do; in other words, it expresses his will and the purpose in his mind. Such a use of the subjunctive is called the subjunctive of purpose.

349. Rule. Subjunctive of Purpose. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause.

350. A clause of purpose is introduced as follows:

I. If something is wanted, by

quî, the relative pronoun (as above)
ut, conj., in order that, that
quô (abl. of quî, by which), in order that, that, used when the purpose clause contains a comparative. The ablative quô expresses the measure of difference. (Cf. § 317.)

II. If something is not wanted, by

, conj., in order that not, that not, lest

351. EXAMPLES

1.Caesar côpiâs côgit quibus hostîs însequâtur
Cæsar collects troops with which to pursue the foe
2.Pâcem petunt ut domum revertantur
They ask for peace in order that they may return home
3.Pontem faciunt quô facilius oppidum capiant
They build a bridge that they may take the town more easily (lit. by which the more easily)
4.Fugiunt nê vulnerentur
They flee that they may not (or lest they) be wounded

352. Expression of Purpose in English. In English, purpose clauses are sometimes introduced by that or in order that, but much more frequently purpose is expressed in English by the infinitive, as We eat to live, She stoops to conquer. In Latin prose, on the other hand, purpose is never expressed by the infinitive. Be on your guard and do not let the English idiom betray you into this error.

353. EXERCISES

I.

1. Veniunt utdûcant, mittant, videant, audiant, dûcantur, mittantur, videantur, audiantur.
2. Fugimus nêcapiâmur, trâdâmur, videâmus, necêmur, rapiâmur, resistâmus.
3. Mittit nûntiôs quîdicant, audiant, veniant, nârrent, audiantur, in conciliô sedeant.
4. Castra mûniunt quô faciliussêsê dêfendant, impetum sustineant, hostîs vincant, salûtem petant.

II. 1. The Helvetii send ambassadors to seek1 peace. 2. They are setting out at daybreak in order that they may make a longer march before night. 3. They will hide the women in the forest (acc. with in) that they may not be captured. 4. The Gauls wage many wars to free1 their fatherland from slavery. 5. They will resist the Romans2 bravely lest they be destroyed.

1. Not infinitive.
2. Not accusative.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXIII

INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

354. The imperfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the personal endings to the present active infinitive.

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
ACTIVE
1. amâ´remmonê´remre´geremca´peremaudî´rem
2. amâ´rêsmonê´rêsre´gerêsca´perêsaudî´rês
3. amâ´retmonê´retre´geretca´peretaudî´ret
1. amârê´musmonêrê´musregerê´muscaperê´musaudîrê´mus
2. amârê´tismonêrê´tisregerê´tiscaperê´tisaudîrê´tis
3. amâ´rentmonê´rentre´gerentca´perentaudî´rent
 
PASSIVE
1. amâ´rermonê´rerre´gererca´pereraudî´rer
2. amârê´ris(-re)monêrê´ris(-re)regerê´ris(-re)caperê´ris(-re)audîrê´ris(-re)
3. amârê´turmonêrê´turregerê´turcaperê´turaudîrê´tur
1. amârê´murmonêrê´murregerê´murcaperê´muraudîrê´mur
2. amârê´minîmonêrê´minîregerê´minîcaperê´minîaudîre´minî
3. amâren´turmonêren´turregeren´turcaperen´turaudîren´tur

a. In a similar way inflect the imperfect subjunctive, active and passive, of cûrô, iubeô, sûmô, iaciô, mûniô.

355. The imperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is inflected as follows:

Sing.1. es´semPlur.1. essê´mus
2. es´sês2. essê´tis
3. es´set3. es´sent

356. The three great distinctions of time are present, past, and future. All tenses referring to present or future time are called primary tenses, and those referring to past time are called secondary tenses. Now it is a very common law of language that in a complex sentence the tense in the dependent clause should be of the same kind as the tense in the principal clause. In the sentence He says that he is coming, the principal verb, says, is present, that is, is in a primary tense; and is coming, in the dependent clause, is naturally also primary. If I change he says to he said,—in other words, if I make the principal verb secondary in character,—I feel it natural to change the verb in the dependent clause also, and I say, He said that he was coming. This following of a tense by another of the same kind is called tense sequence, from sequî, "to follow."

In Latin the law of tense sequence is obeyed with considerable regularity, especially when an indicative in the principal clause is followed by a subjunctive in the dependent clause. Then a primary tense of the indicative is followed by a primary tense of the subjunctive, and a secondary tense of the indicative is followed by a secondary tense of the subjunctive. Learn the following table:

357. Table for Sequence of Tenses

Principal Verb in the
Indicative
Dependent Verbs in the Subjunctive
Incomplete or
Continuing Action
Completed Action
PrimaryPresent
Future
Future perfect
PresentPerfect
SecondaryImperfect
Perfect
Pluperfect
ImperfectPluperfect

358. Rule. Sequence of Tenses. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses and secondary by secondary.

359. EXAMPLES

I. Primary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

Mittit
Mittet
Mîserit
hominês ut agrôs vâstent
Hesends
will send
will have sent
men that they may
in order to
to
lay waste the fields

II. Secondary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

Mittêbat
Mîsit
Mîserat
hominês ut agrôs vâstârent
Hewas sending
sent or has sent
had sent
men that they might
in order to
to
lay waste the fields

360. EXERCISES

I.

1. Vênerant ut

dûcerent, mitterent, vidêrent, audîrent, dûcerentur, mitterentur, vidêrentur, audirentur

2. Fugiêbat nê

caperêtur, trâderêtur, vidêrêtur, necârêtur, raperêtur, resiteret.

3. Misit nûntiôs quî

dîcerent, audîrent, venîrent, nârrârent, audîrentur, in conciliô sedêrent.

4. Castra mûnîvêrunt quô facilius

sêsê dêfenderent, impetum sustinêrent, hostîs vincerent, salûtem peterent.

II. 1. Cæsar encouraged the soldiers in order that they might fight more bravely. 2. The Helvetii left their homes to wage war. 3. The scouts set out at once lest they should be captured by the Germans. 4. Cæsar inflicted punishment on them in order that the others might be more terrified. 5. He sent messengers to Rome to announce the victory.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXIV

THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

361. The perfect and the pluperfect subjunctive active are inflected as follows:

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
Perfect Subjunctive Active
SINGULAR
1. amâ´verimmonu´erimrê´xerimcê´perimaudî´verim
2. amâ´verismonu´erisrê´xeriscê´perisaudî´veris
3. amâ´veritmonu´eritrê´xeritcê´peritaudî´verit
PLURAL
1. amâve´rimusmonue´rimusrêxe´rimuscêpe´rimusaudîve´rimus
2. amâve´ritismonue´ritisrêxe´ritiscêpe´ritisaudîve´ritis
3. amâ´verintmonu´erintrê´xerintcê´perintaudî´verint
 
Pluperfect Subjunctive Active
SINGULAR
1. amâvis´semmonuis´semrêxis´semcêpis´semaudîvis´sem
2. amâvis´sêsmonuis´sêsrêxis´sêscêpis´sêsaudîvis´sêm
3. amâvis´setmonuis´setrêxis´setcêpis´setaudîvis´set
PLURAL
1. amâvissê´musmonuissê´musrêxissê´muscêpissê´musaudîvissê´mus
2. amâvissê´tismonuissê´tisrêxissê´tiscêpissê´tisaudîvissê´tis
3. amâvis´sentmonuis´sentrêxis´sentcêpis´sentaudîvis´sent

a. Observe that these two tenses, like the corresponding ones in the indicative, are formed from the perfect stem.

b. Observe that the perfect subjunctive active is like the future perfect indicative active, excepting that the first person singular ends in -m and not in .

c. Observe that the pluperfect subjunctive active may be formed by adding -issem, -issês, etc. to the perfect stem.

d. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive active of cûrô, iubeô, sûmô, iaciô, mûniô.

362. The passive of the perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with sim, the present subjunctive of sum.

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
Perfect Subjunctive Passive
SINGULAR
1. amâ´tus simmo´nitus simrêc´tus simcap´tus simaudî´tus sim
2. amâ´tus sîsmo´nitus sîsrêc´tus sîscap´tus sîsaudî´tus sîs
3. amâ´tus sitmo´nitus sitrêc´tus sitcap´tus sitaudî´tus sit
PLURAL
1. amâ´tî sîmusmo´nitî sîmusrêc´tî sîmuscap´tî sîmusaudî´tî sîmus
2. amâ´tî sîtismo´nitî sîtisrêc´tî sîtiscap´tî sîtisaudî´tî sîtis
3. amâ´tî sintmo´nitî sintrêc´tî sintcap´tî sintaudî´tî sint

363. The passive of the pluperfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with essem, the imperfect subjunctive of sum.

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive
SINGULAR
1. amâtus essemmonitus essemrêctus essemcaptus essemaudîtus essem
2. amâtus essêsmonitus essêsrêctus essêscaptus essêsaudîtus essês
3. amâtus essetmonitus essetrêctus essetcaptus essetaudîtus esset
PLURAL
1. amâtî essêmusmonitî essêmusrêctî essêmuscaptî essêmusaudîtî essêmus
2. amâtî essêtismonitî essêtisrêctî essêtiscaptî essêtisaudîtî essêtis
3. amâtî essentmonitî essentrêctî essentcaptî essentaudîtî essent

a. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive passive of cûrô, iubeô, sûmô, iaciô, mûniô.

364. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum are inflected as follows:

PerfectPluperfect
fu´erimfue´rimusfuis´semfuissê´mus
fu´erisfue´ritisfuis´sêsfuissê´tis
fu´eritfu´erintfuis´setfuis´sent

365. A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as,

That the men are afraid is clear enough (clause as subject)
He ordered them to call on him (clause as object)

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this way (cf. § 213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English usage in this respect. But the Latin often uses the subjunctive in substantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the two languages.

366. Rule. Substantive Clauses of Purpose. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive.

EXAMPLES

1.The general ordered the soldiers to run Imperâtor mîlitibus imperâvit ut currerent
2.He urged them to resist bravely Hortâtus est ut fortiter resisterent
3.He asked them to give the children food Petîvit ut lîberîs cibum darent
4.He will persuade us not to set out Nôbîs persuâdêbit nê proficîscâmur
5.He advises us to remain at home Monet ut domî maneâmus

a. The object clauses following these verbs all express the purpose or will of the principal subject that something be done or not done. (Cf. § 348.)

367. The following verbs are used with object clauses of purpose. Learn the list and the principal parts of the new ones.

hortor, urge
imperô, order (with the dative of the person ordered and a subjunctive clause of the thing ordered done)
moneô, advise
petô, quaerô, rogô, ask, seek
persuâdeô, persuade (with the same construction as imperô)
postulô, demand, require
suâdeô, advise (cf. persuâdeô)

N.B. Remember that iubeô, order, takes the infinitive as in English. (Cf. § 213. 1.) Compare the sentences

Iubeô eum venîre, I order him to come
Imperô eî ut veniat, I give orders to him that he is to come

We ordinarily translate both of these sentences like the first, but the difference in meaning between iubeô and imperô in the Latin requires the infinitive in the one case and the subjunctive in the other.

368. EXERCISES

I. 1. Petit atque hortâtur ut ipse dîcat. 2. Caesar Helvêtiîs imperrâvit nê per prôvinciam iter facerent. 3. Caesar nôn iussit Helvêtiôs per prôvinciam iter facere. 4. Ille cîvibus persuâsit ut dê fînibus suîs discêderent. 5. Caesar prîncipês monêbit nê proelium committant. 6. Postulâvit nê cum Helvêtiîs aut cum eôrum sociîs bellum gererent. 7. Ab iîs quaesîvî nê proficîscerentur. 8. Iîs persuâdêre nôn potuî ut domî manêrent.

II. 1. Who ordered Cæsar to make the march? (Write this sentence both with imperô and with iubeô.) 2. The faithless scouts persuaded him to set out at daybreak. 3. They will ask him not to inflict punishment. 4. He demanded that they come to the camp. 5. He advised them to tell everything (omnia).

Note. Do not forget that the English infinitive expressing purpose must be rendered by a Latin subjunctive. Review § 352.

Reading Selection

[Illustration: legion on the march
Caption: LEGIO ITER FACIT]

LESSON LXV

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF POSSUM · VERBS OF FEARING

369. Learn the subjunctive of possum (§ 495), and note especially the position of the accent.

370. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. We have learned that what we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a subjunctive clause of purpose. In this class belong also clauses after verbs of fearing, for we fear either that something will happen or that it will not, and we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want a thing to happen and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is introduced by ut. If we do not want it to happen and fear that it will, is used. Owing to a difference between the English and Latin idiom we translate ut after a verb of fearing by that not, and by that or lest.

371. EXAMPLES

timeô
timêbô
timuerô
ut veniat
 
vênerit

I fear, shall fear, shall have feared, that he will not come, has not come

timêbam
timuî
timueram
ut venîret
 
vênisset

I was fearing, feared, had feared, that he would not come, had not come

The same examples with instead of ut would be translated I fear that or lest he will come, has come, etc.

372. Rule. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest).

373. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar verêbâtur ut supplicium captîvôrum Gallîs placêret. 2. Rômânî ipsî magnopere verêbantur nê Helvêtiî iter per prôvinciam facerent. 3. Timêbant ut satis reî frûmentâriae mittî posset. 4. Vereor ut hostium impetum sustinêre possim. 5. Timuit nê impedîmenta ab hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit nê legiônês vincerentur. 7. Legiônês pugnâre nôn timuêrunt.1

1. Distinguish between what one is afraid to do (complementary infinitive as here) and what one is afraid will take place or has taken place (substantive clause with the subjunctive).

II. 1. We fear that they are not coming. 2. We fear lest they are coming. 3. We feared that they had come. 4. We feared that they had not come. 5. They feared greatly that the camp could not be defended. 6. Almost all feared1 to leave the camp.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXVI

THE PARTICIPLES

374. The Latin verb has the following Participles:1

Conj. IConj. IIConj. IIIConj. IV
ACTIVE
Presentamâns
loving
monêns
advising
regêns
ruling
capiêns
taking
audiêns
hearing
Futureamâtûrus
about to love
monitûrus
about to advise
rêctûrus
about to rule
captûrus
about to take
audîtûrus
about to hear
PASSIVE
Perfectamâtus
loved, having been loved
monitus
advised, having been advised
rêctus
ruled, having been ruled
captus
taken, having been taken
audîtus
heard, having been heard
Future2amandus
to be loved
monendus
to be advised
regendus
to be ruled
capiendus
to be taken
audiendus
to be heard
1. Review § 203.
2. The future passive participle is often called the gerundive.

a. The present active and future passive participles are formed from the present stem, and the future active and perfect passive participles are formed from the participial stem.

b. The present active participle is formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -iô verbs of the third conjugation, and in the fourth conjugation, the stem is modified by the addition of -ê-, as capi-ê-ns, audi-ê-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the third declension. (Cf. § 256.)

amâns, loving
Base amant- Stem amanti-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.amânsamânsamantêsamantia
Gen.amantisamantisamantiumamantium
Dat.amantîamantîamantibusamantibus
Acc.amantemamânsamantîs or -êsamantia
Abl.amantî or -eamantî or -eamantibusamantibus

(1) When used as an adjective the ablative singular ends in ; when used as a participle or as a substantive, in -e.

(2) In a similar way decline monêns, regêns, capiêns, audiêns.

c. The future active participle is formed by adding -ûrus to the base of the participial stem. We have already met this form combined with esse to produce the future active infinitive. (Cf. § 206.)

d. For the perfect passive participle see § 201. The future passive participle or gerundive is formed by adding -ndus to the present stem.

e. All participles in -us are declined like bonus.

f. Participles agree with nouns or pronouns like adjectives.

g. Give all the participles of the following verbs: cûrô, iubeô, sûmô, iaciô, mûniô.

375. Participles of Deponent Verbs. Deponent verbs have the participles of the active voice as well as of the passive; consequently every deponent verb has four participles, as,

Pres. Act.hortâns, urging
Fut. Act.hortâtûrus, about to urge
Perf. Pass. (in form)hortâtus, having urged
Fut. Pass. (Gerundive)hortandus, to be urged

a. Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is passive in form but active in meaning. No other verbs have a perfect active participle. On the other hand, the future passive participle of deponent verbs is passive in meaning as in other verbs.

b. Give the participles of cônor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior.

376. Tenses of the Participle. The tenses express time as follows:

1. The present active participle corresponds to the English present active participle in -ing, but can be used only of an action occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb; as, mîlitês însequentês cêpêrunt multôs, the soldiers, while pursuing, captured many. Here the pursuing and the capturing are going on together.

2. The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly passive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without the auxiliary having been; as, audîtus, heard or having been heard.

3. The future active participle, translated about to, etc., denotes time after the action of the main verb.

377. Review §§ 203, 204, and, note the following model sentences:

1. Mîlitês currentês erant dêfessî, the soldiers who were running (lit. running) were weary.

2. Caesar profectûrus Rômam nôn exspectâvit, Cæsar, when about to set out (lit. about to set out) for Rome, did not wait.

3. Oppidum captum vîdimus, we saw the town which had been captured (lit. captured town).

4. Imperâtor trîduum morâtus profectus est, the general, since (when, or after) he had delayed (lit. the general, having delayed) three days, set out.

5. Mîlitês vîctî terga nôn vertêrunt, the soldiers, though they were conquered (lit. the soldiers conquered), did not retreat.

In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is given in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation usually requires a clause beginning with some conjunction (when, since, after, though, etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case, what translation will best bring out the thought, and do not, as a rule, translate the participle literally.

378. EXERCISES

I. 1. Puer timêns nê capiâtur fugit. 2. Aquila îrâ commôta avîs reliquâs interficere cônâta erat. 3. Mîlitês ab hostibus pressî têla iacere nôn potuêrunt. 4. Caesar decimam legiônem laudâtûrus ad prîmum agmen prôgressus est. 5. Imperâtor hortâtus equitês ut fortiter pugnârent signum proeliô dedit. 6. Mîlitês hostîs octô milia passuum însecûtî multîs cum captîvîs ad castra revertêrunt. 7. Sôl oriêns multôs interfectôs vîdit. 8. Rômânî cônsilium audâx suspicâtî barbaris sêsê nôn commîsêrunt. 9. Nâvis ê portû êgressa nûllô in perîculô erat.

II.3 1. The army was in very great danger while marching through the enemy's country. 2. Frightened by the length of the way, they longed for home. 3. When the scouts were about to set out, they heard the shouts of victory. 4. When we had delayed many days, we set fire to the buildings and departed. 5. While living at Rome I heard orators much better than these. 6. The soldiers who are fighting across the river are no braver than we.

3. In this exercise use participles for the subordinate clauses.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXVII

THE IRREGULAR VERBS VOLÔ, NÔLÔ, MÂLÔ · THE ABLATIVE WITH A PARTICIPLE, OR ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE

379. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of volô, wish; nôlô (ne + volô), be unwilling; mâlô (magis + volô), be more willing, prefer (§ 497). Note the irregularities in the present indicative, subjunctive, and infinitive, and in the imperfect subjunctive. (Cf. § 354.)

a. These verbs are usually followed by the infinitive with or without a subject accusative; as, volunt venîre, they wish to come; volunt amîcôs venîre, they wish their friends to come. The English usage is the same.1

1. Sometimes the subjunctive of purpose is used after these verbs. (See § 366.)

380. Observe the following sentences:

1. Magistrô laudante omnês puerî dîligenter labôrant, with the teacher praising, or since the teacher praises, or the teacher praising, all the boys labor diligently.

2. Caesare dûcente nêmô prôgredî timet, with Cæsar leading, or when Cæsar leads, or if Cæsar leads, or Cæsar leading, no one fears to advance.

3. His rêbus cognitîs mîlitês fûgêrunt, when this was known, or since this was known, or these things having been learned, the soldiers fled.

4. Proeliô commissô multî vulnerâtî sunt, after the battle had begun, or when the battle had begun, or the battle having been joined, many were wounded.

a. One of the fundamental ablative relations is expressed in English by the preposition with (cf. § 50). In each of the sentences above we have a noun and a participle in agreement in the ablative, and the translation shows that in each instance the ablative expresses attendant circumstance. For example, in the first sentence the circumstance attending or accompanying the diligent labor of the boys is the praise of the teacher. This is clearly a with relation, and the ablative is the case to use.

b. We observe, further, that the ablative and its participle are absolutely independent grammatically of the rest of the sentence. If we were to express the thought in English in a similar way, we should use the nominative independent or absolute. In Latin the construction is called the Ablative Absolute, or the Ablative with a Participle. This form of expression is exceedingly common in Latin, but rather rare in English, so we must not, as a rule, employ the English absolute construction to translate the ablative abolute. The attendant circumstance may be one of time (when or after), or one of cause (since), or one of concession (though), or one of condition (if). In each case try to discover the precise relation, and tranlate the ablative and its participle by a clause which will best express the thought.

381. Rule. Ablative Absolute. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance.

Note 1. The verb sum has no present participle. In consequence we often find two nouns or a noun and an adjective in the ablative absolute with no participle expressed; as, tê duce, you (being) leader, with you as leader; patre înfirmô, my father (being) weak.

Note 2. Be very careful not to put in the ablative absolute a noun and participle that form the subject or object of a sentence. Compare

a. The Gauls, having been conquered by Cæsar, returned home
b. The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar, the army returned home

In a the subject is The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar, and we translate,

Gallî â Caesare victi domum revertêrunt

In b the subject is the army. The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar is nominative absolute in English, which requires the ablative absolute in Latin, and we translate,

Gallîs â Caesare victîs exercitus domum revertit

Note 3. The fact that only deponent verbs have a perfect active participle (cf. § 375. a) often compels a change of voice when translating from one language to the other. For example, we can translate Cæsar having encouraged the legions just as it stands, because hortor is a deponent verb. But if we wish to say Cæsar having conquered the Gauls, we have to change the voice of the participle to the passive because vincô is not deponent, and say, the Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar (see translation above).

382. EXERCISES

I. 1. Mâvîs, nôn vîs, vultis, nôlumus. 2. Ut nôlit, ut vellêmus, ut mâlit. 3. Nôlî, velle, nôluisse, mâlle. 4. Vult, mâvultis, ut nôllet, nôlîte. 5. Sôle oriente, avês cantâre incêpêrunt. 6. Clâmôribus audîtîs, barbarî prôgredî recûsâbant. 7. Caesare legiônês hortâtô, mîlitês paulô fortius pugnâvêrunt. 8. Hîs rêbus cognitîs, Helvêtiî fînitimîs persuâsêrunt ut sêcum iter facerent. 9. Labôribus cônfectîs, mîlitês â Caesare quaerêbant ut sibi praemia daret. 10. Conciliô convocâtô, prîncipês ita respondêrunt. 11. Dux plûrîs diês in Helvêtiôrum fînibus morâns multôs vîcôs incendit. 12. Magnitûdine Germânôrum cognitâ, quîdam ex Rômânis timêbant. 13. Mercâtôribus rogâtîs, Caesar nihilô plûs reperîre potuit.

II. 1. He was unwilling, lest they prefer, they have wished. 2. You prefer, that they might be unwilling, they wish. 3. We wish, they had preferred, that he may prefer. 4. Cæsar, when he heard the rumor (the rumor having been heard), commanded (imperâre) the legions to advance more quickly. 5. Since Cæsar was leader, the men were willing to make the journey. 6. A few, terrified2 by the reports which they had heard, preferred to remain at home. 7. After these had been left behind, the rest hastened as quickly as possible. 8. After Cæsar had undertaken the business (Cæsar, the business having been undertaken), he was unwilling to delay longer.3

2. Would the ablative absolute be correct here?
3. Not longius. Why?

Reading Selection

LESSON LXVIII

THE IRREGULAR VERB FÎÔ · THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT

383. The verb fîô, be made, happen, serves as the passive of faciô, make, in the present system. The rest of the verb is formed regularly from faciô. Learn the principal parts and conjugation (§ 500). Observe that the i is long except before -er and in fit.

a. The compounds of facio with prepositions usually form the passive regularly, as,

Activecônficiô, cônficere, cônfêcî, cônfectus
Passivecônficior, cônficî, cônfectus sum

384. Observe the following sentences:

1. Terror erat tantus ut omnês fugerent, the terror was so great that all fled.
2. Terror erat tantus ut nôn facile mîlitês sêsê reciperent, the terror was so great that the soldiers did not easily recover themselves.
3. Terror fêcit ut omnês fugerent, terror caused all to flee (lit. made that all fled).

a. Each of these sentences is complex, containing a principal clause and a subordinate clause.

b. The principal clause names a cause and the subordinate clause states the consequence or result of this cause.

c. The subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive, though it is translated like an indicative. The construction is called the subjunctive of consequence or result, and the clause is called a consecutive or result clause.

d. In the last example the clause of result is the object of the verb fêcit.

e. The conjunction introducing the consecutive or result clause is ut = so that; negative, ut nôn = so that not.

385. Rule. Subjunctive of Result. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nôn and have the verb in the subjunctive.

386. Rule. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nôn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about.

387. Purpose and Result Clauses Compared. There is great similarity in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin. If the sentence is affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be introduced by ut; but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause has and the result clause ut nôn. Result clauses are often preceded in the main clause by such words as tam, ita, sic (so), and these serve to point them out. Compare

a.Tam graviter vulnerâtus est ut caperêtur He was so severely wounded that he was captured
b.Graviter vulnerâtus est ut caperêtur He was severely wounded in order that he might be captured

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out?

388. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fit, fîet, ut fîat, fîêbâmus. 2. Fîô, fîês, ut fierent, fierî, fîunt. 3. Fîêtis, ut fîâmus, fîs, fîemus. 4. Mîlitês erant tam tardî ut ante noctem in castra nôn pervenîrent. 5. Sôl facit ut omnia sint pulchra. 6. Eius modî perîcula erant ut nêmô proficîscî vellet. 7. Equitês hostium cum equitâtû nostrô in itinere contendêrunt, ita tamen1 ut nostrî omnibus in partibus superiôrês essent. 8. Virtûs mîlitum nostrôrum fêcit ut hostês nê ûnum quidem2 impetum sustinêrent. 9. Hominês erant tam audâcês ut nûllô modô continêrî possent. 10. Spatium erat tam parvum ut mîlitês têla iacere nôn facile possent. 11. Hôc proeliô factô barbarî ita perterritî sunt ut ab ultimîs gentibus lêgâtî ad Caesarem mitterentur. 12. Hoc proelium factum est nê lêgâtî ad Caesarem mitterentur.

1. ita tamen, with such a result however.
2. nê ... quidem, not even. The emphatic word is placed between.

II. 1. It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen. 2. It happens, he will be made, to happen. 3. They are made, we were being made, lest it happen. 4. The soldiers are so brave that they conquer. 5. The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer. 6. The fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken. 7. The fortification was made strong in order that it might not be taken. 8. After the town was taken,3 the townsmen feared that they would be made slaves. 9. What state is so weak that it is unwilling to defend itself?

3. Ablative absolute.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXIX

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC OR DESCRIPTION · THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE

389. Akin to the subjunctive of consequence or result is the use of the subjunctive in clauses of characteristic or description.

This construction is illustrated in the following sentences:

1. Quis est quî suam domum nôn amet? who is there who does not love his own home?
2. Erant quî hoc facere nôllent, there were (some) who were unwilling to do this.
3. Tû nôn is es quî amîcôs trâdâs, you are not such a one as to, or you are not the man to, betray your friends.
4. Nihil videô quod timeam, I see nothing to fear (nothing of such as character as to fear it).

a. Each of these examples contains a descriptive relative clause which tells what kind of a person or thing the antecedent is. To express this thought the subjunctive is used. A relative clause that merely states a fact and does not describe the antecedent uses the indicative. Compare the sentences

Cæsar is the man who is leading us, Caesar est is quî nôs dûcit
(mere statement of fact, no description, with the indicative)
Cæsar is the man to lead us, Caesar est is quî nôs dûcat
(descriptive relative clause with the subjunctive)

b. Observe that in this construction a demonstrative pronoun and a relative, as is quî, are translated such a one as to, the man to.

c. In which of the following sentences would you use the indicative and in which the subjunctive?

These are not the men who did this
These are not the men to do this

390. Rule. Subjunctive of Characteristic. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description.

391. Observe the sentences

1. Rômânî Caesarem cônsulem fêcêrunt, the Romans made Cæsar consul.
2. Caesar cônsul â Rômânîs factus est, Cæsar was made consul by the Romans.

a. Observe in 1 that the transitive verb fêcêrunt, made, has two objects: (1) the direct object, Caesarem; (2) a second object, cônsulem, referring to the same person as the direct object and completing the predicate. The second accusative is called a Predicate Accusative.

b. Observe in 2 that when the verb is changed to the passive both of the accusatives become nominatives, the direct object becoming the subject and the predicate accusative the predicate nominative.

392. Rule. Two Accusatives. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives.

393. The verbs commonly found with two accusatives are

creo, creâre, creâvî, creâtus, choose
appellô, appellâre, appellâvî, appellâtus   
nôminô, nôminâre, nôminâvî, nôminâtus   
vocô, vocâre, vocâvî, vocâtus
call
faciô, facere, fêcî, factus, make

394. EXERCISES

I. 1. In Germâniae silvis sunt1 multa genera ferârum quae reliquîs in locîs nôn vîsa sint. 2. Erant1 itinera duo quibus Helvêtiî domô discêdere possent. 3. Erat1 manus nûlla, nûllum oppidum, nûllum praesidium quod sê armîs dêfenderet. 4. Tôtô frûmentô raptô, domî nihil erat quô mortem prohibêre possent. 5. Rômânî Galbam ducem creâvêrunt et summâ celeritâte profectî sunt. 6. Neque erat1 tantae multitûdinis quisquam quî morârî vellet. 7. Germânî nôn iî sunt quî adventum Caesaris vereantur. 8. Cônsulibus occîsîs erant quî2 vellent cum rêgem creâre. 9. Pâce factâ erat nêmô quî arma trâdere nôllet. 10. Inter Helvêtiôs quis erat quî nôbilior illô esset?

II. 1. The Romans called the city Rome. 2. The city was called Rome by the Romans. 3. The better citizens wished to choose him king. 4. The brave soldier was not the man to run. 5. There was no one 3to call me friend. 6. These are not the men to4 betray their friends. 7. There were (some) who called him the bravest of all.

1. Remember that when the verb sum precedes its subject it is translated there is, there are, there were, etc.
2. erant quî, there were (some) who. A wholly indefinite antecedent of quî does not need to be expressed.
3. A relative clause of characteristic or description.
4. See § 389.b.

Reading Selection


Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, §§ 527-528


LESSON LXX

THE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION CUM · THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION

395. The conjunction cum has the following meanings and constructions:

cum temporal = when, followed by the indicative or the subjunctive
cum causal = since, followed by the subjunctive
cum concessive = although, followed by the subjunctive

As you observe, the mood after cum is sometimes indicative and sometimes subjunctive. The reason for this will be made clear by a study of the following sentences:

1. Caesarem vîdî tum cum in Galliâ eram, I saw Cæsar at the time when I was in Gaul.

2. Caesar in eôs impetum fêcit cum pâcem peterent, Cæsar made an attack upon them when they were seeking peace.

3. Hoc erat difficile cum paucî sine vulneribus essent, this was difficult, since only a few were without wounds.

4. Cum prîmî ôrdinês fûgissent, tamen reliquî fortiter cônsistêbant, though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood their ground.

a. The underlying principle is one already familiar to you (cf. § 389.a). When the cum clause states a fact and simply fixes the time at which the main action took place, the indicative mood is used. So, in the first example, cum in Galliâ eram fixes the time when I saw Cæsar.

b. On the other hand, when the cum clause describes the circumstances under which the main act took place, the subjunctive mood is used. So, in the second example, the principal clause states that Cæsar made an attack, and the cum clause describes the circumstances under which this act occurred. The idea of time is also present, but it is subordinate to the idea of description. Sometimes the descriptive clause is one of cause and we translate cum by since; sometimes it denotes concession and cum is translated although.

396. Rule. Constructions with Cum. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place.

Note. Cum in clauses of description with the subjunctive is much more common than its use with the indicative.

397. Note the following sentences:

1. Oppidum erat parvum magnitûdine sed magnum multitûdine hominum, the town was small in size but great in population.

2. Homô erat corpore înfîrmus sed validus animô, the man was weak in body but strong in courage.

a. Observe that magnitûdine, multitûdine, corpore, and animô tell in what respect something is true. The relation is one covered by the ablative case, and the construction is called the ablative of specification.

398. Rule. Ablative of Specification. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true.

399. IDIOMS

aliquem certiôrem facere, to inform some one (lit. to make some one more certain)
certior fierî, to be informed (lit. to be made more certain)
iter dare, to give a right of way, allow to pass
obsidês inter sê dare, to give hostages to each other

400. EXERCISES

I. 1. Helvêtiî cum patrum nostrôrum tempore domô prefectî essent, cônsulis exercitum in fugam dederant. 2. Cum Caesar in Galliam vênit, Helvêtiî aliôs agrôs petêbant. 3. Caesar cum in citeriôre Gallia esset, tamen dê Helvêtiôrum cônsiliîs certior fîêbat. 4. Cum Helvêtiî bellô clârissimî essent, Caesar iter per prôvinciam dare recûsâvit. 5. Lêgâtus cum haec audîvisset, Caesarem certiôrem fecit. 6. Cum principês inter sê obsidês darent, Rômânî bellum parâvêrunt. 7. Caesar, cum id nûntiâtum esset, mâtûrat ab urbe proficîscî. 8. Nê virtûte quidem Gallî erant parês Germânis. 9. Caesar neque corpore neque animô înfîrmus erat. 10. Illud bellum tum incêpit cum Caesar fuit cônsul.

Observe in each case what mood follows cum, and try to give the reasons for its use. In the third sentence the cum clause is concessive, in the fourth and sixth causal.

II. 1. That battle was fought at the time when (tum cum) I was at Rome. 2. Though the horsemen were few in number, nevertheless they did not retreat. 3. When the camp had been sufficiently fortified, the enemy returned home. 4. Since the tribes are giving hostages to each other, we shall inform Cæsar. 5. The Gauls and the Germans are very unlike in language and laws.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXXI

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE · THE PREDICATE GENITIVE

401. Review the word lists in §§ 510, 511.

402. The Gerund. Suppose we had to translate the sentence

By overcoming the Gauls Cæsar won great glory

We can see that overcoming here is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in -ing, and that the thought calls for the ablative of means. To translate this by the Latin infinitive would be impossible, because the infinitive is indeclinable and therefore has no ablative case form. Latin, however, has another verbal noun of corresponding meaning, called the gerund, declined as a neuter of the second declension in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular, and thus supplying the cases that the infinitive lacks.1 Hence, to decline in Latin the verbal noun overcoming, we should use the infinitive for the nominative and the gerund for the other cases, as follows:

Nom.superâreovercoming
to overcome
Infinitive
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

superandî, of overcoming
superandô, for overcoming
superandum, overcoming
superandô, by overcoming

Gerund

Like the infinitive, the gerund governs the same case as the verb from which it is derived. So the sentence given above becomes in Latin

Superandô Gallôs Caesar magnam glôriam reportâvit

1. Sometimes, however, the infinitive is used as an accusative.

403. The gerund2 is formed by adding -ndî, -ndô, -ndum, -ndô, to the present stem, which is shortened or otherwise changed, as shown below:

Paradigm of the Gerund
CONJ. ICONJ. IICONJ. IIICONJ. IV
Gen.amandîmonendîregendîcapiendîaudiendî
Dat.amandômonendôregendôcapiendôaudiendô
Acc.amandummonendumregendumcapiendumaudiendum
Abl.amandômonendôregendôcapiendôaudiendô

a. Give the gerund of cûrô, dêleô, sûmô, iaciô, veniô.

b. Deponent verbs have the gerund of the active voice (see § 493). Give the gerund of cônor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior.

2. The gerund is the neuter singular of the future passive participle used as a noun, and has the same formation. (Cf. § 374. d.)

404. The Gerundive. The gerundive is the name given to the future passive participle (§ 374. d) when the participle approaches the meaning of a verbal noun and is translated like a gerund. It is the adjective corresponding to the gerund. For example, to translate the plan of waging war, we may use the gerund with its direct object and say cônsilium gerendî bellum; or we may use the gerundive and say cônsilium bellî gerendî, which means, literally, the plan of the war to be waged, but which came to have the same force as the gerund with its object, and was even preferred to it.

405. Compare the following parallel uses of the gerund and gerundive:

GerundGerundive
Gen.Spês faciendî pâcem
The hope of making peace
Spês faciendae pâcis
The hope of making peace
Dat.Locus idôneus pugnandô
A place suitable for fighting
Locus idôneus castrîs pônendîs
A place suitable for pitching camp
Acc.Mîsit equitês ad însequendum
He sent horsemen to pursue
Mîsit equitês ad însequendôs hostîs
He sent horsemen to pursue the enemy
Abl.Nârrandô fâbulâs magister puerîs placuit
The teacher pleased the boys by telling stories
Nârrandîs fâbulîs magister puerîs placuit
The teacher pleased the boys by telling stories

a. We observe

(1) That the gerund is a noun and the gerundive an adjective.

(2) That the gerund, being a noun, may stand alone or with an object.

(3) That the gerundive, being an adjective, is used only in agreement with a noun.

406. Rule. Gerund and Gerundive. 1. The Gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns.

2. The Gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual.

407. Rule. Gerund or Gerundive of Purpose. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causâ3 (= for the sake of), is used to express purpose.

GerundGerundive
Ad audiendum vênêrunt or
Audiendî causâ vênêrunt
They came to hear
Ad urbem videndam vênêrunt or
Urbis videndae causâ vênêrunt
They came to see the city
3. causâ always follows the genitive.

Note. These sentences might, of course, be written with the subjunctive of purpose,—vênêrunt ut audîrent; vênêrunt ut urbem vidêrent. In short expressions, however, the gerund and gerundive of purpose are rather more common.

408. We have learned that the word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive, as, equus Galbae, Galba's horse. If, now, we wish to express the idea the horse is Galba's, Galba remains the possessor, and hence in the genitive as before, but now stands in the predicate, as, equus est Galbae. Hence this is called the predicate genitive.

409. Rule. Predicate Genitive. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive.

410. IDIOMS

alîcui negôtium dare, to employ someone (lit. to give business to some one)
novîs rêbus studêre, to be eager for a revolution (lit. to be eager for new things)
reî mîlitâris perîtissimus, very skillful in the art of war
sê suaque omnia, themselves and all their possessions

411. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar cum in Galliâ bellum gereret, militibus decimae legiônis maximê fâvit quia reî mîlitâris perîtissimî erant. 2. Sociîs negôtium dedit reî frumentâriae cûrandae. 3. Lêgâti nôn sôlum audiendî causâ sed etiam dicendî causâ vênêrunt. 4. Imperâtor iussit explôrâtôres locum idôneum mûnindô reperîre. 5. Nuper hae gentês novîs rêbus studêbant; mox iîs persuâdêbô ut Caesarî sê suaque omnia dêdant. 6. Iubêre est regînae1 et pârêre est multitûdinis.4 7. Hôc proeliô factô quîdam ex hostibus ad pâcem petendam venêrunt. 8. Erant quî arma trâdere nôllent. 9. Hostês tam celeriter prôgressî sunt ut spatium pîla in hostîs iaciendî non darêtur. 10. Spatium neque arma capiendî5 neque auxilî petendî2 datum est.

II. 1. These ornaments 6belong to Cornelia. 2. Men very skillful in the art of war were sent 7to capture the town. 3. The scouts found a hill suitable for fortifying very near to the river. 4. Soon the cavalry will come 8to seek supplies. 5. The mind of the Gauls is eager for revolution and for undertaking wars. 6. To lead the line of battle 8belongs to the general. 7. 10Whom shall we employ to look after the grain supply?

4. Predicate genitive.
5. Which of these expressions is gerund and which gerundive?
6. belong to = are of.
7. Use the gerundive with ad.
8. Use the genitive with causâ. Where should causâ stand?
9. Compare the first sentence.
10. Compare the second sentence in the Latin above.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXXII

THE IRREGULAR VERB · INDIRECT STATEMENTS

412. Learn the principal parts and the conjugation of , go (§ 499).

a. Notice that î-, the root of , is changed to e- before a vowel, excepting in iêns, the nominative of the present participle. In the perfect system -v- is regularly dropped.

413. Learn the meaning and principal parts of the following compounds of with prepositions:

ad´eô, adî´re, ad´iî, ad´itus, go to, visit, with the accusative
ex´eô, exî´re, ex´iî, ex´itus, go forth, with ex or and the ablative of the place from which
in´eô, inî´re, in´iî, in´itus, begin, enter upon, with the accusative
red´eô, redî´re, red´iî, red´itus, return, with ad or in and the accusative of the place to which
trâns´eô, trânsî´re, trâns´iî, trâns´itus, cross, with the accusative

414. Indirect Statements in English. Direct statements are those which the speaker or writer makes himself or which are quoted in his exact language. Indirect statements are those reported in a different form of words from that used by the speaker or writer. Compare the following direct and indirect statements:

Direct statements 1. The Gauls are brave
2. The Gauls were brave
3. The Gauls will be brave
Indirect statements after a verb in the present tense 1. He says that the Gauls are brave
2. He says that the Gauls were brave
3. He says that the Gauls will be brave
Indirect statements after a verb in a past tense 1. He said that the Gauls were brave
2. He said that the Gauls had been brave
3. He said that the Gauls would be brave

We see that in English

a. The indirect statement forms a clause introduced by the conjunction that.

b. The verb is finite (cf. § 173) and its subject is in the nominative.

c. The tenses of the verbs originally used are changed after the past tense, He said.

415. Indirect Statements in Latin. In Latin the direct and indirect statements above would be as follows:

Direct
Statements
1. Gallî sunt fortês
2. Gallî erant fortês
3. Gallî erunt fortês
Indirect
Statements
1. Dîcit or Dîxit Gallôs esse fortîs (He says or He said the Gauls to be brave)1
2. Dîcit or Dîxit Gallôs fuisse fortîs (He says or He said the Gauls to have been brave)1
3. Dîcit or Dîxit Gallôs futûrôs esse fortîs (He says or He said the Gauls to be about to be brave)1
1. These parenthetical renderings are not inserted as translations, but merely to show the literal meaning of the Latin.

Comparing these Latin indirect statements with the English in the preceding section, we observe three marked differences:

a. There is no conjunction corresponding to that.

b. The verb is in the infinitive and its subject is in the accusative.

c. The tenses of the infinitive are not changed after a past tense of the principal verb.

416. Rule. Indirect Statements. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive.

417. Tenses of the Infinitive. When the sentences in § 415 were changed from the direct to the indirect form of statement, sunt became esse, erant became fuisse, and erunt became futûrôs esse.

418. Rule. Infinitive Tenses in Indirect Statements. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive.

Note. When translating into Latin an English indirect statement, first decide what tense of the indicative would have been used in the direct form. That will show you what tense of the infinitive to use in the indirect.

419. Rule. Verbs followed by Indirect Statements. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving.

420. Verbs regularly followed by indirect statements are:

a.Verbs of saying and telling:
dîcô, dîcere, dîxî, dictus, say
negô, negâre, negâvî, negâtus, deny, say not
nûntiô, nûntiâre, nûntiâvî, nûntiâtus, announce
respondeô, respondêre, respondî, respônsus, reply
b.Verbs of knowing:
cognôscô, cognôscere, cognôvî, cognitus, learn, (in the perf.) know
sciô, scîre, scîvî, scîtus, know
c.Verbs of thinking:
arbitror, arbitrârî, arbitrâtus sum, think, consider
exîstimô, exîstimâre, exîstimâvî, exîstimâtus, think, believe
iûdicô, iûdicâre, iûdicâvi, iûdicâtus, judge, decide
putô, putâre, putâvî, putâtus, reckon, think
spêrô, spêrâre, spêrâvi, spêrâtus, hope
d.Verbs of perceiving:
audiô, audîre, audîvî, audîtus, hear
sentiô, sentîre, sênsî, sênsus, feel, perceive
videô, vidêre, vîdî, vîsus, see
intellegô, intellegere, intellêxî, intellêctus, understand, perceive

Learn such of these verbs as are new to you.

421. IDIOMS

postrîdiê eius diêî, on the next day (lit. on the next day of that day)
initâ aestâte, at the beginning of summer
memoriâ tenêre, to remember (lit. to hold by memory)
per explôrâtôrês cognôscere, to learn through scouts

422. EXERCISES

I. 1. It, îmus, îte, îre. 2. Euntî, iisse or îsse, îbunt, eunt. 3. Eundi, ut eant, îbitis, îs. 4. Nê îrent, î, îbant, ierat. 5. Caesar per explorâtores cognôvit Gallôs flûmen trânsîsse. 6. Rômânî audîvêrunt Helvêtiôs initâ aestâte dê fînibus suîs exitûrôs esse. 7. Legâtî respondêrunt nêminem ante Caesarem illam însulam adîsse. 8. Prîncipês Gallôrum dîcunt sê nûllum cônsilium contrâ Caesaris imperium initûrôs esse. 9. Arbitrâmur potentiam rêgînae esse maiôrem quam cîvium. 10. Rômânî negant se lîbertâtem Gallîs êreptûrôs esse. 11. Hîs rêbus cognitîs sênsimus lêgâtôs non vênisse ad pâcem petendam. 12. Helvêtii sciunt Rômânôs priôrês victôriâs memoriâ tenêre. 13. Sociî cum intellegerent multôs vulnerârî, statuêrunt in suôs fînîs redîre. 14. Aliquis nûntiâvit Mârcum cônsulem creâtum esse.

II. 1. The boy is slow. He says that the boy is, was, (and) will be slow. 2. The horse is, has been, (and) will be strong. He judged that the horse was, had been, (and) would be strong. 3. We think that the army will go forth from the camp at the beginning of summer. 4. The next day we learned through scouts that the enemy's town was ten miles off.2 5. The king replied that the ornaments belonged to3 the queen.

2. to be off, to be distant, abesse.
3. Latin, were of (§ 409).

Reading Selection

[Illustration: trumpet
Caption: TUBA]

LESSON LXXIII

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE IRREGULAR VERB FERÔ · THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUNDS

423. Review the word lists in §§ 513, 514.

424. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of the verb ferô, bear (§ 498).

1. Learn the principal parts and meanings of the following compounds of ferô, bear:

ad´ferô, adfer´re, at´tulî, adlâ´tus, bring to; report
côn´ferô, cônfer´re, con´tulî, conlâ´tus, bring together, collect
dê´ferô, dêfer´re, dê´tulî, dêlâ´tus, bring to; report; grant, confer
în´ferô, înfer´re, in´tulî, inlâ´tus, bring in, bring against
re´ferô, refer´re, ret´tulî, relâ´tus, bear back, report

425. The dative is the case of the indirect object. Many intransitive verbs take an indirect object and are therefore used with the dative (cf. § 153). Transitive verbs take a direct object in the accusative; but sometimes they have an indirect object or dative as well. The whole question, then, as to whether or not a verb takes the dative, defends upon its capacity for governing an indirect object. A number of verbs, some transitive and some intransitive, which in their simple form would not take an indirect object, when compounded with certain prepositions, have a meaning which calls for an indirect object. Observe the following sentences:

1. Haec rês exercituî magnam calamitâtem attulit, this circumstance brought great disaster to the army.
2. Germânî Gallîs bellum înferunt, the Germans make war upon the Gauls.
3. Hae côpiae proeliô nôn intererant, these troops did not take part in the battle.
4. Equitês fugientibus hostibus occurrunt, the horsemen meet the fleeing enemy.
5. Galba côpiîs fîlium praefêcit, Galba put his son in command of the troops.

In each sentence there is a dative, and in each a verb combined with a preposition. In no case would the simple verb take the dative.

426. Rule. Dative with Compounds. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prô, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative.

Note 1. Among such verbs are1

ad´ferô, adfer´re, at´tulî, adlâ´tus, bring to; report
ad´sum, ades´se, ad´fuî, adfutû´rus, assist; be present
dê´ferô, dêfer´re, dê´tulî, dêlâtus, report; grant, confer
dê´sum, dees´se, dê´fuî, ——, be wanting, be lacking
în´ferô, înfer´re, in´tulî, inlâ´tus, bring against, bring upon
inter´sum, interes´se, inter´fuî, interfutû´rus, take part in
occur´rô, occur´rere, occur´rî, occur´sus, run against, meet
praefi´ciô, praefi´cere, praefê´cî, praefec´tus, appoint over, place in command of
prae´sum, praees´se, prae´fuî, ——, be over, be in command

1. But the accusative with ad or in is used with some of these, when the idea of motion to or against is strong.

427. IDIOMS

graviter or molestê ferre, to be annoyed at, to be indignant at, followed by the accusative and infinitive
sê cônferre ad or in, with the accusative, to betake one's self to
alicui bellum înferre, to make war upon some one
pedem referre, to retreat (lit. to bear back the foot)

428. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fer, ferent, ut ferant, ferunt. 2. Ferte, ut ferrent, tulisse, tulerant. 3. Tulimus, ferêns, lâtus esse, ferre. 4. Cum nâvigia insulae adpropinquârent, barbarî terrôre commôtî pedem referre cônâtî sunt. 5. Gallî molestê ferêbant Rômânôs agrôs vastâre. 6. Caesar sociîs imperâvit nê fînitimis suîs bellum înferrent. 7. Explorâtôrês, qui Caesarî occurrêrunt, dîxêrunt exercitum hostium vulneribus dêfessum sêsê in alium locum contulisse. 8. Hostes sciêbant Rômânôs frûmentô egêre et hanc rem Caesarî summum perîculum adlâtûram esse. 9. Impedîmentîs in ûnum locum conlâtis, aliquî mîlitum flûmen quod nôn longê aberat trânsiêrunt. 10. Hôs rêx hortâtus est ut ôrâculum adîrent et rês audîtâs ad sê referrent. 11. Quem imperâtor illî legiônî praefêcit? Pûblius illî legiônî pracerat. 12. Cum esset Caesar in citeriôre Galliâ, crêbrî ad eum2 rûmôrês adferêbantur litterîsque quoque certior fîêbat Gallôs obsidês inter sê dare.

II. 1. The Gauls will make war upon Cæsar's allies. 2. We heard that the Gauls would make war upon Cæsar's allies. 3. Publius did not take part in that battle. 4. We have been informed that Publius did not take part in that battle. 5. The man who was in command of the cavalry was wounded and began to retreat. 6. Cæsar did not place you in command of the cohort to bring3 disaster upon the army.

2. Observe that when adferô denotes motion to, it is not followed by the dative; cf. footnote, p. 182.
3. Not the infinitive. (Cf. § 352.)

Reading Selection

LESSON LXXIV

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS

429. Review the word lists in §§ 517, 518.

430. When we report a statement instead of giving it directly, we have an indirect statement. (Cf. § 414.) So, if we report a question instead of asking it directly, we have an indirect question.

Direct QuestionIndirect Question
Who conquered the Gauls?He asked who conquered the Gauls

a. An indirect question depends, usually as object, upon a verb of asking (as petô, postulô, quaerô, rogô) or upon some verb or expression of saying or mental action. (Cf. § 420.)

431. Compare the following direct and indirect questions:

DirectIndirect
Quis Gallôs vincit?
Who is conquering the Gauls?
a.

Rogat quis Gallôs vincat
He asks who is conquering the Gauls

b.

Rogavit quis Gallôs vinceret
He asked who was conquering the Gauls

Ubî est Rôma?
Where is Rome?
a.Rogat ubi sit Rôma
He asks where Rome is
b.Rogâvit ubi esset Rôma
He asked where Rome was
Caesarne Gallôs vîcit?
Did Cæsar conquer the Gauls?
a.Rogat num Caesar Gallôs vîcerit
He asks whether Cæsar conquered the Gauls
b.Rogâvit num Caesar Gallôs vîcisset
He asked whether Cæsar had conquered the Gauls

a. The verb in a direct question is in the indicative mood, but the mood is subjunctive in an indirect question.

b. The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for tense sequence.

c. Indirect questions are introduced by the same interrogative words as introduce direct questions, excepting thatyes-or-no direct questions (cf. § 210) on becoming indirect are usually introduced by num, whether.

432. Rule. Indirect Questions. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence.

433. IDIOMS

dê tertiâ vigiliâ, about the third watch
iniûriâs alicui înferre, to inflict injuries upon some one
facere verba prô, with the ablative, to speak in behalf of
in reliquum tempus, for the future

434. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rêx rogâvit quid lêgâtî postulârent et cûr ad sê vênissent. 2. Quaesîvit quoque num nec recentîs iniûriâs nec dubiam Rômânôrum amîcitiam memoriâ tenêrent. 3. Vidêtisne quae oppida hostês oppugnâverint? 4. Nônne scîtis cûr Gallî sub montem sêse contulerint? 5. Audîvimus quâs iniûrias tibi Germânî intulissent. 6. Dê tertiâ vigiliâ imperâtor mîsit hominês quî cognôscerent quae esset nâtûra montis. 7. Prô hîs ôrâtor verba fêcit et rogâvit cûr cônsulês nâvîs ad plênem summî perîculî locum mittere vellent. 8. Lêgâtîs convocâtîs dêmônstrâvit quid fierî vellet. 9. Nûntius referêbat quid in Gallôrum conciliô dê armîs trâdendîs dictum esset. 10. Moneô nê in reliquum tempus peditês et equitês trâns flûmen dûcâs.

II. 1. What hill did they seize? I see what hill they seized. 2. Who has inflicted these injuries upon our dependents? 3. They asked who had inflicted those injuries upon their dependents. 4. Whither did you go about the third watch? You know whither I went. 5. At what time did the boys return home? I will ask at what time the boys returned home.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXXV

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END FOR WHICH

435. Review the word lists in §§ 521, 522.

436. Observe the following sentences:

1. Explôrâtôrês locum castrîs dêlêgêrunt, the scouts chose a place for a camp.
2. Hoc erat magnô impedîmentô Gallîs, this was (for) a great hindrance to the Gauls.
3. Duâs legiônês praesidiô castrîs relîquit, he left two legions as (lit. for) a guard to the camp.

In each of these sentences we find a dative expressing the purpose or end for which something is intended or for which it serves. These datives are castrîs, impedîmentô, and praesidiô. In the second and third sentences we find a second dative expressing the person or thing affected (Gallîs and castrîs). As you notice, these are true datives, covering the relations of for which and to which. (Cf. § 43.)

437. Rule. Dative of Purpose or End. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which, often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected.

438. IDIOMS

cônsilium omittere, to give up a plan
locum castrîs dêligere, to choose a place for a camp
alicui magnô ûsuî esse, to be of great advantage to some one (lit. for great advantage to some one)

439. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rogâvit cûr illae côpiae relictae essent. Respondêrunt illâs côpiâs esse praesidiô castrîs. 2. Caesar mîsit explôrâtôrês ad locum dêligendum castrîs. 3. Quisque exîstimâvit ipsum nômen Caesaris magnô terrôrî barbarîs futûrum esse. 4. Prîmâ lûce îdem exercitus proelium âcre commîsit, sed gravia suôrum vulnera magnae cûrae imperâtôrî erant. 5. Rêx respondit amîcitiam populî Rômânî sibi ôrnâmentô et praesidiô dêbêre esse. 6. Quis praeerat equitâtuî quem auxiliô Caesarî sociî mîserant? 7. Aliquibus rês secundae sunt summae calamitâtî et rês adversae sunt mîrô ûsuî. 8. Gallîs magnô ad pugnam erat impedîmentô quod equitâtus â dextrô cornû premêbat. 9. Memoria prîstinae virtûtis nôn minus quam metus hostium erat nostrîs magnô ûsuî. 10. Tam dênsa erat silva ut prôgredî nôn possent.

II. 1. I advise you 1to give up the plan 2of making war upon the brave Gauls. 2. Do you know 3where the cavalry has chosen a place for a camp? 3. The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to you. 4. Cæsar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage. 5. In winter the waves of the lake are so great 4that they are (for) a great hindrance to ships. 6. Cæsar inflicted severe5 punishment on those who burned the public buildings.

1. Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf. § 366.)
2. Express by the genitive of the gerundive.
3. Indirect question.
4. A clause of result.
5. gravis, -e.

Reading Selection

LESSON LXXVI

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION

440. Review the word lists in §§ 524, 525.

441. Observe the English sentences

(1) A man of great courage, or (2) A man with great courage
(3) A forest of tall trees, or (4) A forest with tall trees

Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description. In the first two a man is described; in the last two a forest. The descriptive phrases are introduced by the prepositions of and with.

In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar.

The prepositions of and with suggest the genitive and the ablative respectively, and we translate the sentences above

(1) Vir magnae virtûtis, or (2) Vir magnâ virtûte
(3) Silva altârum arborum, or (4) Silva altîs arboribus

There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and the English. In English we may say, for example, a man of courage, using the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. In Latin, however, an adjective modifier must always be used, as above.

a. Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in that numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive and descriptions of physical characteristics are in the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.

442. EXAMPLES

1. Fossa duodecim pedum, a ditch of twelve feet.
2. Homô magnîs pedibus et parvô capite, a man with big feet and a small head.
3. Rêx erat vir summâ audâciâ or rêx erat vir summae audâciae, the king was a man of the greatest boldness.

443. Rule. Genitive of Description. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective.

444. Rule. Ablative of Description. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective.

445. Rule. Genitive or Ablative of Description. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective.

446. IDIOMS

Helvêtiîs in animô est, the Helvetii intend, (lit. it is in mind to the Helvetians)
in mâtrimônium dare, to give in marriage
nihil posse, to have no power
fossam perdûcere, to construct a ditch (lit. to lead a ditch through)

447. EXERCISES

I. 1. Mîlitês fossam decem pedum per eôrum fînîs perdûxêrunt. 2. Prînceps Helvêtiôrum, vir summae audâciae, prîncipibus gentium fînitimârum sorôrês in mâtrimônium dedit. 3. Eôrum amîcitiam cônfîrmâre voluit quô facilius Rômânîs bellum înferret. 4. Germanî et Gallî nôn erant eiusdem gentis. 5. Omnês ferê Germânî erant magnîs corporum vîribus.1 6. Gallî qui oppidum fortiter dêfendêbant saxa ingentis magnitûdinis dê mûrô iaciêbant. 7. Cum Caesar ab explôrâtôribus quaereret quî illud oppidum incolerent, explôrâtôrês respondêrunt eôs esse homines summâ virtûte et magnô cônsiliô. 8. Moenia vîgintî pedum â sinistrâ parte, et â dextrâ parte flûmen magnae altitûdinis oppidum dêfendêbant. 9. Cum Caesar in Galliam pervênisset, erat rûmor Helvêtiîs in animô esse iter per prôvinciam Rômânam facere. 10. Caesar, ut eôs ab fînibus Rômânis prohibêret, mûnîtiônem 2multa mîlia passuum longam fêcit.

II. 1. Cæsar was a general of much wisdom and great boldness, and very skillful in the art of war. 2. The Germans were of great size, and thought that the Romans had no power. 3. Men of the highest courage were left in the camp as (for) a guard to the baggage. 4. The king's daughter, who was given in marriage to the chief of a neighboring state, was a woman of very beautiful appearance. 5. The soldiers will construct a ditch of nine feet around the camp. 6. A river of great width was between us and the enemy.

1. From vîs. (Cf. § 468.)
2. Genitives and ablatives of description are adjective phrases. When we use an adverbial phrase to tell how long or how high or how deep anything is, we must use the accusative of extent. (Cf. § 336.) For example, in the sentence above multa mîlia passuum is an adverbial phrase (accusative of extent) modifying longam. If we should omit longam and say a fortification of many miles, the genitive of description (an adjective phrase) modifying mûnîtiônem would be used, as mûnîtiônem multôrum mîlium passuum.

Reading Selection

[Illustration: swords
Caption: GLADII]

LESSON LXXVII

REVIEW OF AGREEMENT, AND OF THE GENITIVE, DATIVE, AND ACCUSATIVE

448. There are four agreements:

1. That of the predicate noun or of the appositive with the noun to which it belongs (§§ 76, 81).

2. That of the adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle with its noun (§ 65).

3. That of a verb with its subject (§ 28).

4. That of a relative pronoun with its antecedent (§ 224).

449. The relation expressed by the genitive is, in general, denoted in English by the preposition of. It is used to express

1. Possession a. As attributive (§ 38).
b. In the predicate (§ 409).
2. The whole of which a part is taken (partitive genitive) (§ 331).
3. Quality or description (§§ 443, 445).

450. The relation expressed by the dative is, in general, denoted in English by the prepositions to or for when they do not imply motion through space. It is used to express

1. The indirect object

a. With intransitive verbs and with transitive verbs in connection with a direct object in the accusative (§ 45).

b. With special intransitive verbs (§ 154).

c. With verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prô, sub, super (§ 426).

2. The object to which the quality of an adjective is directed (§ 143).

3. The purpose, or end for which, often with a second dative denoting the person or thing affected (§ 437).

451. The accusative case corresponds, in general, to the English objective. It is used to express

1. The direct object of a transitive verb (§ 37).

2. The predicate accusative together with the direct object after verbs of making, choosing, falling, showing, and the like (§ 392).

3. The subject of the infinitive (§ 214).

4. The object of prepositions that do not govern the ablative (§ 340).

5. The duration of time and the extent of space (§ 336).

6. The place to which (§§ 263, 266).

452. EXERCISES

I. 1. Mîlitês quôs vîdimus dîxêrunt imperium bellî esse Caesaris imperâtôris. 2. Helvêtiî statuêrunt quam1 maximum numerum equôrum et carrôrum côgere. 3. Tôtîus Galliae Helvêtiî plûrimum valuêrunt. 4. Multâs hôrâs âcriter pugnâtum est neque quisquam poterat vidêre hostem fugientem. 5. Virî summae virtûtis hostîs decem mîlia passuum însecûtî sunt. 6. Caesar populô Rômânô persuâsit ut sê cônsulem creâret. 7. Victôria exercitûs erat semper imperâtôrî grâtissima. 8. Trîduum iter fêcêrunt et Genâvam, in oppidum2 hostium, pervênêrunt. 9. Caesar audîvit Germânôs bellum Gallîs intulisse. 10. Magnô ûsuî mîlitibus Caesaris erat quod priôribus proeliîs sêsê exercuerant.

II. 1. One3 of the king's sons and many of his men were captured. 2. There was no one who wished4 to appoint her queen. 3. The grain supply was always a care (for a care) to Cæsar, the general. 4. I think that the camp is ten miles distant. 5. We marched for three hours through a very dense forest. 6. The plan 5of making war upon the allies was not pleasing to the king. 7. When he came to the hill he fortified it 6by a twelve-foot wall.

1. What is the force of quam with superlatives?
2. urbs or oppidum, appositive to a name of a town, takes a preposition.
3. What construction is used with numerals in preference to the partitive genitive?
4. What mood? (Cf. § 390.)
5. Use the gerund or gerundive.
6. Latin, by a wall of twelve feet.

LESSON LXXVIII

REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE

453. The relations of the ablative are, in general, expressed in English by the prepositions with (or by), from (or by), and in (or at). The constructions growing out of these meanings are

I.Ablative rendered with (or by):
1. Cause (§ 102)
2. Means (§ 103)
3. Accompaniment (§ 104)
4. Manner (§ 105)
5. Measure of difference (§ 317)
6. With a participle (ablative absolute) (§ 381)
7. Description or quality (§§ 444, 445)
8. Specification (§ 398)
II.Ablative rendered from (or by):
1. Place from which (§§ 179, 264)
2. Ablative of separation (§ 180)
3. Personal agent with a passive verb (§ 181)
4. Comparison without quam (§ 309)
III.Ablative rendered in (or at):
1. Place at or in which (§§ 265, 266)
2. Time when or within which (§ 275)

454. EXERCISES

I. 1. Gallî locîs superiôribus occupâtîs itinere exercitum prohibêre cônantur. 2. Omnês oppidânî ex oppidô êgressî salûtem fugâ petere incêpêrunt. 3. Caesar docet sê mîlitum vîtam suâ salûte habêre multô câriôrem. 4. Cum celerius omnium opîniône pervênisset, hostês ad eum obsidês mîsêrunt 5. Vîcus in valle positus montibus altissimîs undique continêtur. 6. Plûrimum inter Gallôs haec gêns et virtûte et hominum numerô valêbat. 7. Secundâ vigiliâ nûllô certô ôrdine neque imperiô ê castrîs êgressî sunt. 8. Duâbus legiônibus Genâvae relictîs, proximô diê cum reliquîs domum profectus est. 9. Erant itinera duo quibus itineribus Helvêtiî domô exîre possent. 10. Rêx erat summâ audâciâ et magnâ apud populum potentiâ. 11. Gallî timôre servitûtis commôtî bellum parâbant. 12. Caesar monet lêgâtôs ut contineant militês, nê studiô pugnandî aut spê praedae longius1 prôgrediantur. 13. Bellum âcerrimum â Caesare in Gallôs gestum est.

II. 1. The lieutenant after having seized the mountain restrained his (men) from battle. 2. All the Gauls differ from each other in laws. 3. This tribe is much braver than the rest. 4. This road is 2ten miles shorter than that. 5. In summer Cæsar carried on war in Gaul, in winter he returned to Italy. 6. At midnight the general set out from the camp with three legions. 7. I fear that you cannot protect3 yourself from these enemies. 8. 4After this battle was finished peace was made by all the Gauls.

1. longius, too far. (Cf. § 305.)
2. Latin, by ten thousands of paces.
3. dêfendere.
4. Ablative absolute.

LESSON LXXIX

REVIEW OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE, THE INFINITIVE, AND THE SUBJUNCTIVE

455. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns (§§ 402; 406.1).

456. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual (§ 406.2).

457. The infinitive is used:

I. As in English.

a. As subject or predicate nominative (§ 216).

b. To complete the predicate with verbs of incomplete predication (complementary infinitive) (§ 215).

c. As object with subject accusative after verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like (§ 213).

II. In the principal sentence of an indirect statement after verbs of saying and mental action. The subject is in the accusative (§§ 416, 418, 419).

458. The subjunctive is used:

1. To denote purpose (§§ 349, 366, 372).

2. To denote consequence or result (§§ 385, 386).

3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (§ 390).

4. In cum clauses of time, cause, and concession (§ 396).

5. In indirect questions (§ 432).

459. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar, cum pervênisset, militês hortâbâtur nê cônsilium oppidî capiendi omitterent. 2. Rêx, castrîs prope oppidum positîs, mîsit explôrâtôrês quî cognôscerent ubi exercitus Rômanus esset. 3. Nêmo relinquêbâtur quî arma ferre posset. 4. Nûntiî vîdêrunt ingentem armôrum multitudinem dê mûrô in fossani iactam esse. 5. Dux suôs trânsîre flûmen iussit. Trânsîre autem hoc flûmen erat difficillimum. 6. Rômânî cum hanc calamitâtem molestê ferrant, tamen terga vertere recûsâvêrunt. 7. Hôc rûmôre audîtô, tantus terror omnium animôs occupâvit ut nê fortissimî quidem proelium committere vellent. 8. Erant quî putârent tempus annî idôneum nôn esse itinerî faciendô. 9. Tam âcriter ab utraque parte pugnâbâtur ut multa mîlia hominum occîderentur. 10. Quid timês? Timeô nê Rômânîs in animô sit tôtam Galliam superâre et nôbîs iniûriâs inferre.

II. 1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall? 2. We hear that the plan of taking the town has been given up. 3. Since the Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Cæsar ordered a bridge to be made. 4. When the bridge was finished, the savages were so terrified that they hid themselves. 5. They feared that Cæsar would pursue them. 6. Cæsar 1asked the traders what the size of the island was. 7. The traders advised him not 2to cross the sea. 8. He sent scouts 3to choose a place for a camp.

1. quaerere ab.
2. Not infinitive.
3. Use the gerundive with ad.

READING MATTER

INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS

How to Translate. You have already had considerable practice in translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill can make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accurately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following suggestions:

1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.

2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are nominatives or accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.

3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use in the sentence from their endings.

4. If you cannot yet translate the sentence, put down the English meanings of all the words in the same order as the Latin words. You will then generally see through the meaning of the sentence.

5. Be careful to

a. Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong.

b. Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they govern.

c. Translate adverbs with the words that they modify.

d. Make sense. If you do not make sense, you have made a mistake. One mistake will spoil a whole sentence.

6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over again, and try to understand it as Latin, without thinking of the English translation.

The Parts of a Sentence. You will now meet somewhat longer sentences than you have had before. To assist in translating them, remember, first of all, that every sentence conveys a meaning and either tells us something, asks a question, or gives a command. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and the verb may always have an adverb, and, if transitive, will have a direct object.

However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize its subject, verb, and object or predicate complement without any difficulty. These will give you the leading thought, and they must never be lost sight of while making out the rest of the sentence. The chief difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a single adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause taking the place of one of these; for Latin, like English, has adjective, adverbial, and substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the sentence The idle boy does not study, the word idle is an adjective. In The boy wasting his time does not study, the words wasting his time form an adjective phrase modifying boy. In the sentence The boy who wastes his time does not study, the words who wastes his time form an adjective clause modifying boy, and the sentence is complex. These sentences would show the same structure in Latin.

In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the parts of a clause together and not let them become confused with the principal sentence. To distinguish between the subordinate clauses and the principal sentence is of the first importance, and is not difficult if you remember that a clause regularly contains a word that marks it as a clause and that this word usually stands first. These words join clauses to the words they depend on, and are called subordinate conjunctions. They are not very numerous, and you will soon learn to recognize them. In Latin they are the equivalents for such words as when, while, since, because, if, before, after, though, in order that, that, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin subordinate conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of the verb in the clauses which they introduce.

[Illustration: statue of Hercules
Caption: HERCULES]


THE LABORS OF HERCULES

Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant he strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength, and on reaching manhood he succeeded in delivering the Thebans from the oppression of the Minyæ. In a fit of madness, sent upon him by Juno, he slew his own children; and, on consulting the Delphic oracle as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was caused, unintentionally, by his wife Deiani´ra. Hercules had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted Deianira. Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Deianira, and told her it would act as a charm to secure her husband's love. Some time after, Deianira, wishing to try the charm, soaked one of her husband's garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and, after suffering terrible torments, died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter.

LIII.1 THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS

[Illustration: infant Hercules fighting two serpents
Caption: HERCULES ET SERPENTES]

2 grave supplicium sûmmit de malîs, sed iî quî lêgibus3 deôrum pârent, etiam post mortem cûrantur. Illa vîta dîs2 erat grâtissima quae hominibus miserîs ûtilissima fuerat. Omnium autem praemiôrum summum erat immortâlitâs. Illud praemium Herculî datum est.

Herculis pater fuit Iuppiter, mâter Alcmêna, et omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dîcitur. Sed Iûnô, rêgîna deôrum, eum, adhûc înfantem, interficere studêbat; nam eî4 et5 Herculês et Alcmêna erant invîsî. Itaque mîsit duâs serpentîs, utramque saevissimam, quae mediâ nocte domum6 Alcmênae vênêrunt. Ibi Herculês, cum frâtre suô, nôn in lectulô sed in scûtô ingentî dormiêbat. Iam audâcês serpentês adpropinquâverant, iam scûtum movêbant. Tum frâter, terrôre commôtus, magnâ vôce mâtrem vocâvit, sed Herculês ipse, fortior quam frâter, statim ingentîs serpentîs manibus suîs rapuit et interfêcit.

1. This number refers to the lesson after which the selection may be read.
2. and dîs are from deus. Cf. § 468.
3. lêgibus, § 501. 14.
4. , to her, referring to Juno.
5. et ... et, both ... and.
6. domum, § 501. 20.

LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINYÆ

Herculês â puerô1 corpus suum gravissimîs et difficillimîs labôribus exercêbat et hôc modô vîrês2 suâs cônfirmâvit. Iam adulêscêns Thêbîs3 habitâbat. Ibi Creôn quîdam erat rêx. Minyae, gêns validissima, erant fînitimî Thêbânîs, et, quia ôlim Thêbânôs vîcerant, quotannîs lêgâtôs mittêbant et vectîgal postulâbant. Herculês autem cônstituit cîvîs suôs hôc vectîgâlî lîberâre et dixit rêgî, "Dâ mihi exercitum tuum et ego hôs superbôs hostîs superâbô." Hanc condiciônem rêx nôn recûsâvit, et Herculês nûntiôs in omnîs partis dîmîsit et côpiâs coêgit.4 Tum tempore opportûnissimô proelium cum Minyîs commîsit. Diû pugnâtum est, sed dênique illî impetum Thêbânôrum sustinêre nôn potuêrunt et terga vertêrunt fugamque cêpêrunt.

1. â puerô, from boyhood.
2. virês, from vîs. Cf. § 468.
3. Thêbîs, § 501. 36. 1.
4. coêgit, from côgô.

HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN ORACLE TO SEEK EXPIATION

Post hoc proelium Creôn rêx, tantâ victôriâ laetus, fîliam suam Herculî in mâtrimônium dedit. Thêbîs Herculês cum uxôre suâ diû vîvêbat et ab omnibus magnopere amâbâtur; sed post multôs annôs subitô 1in furôrem incidit et ipse suâ manû lîberôs suôs interfêcit. Post breve tempus 2ad sânitâtem reductus tantum scelus expiâre cupiêbat et cônstituit ad ôrâculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem ôrâculum erat omnium clârissimum. Ibi sedêbat fêmina quaedam quae P[y]thia appellâbâtur. Ea cônsilium dabat iîs quî ad ôrâculum veniêbant.

1. in furôrem incidit, went mad.
2. ad sânitâtem reductus, lit. led back to sanity. What in good English?

[Illustration: Hercules fights the Nemean lion
Caption: HERCULES LEONEM SUPERAT]

LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS1 · HE STRANGLES THE NEME´AN LION

Itaque Herculês P[y]thiae tôtam rem dêmonstrâvit nec scelus suum abdidit. Ubi iam Herculês fînem fêcit, P[y]thia iussit eum ad urbem Tîryntha2 discêdere et ibi rêgî Eurystheô sêsê committere. Quae3 ubi audîvit, Herculês ad illam urbem statim contendit et Eurystheô sê in servitûtem trâdidit et dîxit, "Quid prîmum, Ô rêx, mê facere iubês?" Eurystheus, quî perterrêbâtur vî et corpore ingentî Herculis et eum occidî4 studêbat, ita respondit: "Audî, Herculês! Multa mira5 nârrantur dê leône saevissimô quî hôc tempore in valle Nemaeâ omnia vâstat. Iubeô tê, virôrum omnium fortissimum, illô mônstrô hominês lîberâre." Haec verba Herculî maximê placuêrunt. "Properâbo," inquit, "et parêbô imperiô6 tuô." Tum in silvâs in quibus leô habitâbat statim iter fêcit. Mox feram vîdit et plûrîs impetûs fêcit; frûstrâ tamen, quod neque sagittîs neque ûllô aliô têlô mônstrum vulnerâre potuit. Dênique Herculês saevum leônem suîs ingentibus bracchiîs rapuit et faucîs eius omnibus vîribus compressit. Hôc modô brevî tempore eum interfêcit. Tum corpus leônis ad oppidum in umerîs reportâvit et pellem posteâ prô7 veste gerêbat. Omnês autem quô eam regiônem incolêbant, ubi fâmam dê morte leônis ingentis accêpêrunt, erant laetissimî et Herculem laudâbant verbîs amplissimîs.

1. Eu-rys´theus (pronounced U-ris´thûs) was king of Tî´ryns, a Grecian city, whose foundation goes back to prehistoric times.
2. Tîryntha, the acc. case of Tîryns, a Greek noun.
3. Quae, obj. of audîvit. It is placed first to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. This is called a connecting relative.
4. occîdî, pres. pass. infin.
5. mîra, marvelous things, the adj. being used as a noun. Cf. omnia, in the next line.
6. imperiô, § 501. 14.
7. prô, for, instead of.

LVI. SLAYING THE LERNE´AN HYDRA

Deinde Herculês ab Eurystheô iussus est Hydram occîdere. Itaque cum amîcô Iolâô1 contendit ad palûdem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incolêbat. Hoc autem mônstrum erat serpêns ingêns quae novem capita habêbat. Mox is mônstrum repperit et summô2 cum perîculô collum eius sinistrâ manû rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextrâ manû capita novem abscîdere incêpit, sed frûstrâ labôrâbat, quod quotiêns hoc fêcerat totiêns alia nova capita vidêbat. Quod3 ubi vîdit, statuit capita ignî cremâre. Hôc modô octô capita dêlêvit, sed extrêmum caput vulnerârî nôn potuit, quod erat immortâle. Itaque illud sub ingentî saxô Herculês posuit et ita victôriam reportâvit.

1. Iolâô, abl. of I-o-lâ´us, the hero's best friend.
2. Note the emphatic position of this adjective.
3. Quod ubi, when he saw this, another instance of the connecting relative. Cf. p. 199, l. 3.

LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR

Postquam Eurystheô mors Hydrae nuntiata est, summus terror animum eius occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad sê reportâre cervum quendam; nam minimê cupîvit tantum virum in rêgnô suô tenêre. Hie autem cervus dîcêbâtur aurea cornua et pedês multô1 celeriôrês ventô2 habêre. Prîmum Herculês vestîgia animâlis petîvit, deinde, ubi cervum ipsum vîdit, omnibus vîribus currere incêpit. Per plûrimôs diês contendit nec noctû cessâvit. Dênique postquam per tôtum annum cucurrerat—ita dîcitur—cervum iam dêfessum cêpit et ad Eurystheum portâvit.

Tum vêrô iussus est Herculês aprum quendam capere quî illô tempore agrôs Erymanthiôs vâstâbat et hominês illîus locî magnopere perterrêbat. Herculês laetê negôtium suscêpit et in Arcadiam celeriter sê recêpit. Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille autem; simul atque Herculem vîdit, statim quam3 celerrimê fûgit et metû perterritus in fossam altam sêsê abdidit. Herculês tamen summâ cum difficultâte eum extrâxit, nec aper ûllô modô sêsê lîberâre potuit, et vîvus ad Eurystheum portâtus est.

1. multô, § 501. 27.
2. ventô, § 501. 34.
3. quam. What is the force of quam with a superlative?

LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGE´AN STABLES AND KILLS THE STYMPHALIAN BIRDS

Deinde Eurystheus Herculî hunc labôrem multô graviôrem imperâvit. Augêâs1 quîdam, quî illô tempore rêgnum Êlidis2 obtinêbat, tria mîlia boum3 habêbat. Hî4 ingentî stabulô continêbantur. Hoc stabulum, quod per trîgintâ annôs nôn pûrgâtum erat, Herculês intrâ spatium ûnîus diêî pûrgâre iussus est. llle negôtium alacriter suscêpit, et prîmum labôre gravissimô maximam fossam fôdit per quam flûminis aquam dê montibus ad mûrum stabulî dûxit. Tum partem parvam mûrî dêlêvit et aquam in stabulum immîsit. Hôc modô fînm operis fêcit ûnô diê facillimê.

Post paucôs diês Herculês ad oppidum Stymphâlum iter fêcit; nam Eurystheus iusserat eum avis Stymphâlidês occîdere. Hae avês rôstra ferrea habêbant et hominês miserôs dêvorâbant. Ille, postquam ad locum pervênit, lacum vîdit in quô avês incolêbant. Nûllô tamen modô Herculês avibus adpropinquâre potuit; lacus enim nôn ex aquâ sed ê lîmô cônstitit.5 Dênique autem avês 6dê aliquâ causâ perterritae in aurâs volâvêrunt et magna pars eârum sagittîs Herculis occîsa est.

1. Augêâs, pronounced in English Aw-jê´as.
2. Êlidis, gen. case of Êlis, a district of Greece.
3. boum, gen. plur. of bôs. For construction see § 501. 11.
4. ingentî stabulô, abl. of means, but in our idiom we should say in a huge stable.
5. cônstitit, from consto.
6. dê aliquâ causâ perterritae, frightened for some reason.

[Illustration: Hercules and the Cretan bull
Caption: HERCULES ET TAURUS]

LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND CARRIES HIM LIVING TO EURYSTHEUS

Tum Eurystheus iussit Herculem portâre vîvum ex însulâ Crêtâ taurum quendam saevissimum. Ille igitur nâvem cônscendit—nam ventus erat idôneus—atque statim solvit. Postquam trîduum nâvigavit, incolumis însulae adpropinquâvit. Deinde, postquam omnia parâta sunt, contendit ad eam regiônem quam taurus vexâbat. Mox taurum vîdit ac sine ûllô metû cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingentî labôre mônstrum ad nâvem trâxit atque cum hâc praedâ ex însulâ discessit.

THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOME´DES

Postquam ex însulâ Crêtâ domum pervênit, Hercules ab Eurystheô in Thrâciam missus est. Ibi Diomêdês quîdam, vir saevissimus, rêgnum obtinêbat et omnîs â fînibus suîs prohibêbat. Herculês iussus erat equôs Diomedis rapere et ad Eurystheum dûcere. Hî autem equî hominês miserrimôs dêvorâbant dê quibus rêx supplicium sûmere cupiêbat. Herculês ubi pervênit, prîmum equôs â rêge postulâvit, sed rêx eôs dêdere recûsâvit. Deinde ille îrâ commôtus rêgem occîdit et corpus eius equîs trâdidit. Itaque is quî anteâ multôs necâverat, ipse eôdem suppliciô necâtus est. Et equî, nûper saevissima animâlia, postquam dominî suî corpus dêvorâvêrunt, mânsuêtî erant.

LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOL´YTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS

Gêns Amâzonum1 dîcitur2 omnînô ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum virîs proelium committere nôn verêbantur. Hippolytê, Amâzonum rêgîna, balteum habuit pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidêre fîlia Eurystheî vehementer cupiêbat. Itaque Eurystheus iussit Herculem impetum in Amâzonês facere. Ille multîs cum côpiîs nâvem cônscendît et paucis diêbus in Amâzonum fînîs pervênit, ac balteum postulâvit. Eum trâdere ipsa Hipporytê quidem cupîvit; reliquîs tamen Amazonibus3 persuâdêre nôn potuit. Postrîdiê Herculês proelium commîsit. Multâs hôrâs utrimque quam fortissimê pugnâtum est Dênique tamen mulieres terga vertêrunt et fugâ salûtem petiêrunt. Multae autem captae sunt, in quô numerô erat ipsa Hippolytê. Herculês postquam balteum accêpit, omnibus captîvîs lîbertâtem dedit.

1. A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor.
2. omnînô, etc., to have consisted entirely of women.
3. Amâzonibus, § 501. 14.

THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CER´BERUS

[Illustration: Hercules and Cerberus
Caption: HERCULES ET CERBERUS]

Iamque ûnus modo ê duodecim labôribus relinquêbâtur sed inter omnîs hic erat difficillimus. Iussus est enim canem Cerberum4 ex Orcô in lûcem trahere. Ex Orcô autem nêmô anteâ reverterat. Praetereâ Cerberus erat mônstrum maximê horribile et tria capita habêbat. Herculês postquam imperia Eurystheî accêpit, statim profectus est et in Orcum dêscendit. Ibi vêrô nôn sine summô periculô Cerberum manibus rapuit et ingentî cum labôre ex Orcô in lûcem et adurbem Eurystheî trâxit.

Sic duodecim laborês illî5 intrâ duodecim annôs cônfectî sunt. Dêmum post longam vîtam Herculês â deîs receptus est et Iuppiter fîliô suô dedit immortâlitâtem.

4. The dog Cerberus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode of the dead.
5. illî, those famous.

P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY1

LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPE´II

P. Cornêlius Lentulus,2 adulêscêns Rômânus, amplissimâ familiâ3 nâtus est; nam pater eius, Mârcus, erat dux perîtissimus, cuius virtûte4 et cônsiliô multae victôriae reportâtae erant; atque mater eius, lûlia, â clârissimîs maiôribus orta est. Nôn vêrô in urbe sed rûrî5 Pûblius nâtus est, et cum mâtre habitâbat in vîllâ quae in maris lîtore et sub radîcibus magnî montis sita erat. Môns autem erat Vesuvius et parva urbs Pompêiî octô mîlia6 passuum7 aberat. In Italiâ antîquâ erant plûrimae quidem villae et pulchrae, sed inter hâs omnîs nûlla erat pulchrior quam villa Mârcî Iûliaeque. Frôns vîllae mûrô a maris fluctibus mûniêbâtur. Hinc mare et lîtora et însulae longê lâtêque cônspicî8 ac saepe nâvês longae et onerâriae poterant. Â tergô et ab utrôque latere agrî ferâcissimî patêbant. Undique erat magna variôrum flôrum côpia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestâte9 umbram dêfessîs agricolîs grâtissimam adferêbant. Praetereâ erant1 in agrîs stabulîsque multa animâlium genera, nôn sôlum equî et bovês sed etiam rârae avês. Etiam erat10 magna piscîna plêna piscium; nam Rômânî piscîs dîligenter colêbant.

[Illustration: Roman boys
Caption: PUERI ROMANI]

1. This story is fiction with certain historical facts in Cæsar's career as a setting. However, the events chronicled might have happened, and no doubt did happen to many a Roman youth.
2. A Roman had three names, as, Pûblius (given name), Cornêlius (name of the gêns or clan), Lentulus (family name).
3. Abl. of source, which is akin to the abl. of separation (§ 501. 32).
4. virtûte, § 501. 24.
5. rûrî, § 501. 36. 1.
6. mîlia, § 501. 21.
7. passuum, § 501. 11.
8. cônspicî, infin. with poterant, § 215. Consult the map of Italy for the approximate location of the villa.
9. aestâte, § 501. 35.
10. How are the forms of sum translated when they precede the subject?

LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM

Huius vîllae Dâvus, servus Mârcî, est vîlicus1 et cum Lesbiâ uxôre omnia cûrat. Vîlicus et uxor in casâ humilî, mediîs in agrîs sitâ, habitant. Â prîmâ lûce ûsque ad vesperum sê2 gravibus labôribus exercent ut omnî rês bene gerant.3 Plûrima enim sunt officia Dâvî et Lesbiae. Vîlicus servôs regit nê tardî sint4; mittit aliôs quî agrôs arent,4 aliôs quî hortôs inrigent,4 et opera in5 tôtum diem impônit. Lesbia autem omnibus vestîmenta parat, cibum coquit, pânem facit.

[Illustration: Roman cottage
Caption: CASA ROMANA]

Nôn longê ab hôrum casâ et in summô colle situm surgêbat domicilium ipsîus dominî dominaeque amplissimum. Ibi plûrîs annôs6 Pûblius cum mâtre vîtam fêlîcem agêbat; nam pater eius, Mârcus, in terrîs longinquîs gravia reî pûblicae bella gerêbat nec domum7 revertî poterat. Neque puerô quidem molestum est rûrî8 vîvere. Eum multae rês dêlectant. Magnopere amat silvâs, agrôs, equôs, bovês, gallînâs, avîs, reliquaque animâlia. Saepe plûrîs hôrâs9 ad mare sedet quô9 melius fluctûs et nâvîs spectet. Nec omnînô sine comitibus erat, quod L[y]dia, Dâvî fîlia, quae erat eiusdem aetâtis, cum eô adhûc infante lûdêbat, inter quôs cum annîs amîcitia crêscêbat. L[y]dia nûllum alium ducem dêligêbat et Pûblius ab puellae latere rârô discêdêbat. Itaque sub clârô Italiae sôle Pûblius et L[y]dia, amîcî fidêlissimî, per campôs collîsque cotîdiê vagâbantur. Modo in silvâ fînitimâ lûdebant ubi Pûblius sagittîs10 celeribus avis dêiciêbat et L[y]dia corônîs variôrum flôrum comâs suâs ôrnâbat; modo aquam et cibum portâbant ad Dâvum servôsque dêfessôs quî agrôs colêbant: modo in casâ parvâ aut hôrâs lactâs in lûdô cônsûmêbant aut auxilium dabant Lesbiae, quae cibum virô et servîs parâbat vel aliâs rês domesticâs agêbat.

1. The vîlicus was a slave who acted as overseer of a farm. He directed the farming operations and the sale of the produce.
2. se, reflexive pron., object of exercent.
3. For the construction, see § 501. 40.
4. in, for.
5. annôs, § 501. 21.
6. domum, § 501. 20.
7. rûrî, § 501. 36. 1.
8. hôrâs, cf. annôs, line 17.
9. quô ... spectet, §§ 349, 350.
10. sagittis, § 501. 24.

LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, IS SHIPWRECKED · JULIA RECEIVES A LETTER FROM HIM

Iam Pûblius1 decem annôs habêbat cum M. Cornêlius Lentulus, pater eius, quî quînque annôs2 grave bellum in Asiâ gerêbat, non sine glôriâ domum3 revertêbâtur. Namque multa secunda proelia fêcerat, maximâs hostium côpiâs dêlêverat, multâs urbîs populo4 Rômânô inimîcâs cêperat. Primum nûntius pervênit quî â Lentulô5 missus erat6 ut profectiônem suam nûntiâret. Deinde plûrîs diês7 reditum virî optimî mâter fîliusque exspectâbant et animîs8 sollicitis deôs immortâlîs frûstrâ colêbant. Tum dêmum hâs litterâs summo cum gaudiô accêpêrunt:

9"Mârcus Iûliae suac salûtem dîcit. Sî valês, bene est; ego valeô. Ex Graeciâ, quô10 praeter spem et opîniônem hodiê pervênî, hâs litterâs ad tê scribô. Namque nâvis nostra frâcta est; nôs autem—11dîs est gratia—incolumes sumus. Ex Asiae12 portû nâvem lênî ventô solvimus. Postquam13 altum mare tenuimus 14nec iam ûllae terrae appâruêrunt, caelum undique et undique fluctûs, subitô magna tempestâs coorta est et nâvem vehementissimê adflîxit. Ventîs fluctibusque adflîctâtî15 nec sôlem discernere nec cursum tenêre poterâmus et omnia praesentem mortem intentâbant. Trîs diês16 et trîs noctîs16 sine rêmîs vêlîsque agimur. Quârtô diê17 prîmum terra vîsa est et violenter in saxa, quae nôn longê â lîtore aberant, dêiectî sumus. Tum vêrô maiôra perîcula timêbâmus; sed nauta quîdam, vir fortissimus, ex nâve in fluctûs îrâtôs dêsiluit 18ut fûnem ad lîtus portâret; quam rem summô labôre vix effêcit. Ita omnês servâtî sumus. Grâtiâs igitur et honôrem Neptûnô dêbêmus, quî deus nôs ê perîculô êripuit. Nunc Athênîs19 sum, quô cônfûgî ut mihi paucâs hôrâs ad quiêtem darem.20 Quam prîmum autem aliam nâvem condûcam ut iter ad Italiam reliquum cônficiam et domum21 ad meôs cârôs revertar. Salûtâ nostrum Pûblium amîcissimê et valêtûdinem tuam cûrâ dîligenter. 22Kalendîs Mârtiîs."

1. was ten years old.
2. annôs, § 501. 21.
3. domum, § 501. 20.
4. populô, dat. with inimîcâs, cf. § 501. 16.
5. Lentulô, § 501. 33.
6. ut ... nûntiâret, § 501. 40.
7. diês, cf. annôs, 1. 9.
8. animîs, abl. of manner. Do you see one in line 15?
9. This is the usual form for the beginning of a Latin letter. First we have the greeting, and then the expression Sî valês, etc. The date of the letter is usually given at the end, and also the place of writing, if not previously mentioned in the letter.
10. quô, where.
11. dîs est grâtia, thank God, in our idiom.
12. Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in Asia Minor.
13. altum mare tenuimus, we were well out to sea.
14. nec iam, and no longer.
16. adflîctâtî, perf. passive part. tossed about.
16. What construction?
17. diê, § 501. 35.
18. ut ... portâret, § 501. 40.
19. Athênîs, § 501. 36. 1.
20. darem, cf. portâret, l. 6.
21. Why not ad domum?
22. Kalendîs Mârtiîs, the Calends or first of March; abl. of time, giving the date of the letter.

LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME · PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII WITH HIS FATHER

Post paucôs diês nâvis M. Cornêlî Lentulî portum Mîsênî1 petiit, quî portus nôn longê â Pompêiîs situs est; quô in portû classis Rômânâ pônêbâtur et ad pugnâs nâvâlîs ôrnâbâtur. Ibi nâvês omnium generum cônspicî poterant. Iamque incrêdibilî celeritâte nâvis longa quâ Lentulus vehêbâtur lîtorî adpropinquâvit; nam nôn sôlum ventô sed etiam rêmîs impellêbâtur. In altâ puppe stâbat gubernâtor et nôn procul aliquî mîlitês Rômânî cum armîs splendidîs, inter quôs clârissimus erat Lentulus. Deinde servî rêmîs contendere cessâvêrunt2; nautae vêlum contrâxêrunt et ancorâs iêcêrunt. Lentulus statim ê nâvî êgressus est et3 ad villam suam properâvit. Eum Iûlia, Pûblius, tôtaque familia excêpêrunt. 4Quî complexûs, quanta gaudia fuêrunt!

Postrîdiê eius diêî Lentulus fîliô suô dîxit, "Venî, mî Pûblî, mêcum. Pompêiôs iter hodiê faciam. Mâter tua suâdet5 ut frûctûs et cibâria emam. Namque plûrîs amîcôs ad cênam vocâvimus et multîs rêbus6 egêmus. Ea hortâtur ut quam prîmum proficîscâmur." "Libenter, mî pater," inquit Pûblius. "Têcum esse mihi semper est grâtum; nec Pompêiôs umquam vîdî. Sine morâ proficîscî parâtus sum." Tum celeriter currum cônscendêrunt et ad urbis mûrôs vectî sunt. Stabiânâ portâ7 urbem ingressî sunt. Pûblius strâtâs viâs mîrâtur et saxa altiôra quae in mediô disposita erant et altâs orbitâs quâs rotae inter haec saxa fêcerant. Etiam strepitum mîrâtur, multitûdinem, carrôs, fontîs, domôs, tabernâs, forum8 cum statuîs, templîs, reliquîsque aedificiîs pûblicîs.

1. Misenum had an excellent harbor, and under the emperor Augustus became the chief naval station of the Roman fleet. See map of Italy.
2. Why is the infinitive used with cessâvêrunt?
3. See Plate I, Frontispiece.
4. Observe that these words are exclamatory.
5. What construction follows suâdeô? § 501. 41.
6. rêbus, § 501. 32.
7. This is the abl. of the way by which motion takes place, sometimes called the abl. of route. The construction comes under the general head of the abl. of means. For the scene here described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice especially the stepping-stones for crossing the street (saxa quae in mediô disposita erant).
8. The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public halls, and markets of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map.

LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII

Apud forum ê currû dêscendêrunt et Lentulus dîxit, "Hîc sunt multa tabernârum genera, mî Pûblî. Ecce, trâns viam est popîna! 1Hoc genus tabernârum cibâria vêndit. Frûctûs quoque ante iânuam stant. Ibi cibâria mea emam." "Optimê," respondit Pûblius. "At ubi, mî pater, crûstula emere possumus? Namque mâter nôbîs imperâvit 2ut haec quoque parârêmus. Timeô ut3 ista popîna vêndat crûstula." "Bene dîcis," inquit Lentulus. "At nônne vidês illum fontem â dextrâ ubi aqua per leônis caput fluit? In illô ipsô locô est taberna pîstôris quî sine dubiô vêndit crûstula."

Brevî tempore4 omnia erant parâta, iamque 5quînta hôra erat. Deinde Lentulus et fîlius ad caupônam properâvêrunt, quod famê6 et sitî7 urgêbantur. Ibi sub arboris umbrâ sêdêrunt et puerô imperâvêrunt ut sibi8 cibum et vînum daret. Huic imperiô9 puer celeriter pâruit. Tum laetî sê10 ex labôre refêcêrunt.

Post prandium prefectî sunt ut alia urbis spectâcula vidêrent. Illô tempore fuêrunt Pompêiîs11 multa templa, duo theâtra, thermae magnumque amphitheâtrum, quae omnia post paucôs annôs flammîs atque incendiîs Vesuvî et terrae môtû dêlêta sunt. Ante hanc calamitâtem autem hominês 1nihil dê monte veritî sunt. In amphitheâtrô quidem Pûblius morârî cupîvit ut spectâcula gladiâtôria vidêret, quae in13 illum ipsum diem prôscrîpta erant et iam 15rê vêrâ incêperant. Sed Lentulus dîxit, "Morârî, Pûblî, 16vereor ut possîmus. Iam decima hôra est et via est longa. Tempus suâdet ut quam prîmum domum revertâmur." Itaque servô imperâvit ut equôs iungeret, et sôlis occâsû16 ad vîllam pervênêrunt.

1. We say, this kind of shop; Latin, this kind of shops.
2. ut ... parârêmus, § 501. 41.
3. How is ut translated after a verb of fearing? How ? Cf. § 501. 42.
4. tempore, § 501. 35.
5. quînta hôra. The Romans numbered the hours of the day consecutively from sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long or short, into twelve equal parts.
6. famê shows a slight irregularity in that the abl. ending -e is long.
7. sitis, thirst, has -im in the acc. sing., in the abl. sing., and no plural.
8. Observe that the reflexive pronoun sibi does not here refer to the subject of the subordinate clause in which it stands, but to the subject of the main clause. This so-called indirect use of the reflexive is often found in object clauses of purpose.
9. What case? Cf. § 501. 14.
10. , cf. p. 205, l. 7, and note.
11. Pompêiîs, § 501. 36. 1.
12. nihil ... veritî sunt, had no fears of the mountain.
13. in, for.
14. rê vêrâ, in fact.
15. vereor ut, § 501. 42.
16. occâsû, § 501. 35.

LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON

 prîmîs annîs quidem Iûlia ipsa fîlium suum docuerat, et Pûblius nôn sôlum 1pûrê et Latînê loquî poterat sed etiam commodê legêbat et scrîbêbat. Iam Ennium2 aliôsque poêtâs lêgerat. Nunc vêrô Pûblius 3duodecim annôs habêbat; itaque eî pater bonum magistrum, 4virum omnî doctrînâ et virtûte ôrnâtissimum, parâvit, 5quî Graeca, mûsicam, aliâsque artîs docêret. 6Namque illîs temporibus omnês ferê gentês Graecê loquêbantur. Cum Pûbliô aliî puerî, Lentulî amîcôrum fîliî,7 discêbant. Nam saepe apud Rômânôs môs erat 8nôn in lûdum fîliôs mittere sed domî per magistrum docêre. Cotîdiê discipulî cum magistrô in perist[y]lô9 Mârcî domûs sedêbant. Omnês puerî bullam auream, orîginis honestae signum, in collô gerêbant, et omnês togâ praetextâ amictî erant, 10quod nôndum sêdecim annôs11 nâtî sunt.

1. pûrê ... poterat, freely, could speak Latin well. What is the literal translation?
2. Ennium, the father of Latin poetry.
3. duodecim ... habêbat, cf. p. 206, l. 8, and note.
4. virum, etc., a very well-educated and worthy man. Observe the Latin equivalent.
5. quî ... docêret, a relative clause of purpose. Cf. §§ 349, 350.
6. In Cæsar's time Greek was spoken more widely in the Roman world than any other language.
7. fîliî, in apposition with puerî.
8. nôn ... mittere. This infinitive clause is the subject of erat. Cf. § 216. The same construction is repeated in the next clause, domî ... docêre. The object of docêre is fîliôs understood.
9. The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a colonnade.
10. At the age of sixteen a boy laid aside the bulla and the toga praetexta and assumed toga virîlis or manly gown.
11. annôs, § 501. 21. The expression nôndum sêdecim annôs nâtî sunt means literally, they were born not yet sixteen years. This is the usual expression for age. What is the English equivalent?

SCENE IN SCHOOL · AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION

[Illustration: woman with tablet and stylus
Caption: TABULA ET STILUS]

Discipulî. Salvê, magister.

Magister. Vôs quoque omnês, salvête. 1Tabulâsne portâvistis et stilôs?

D. Portâvimus.

M. Iam fâbulam Aesôpî2 discêmus. Ego legam, vôs in tabulîs scrîbite. Et tû, Pûblî, dâ mihi ê capsâ3 Aesôpî volûmen.4 Iam audîte omnês: Vulpês et Ûva.

Vulpês ôlim famê coâcta ûvam dêpendentem vîdit. Ad ûvam saliêbat, sûmere cônâns. Frûstrâ diû cônâta, tandem îrâta erat et salîre cessâns dîxit: "Illa ûva est acerba; acerbam ûvam 5nihil moror."

Omnia´ne scrîpsistis, puerî?

D. Omnia, magister.

1. Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The writing was done with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil, made of bone or metal, with a knob at the other end. The knob was used to smooth over the wax in making erasures and corrections.
2. Aesôpî, the famous Greek to whom are ascribed most of the fables current in the ancient world.
3. A cylindrical box for holding books and papers, shaped like a hatbox.
4. Ancient books were written on rolls made of papy´rus.
5. nihil moror, I care nothing for.

LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION

Iamque Pûblius, 1quîndecim annôs nâtus, 2prîmîs litterârum elementîs cônfectîs, Rômam petere voluit ut scholâs grammaticôrum et philosophôrum frequentâret. Et facillimê patrî3 suô, qui ipse philosophiae studiô tenêbâtur, persuâsit. Itaque 4omnibus rêbus ad profectiônem comparâtîs, pater fîliusque equîs animôsîs vectî5 ad magnam urbem profectî sunt. Eôs proficîscentîs Iûlia tôtaque familia vôtîs precibusque prôsecûtae sunt. Tum per loca6 plâna et collis silvîs vestîtôs viam ingressî sunt ad Nôlam, quod oppidum eôs hospitiô modicô excêpit. Nôlae7 duâs hôrâs morâtî sunt, quod sôl merîdiânus ârdêbat. Tum rêctâ viâ8 circiter vîgintî mîlia9 passuum9 Capuam,9 ad însignem Campâniae urbem, contendêrunt. Eô10 multâ nocte dêfessî pervênêrunt. 11Postrîdiê eius diêî, somnô et cibô recreâtî, Capuâ discessêrunt et 13viam Appiam ingressî, quae Capuam tangit et ûsque ad urbem Rômam dûcit, ante merîdiem Sinuessam pervênêrunt, quod oppidum tangit mare. Inde prîmâ lûce proficîscentês Formiâs13 properâvêrunt, ubi Cicerô, ôrâtor clarissimus, quî forte apud vîllam suam erat, eôs benignê excêpit. Hinc 14itinere vîgintî quînque mîlium passuum factô, Tarracînam, oppidum in saxîs altissimîs situm, vîdêrunt. Iamque nôn longê aberant palûdês magnae, quae multa mîlia passuum undique patent. Per eâs pedestris via est gravis et in nâve viâtôrês vehuntur. Itaque 15equîs relictîs Lentulus et Pûblius nâvem cônscendêrunt, et, ûnâ nocte in trânsitû cônsûmptâ, Forum Appî vênêrunt. Tum brevî tempore Arîcia eôs excêpit. Hoc oppidum, in colle situm, ab urbe Româ sêdecim mîlia passuum abest. Inde dêclivis via ûsque ad latum campum dûcit ubi Rôma stat. Quem ad locum ubi Pûblius vênit et Rômam adhûc remôtam, maximam tôtîus orbis terrârum urbem, cônspêxit, summâ admîrâtiône et gaudiô adfectus est. Sine morâ dêscendêrunt, et, mediô intervâllô quam celerrimê superâtô, urbem portâ Capênâ ingressî sunt.

1. quîndecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
2. prîmîs ... cônfectîs, abl. abs. Cf. § 501. 28.
3. patrî, dat. with persuâsit.
4. omnibus ... comparâtîs, cf. note 2.
5. vectî, perf. pass. part. of vehô.
6. What is there peculiar about the gender of this word?
7. Nôlae, locative case, § 501. 36.2.
8. viâ, cf. portâ, p. 208, l. 7, and note.
9. What construction?
10. , adv. there.
11. Postrîdiê eius diêî, on the next day.
12. viam Appiam, the most famous of all Roman roads, the great highway from Rome to Tarentum and Brundisium, with numerous branches. Locate on the map the various towns that are mentioned in the lines that follow.
13. Formiâs, Formiæ, one of the most beautiful spots on this coast, and a favorite site for the villas of rich Romans.
14. itinere ... factô, abl. abs. The gen. mîlium modifies itinere.
15. equîs relictîs. What construction? Point out a similar one in the next line.

LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS

[Illustration: Bulla
Caption: BULLA]

Pûblius iam tôtum annum Rômae morâbâtur1 multaque urbis spectâcula vîderat et multôs sibi2 amîcôs parâverat. Eî3 omnês favêbant; 4dê eô omnês bene spêrâre poterant. Cotîdiê Pûblius scholas philosophôrum et grammaticôrum tantô studiô frequentâbat 5ut aliîs clârum exemplum praebêret. Saepe erat cum patre in cûriâ6; quae rês effêcit 7ut summôs reî pûblicae virôs et audîret et vidêret. Ubi 8sêdecim annôs natus est, bullam9 auream et togam praetextam môre Rômânô dêposuit atque virîlem togam sûmpsit. Virîlis autem toga erat omnînô alba, sed praetexta clâvum purpureum in margine habêbat. 10Dêpônere togam praetextam et sûmere togam virîlem erat rês grâtissima puerô Rômânô, quod posteâ vir et cîvis Rômânus habêbâtur.

11Hîs rêbus gestîs Lentulus ad uxôrem suam hâs litterâs scrîpsit:

12"Mârcus Iûliae suae salûtem dîcit. Sî valês, bene est; ego valeô. Accêpî tuâs litterâs. Hâs nunc Rômâ per servum fidêlissimum mittô ut dê Pûbliô nostrô quam celerrimê sciâs. Nam hodiê eî togam virîlem dedî. Ante lucem surrêxî13 et prîmum bullam auream dê collô eius remôvî. Hâc Laribus14 cônsecrâtâ et sacrîs factîs, eum togâ virîlî vestîvî. Interim plûrês amîcî cum multitûdine optimôrum cîvium et honestôrum clientium pervênerant 15quî Pûblium domô in forum dêdûcerent. Ibi in cîvitâtem receptus est et nômen, Pûblius Cornêlius Lentulus, apud cîvîs Rômânôs ascrîptum est. Omnês eî amîcissimî fuêrunt et magna16 de eô praedîcunt. Sapientior enim aequâlibus17 est et magnum ingenium habet. 18Cûrâ ut valeâs."

1. morâbâtur, translate as if pluperfect.
2. sibi, for himself.
3. , why dat.?
4. dê ... poterant, in English, all regarded him as a very promising youth; but what does the Latin say?
5. ut ... praebêret, § 501. 43.
6. cûriâ, a famous building near the Roman Forum.
7. ut ... audîret et vidêret, § 501. 44.
8. sêdecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
9. bullam, cf. p. 210, l. 3, and note 4.
10. These infinitive clauses are the subject of erat. Cf. § 216.
11. Hîs rêbus gestîs, i.e. the assumption of the toga virilis and attendant ceremonies.
12. Compare the beginning of this letter with the one on page 206.
13. surrêxî, from surgô.
14. The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were worshiped as household gods. All that the house contained was confided to their care, and sacrifices were made to them daily.
15. quî ... dêdûcerent, § 350.
16. magna, great things, a neuter adj. used as a noun.
17. aequâlibus, § 501. 34.
18. Cûrâ ut valeâs, take good care of your health. How does the Latin express this idea?

LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CÆSAR'S ARMY IN GAUL

Pûblius iam adulêscêns postquam togam virîlem sûmpsit, aliîs rêbus studêre incêpit et praesertim ûsû1 armôrum sê2 dîligenter exercuit. Magis magisque amâvit illâs artîs quae mîlitârem animum dêlectant. Iamque erant 3quî eî cursum mîlitârem praedîcerent. Nec sine causâ, quod certê patris îsigne exemplum 4ita multum trahêbat. 5Paucîs ante annîs C. Iûlius Caesar, ducum Rômânôrum maximus, cônsul creâtus erat et hôc tempore in Galliâ bellum grave gerêbat. Atque in exercitû eius plûrês adulêscentês mîlitâbant, apud quôs erat amîcus quîdam Pûblî. Ille Pûblium crêbrîs litterîs vehementer hortâbâtur 6ut iter in Galliam faceret. Neque Pûblius recûsâvit, et, multîs amîcîs ad portam urbis prôsequentibus, ad Caesaris castra profectus est. Quârtô diê postquam iter ingressus est, ad Alpîs, montîs altissimôs, pervênit. Hîs summâ difficultâte superâtîs, tandem Gallôrum in fînibus erat. Prîmô autem veritus est ut7 castrîs Rômânîs adpropinquâre posset, quod Gallî, maximîs côpiîs coâctîs, Rômânôs obsidêbant et viâs omnîs iam clauserant. Hîs rêbus commôtus Pûblius vestem Gallicam induit nê â Gallîs caperêtur, et ita per hostium côpiâs incolumis ad castra pervenîre potuit. Intrâ mûnîtiônes acceptus, â Caesare benignê exceptus est. Imperâtor fortem adulêscentem amplissimîs verbîs laudâvit et eum 8tribûnum mîlîtum creâvit.

1. Abl. of means.
2. , reflexive object of exercuit.
3. quî ... praedîcerent, § 501. 45.
4. ita multum trahêbat, had a great influence in that direction.
5. Paucîs ante annîs, a few years before; in Latin, before by a few years, ante being an adverb and annîs abl. of degree of difference.
6. ut ... faceret, § 501. 41.
7. ut, how translated here? See § 501. 42.
8. The military tribune was a commissioned officer nearly corresponding to our rank of colonel. The tribunes were often inexperienced men, so Cæsar did not allow them much responsibility.

[Illustration: military baggage
Caption: IMPEDIMENTA]

HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED

Exercitus quî in hostium fînibus bellum genit multîs perîcuîs circumdatus est. 1Quae perîcula ut vîtâret, Rômâni summam cûram adhîbêre solêbant. Adpropinquanteês côpiîs hostium agmen ita dispônêbant 2ut imperâtor ipse cum plâribus legiônibus expedîtîs3 prîmum agmen dûceret. Post eâs côpiâs impedîmenta4 tôtîus exercitûs conlocâbant. 5Tum legiônês quae proximê cônscrîptae erant tôtum agmen claudêbant. Equitês quoque in omnîs partîs dîmittêbantur quî loca explôrârent; et centuriônês praemittêbantur ut locum castrîs idôneum dêligerent. Locus habêbatur idôneus castrîs 6quî facile dêfendî posset et prope aquam esset. Quâ dê causâ castra7 in colle ab utrâque parte arduô, â fronte lêniter dêclîvî saepe pônêbantur; vel locus palûdibus cînctus vel in flûminis rîpîs situs dêligêbâtur. Ad locum postquam exercitus pervênit, aliî mîlitum 8in armîs erant, aliî castra mûnîre incipiêbant. Nam 9quô tûtiôrês ab hostibus mîlitês essent, nêve incautî et imparâtî opprimerentur, castra fossâ lâtâ et vâllô altô mûniêbant. In castrîs portae quattuor erant ut êruptiô mîlitum omnîs in partîs fierî posset. In angulîs castrôrum erant turrês dê quibus têla in hostîs coniciêbantur. 10Tâlibus in castrîs quâlia dêscrîpsimus Pûblius â Caesare exceptus est.

1. Quae perîcula, object of vîtârent. It is placed first to make a proper connection with the preceding sentence.
2. ut ... dûceret, § 501. 43.
3. expedîtîs, i.e. without baggage and ready for action.
4. impedîmenta. Much of the baggage was carried in carts and on beasts of burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each soldier (unless expedîtus) carried a heavy pack. See also picture, p. 159.
5. The newest legions were placed in the rear, because they were the least reliable.
6. quî ... posset ... esset, § 501. 45.
7. castra, subject of pônêbantur.
8. in armîs erant, stood under arms.
9. quô ... essent. When is quô used to introduce a purpose clause? See § 350. I.
10. Tâlibus in castrîs quâlia, in such a camp as. It is important to remember the correlatives tâlis ... quâlis, such ... as.

LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS

[Illustration: centurion
Caption: CENTURIO]

Illîs in castrîs erant duo centuriônês,1 fortissimî virî, T. Pullô et L. Vorênus, quôrum neuter alterî virtûte2 cêdere volêbat. Inter eôs iam multôs annôs înfênsum certâmen gerêbâtur. Tum dêmum fînis contrôversiae hôc modô3 factus est. Diê tertiô postquam Pûblius pervênit, hostês, maiôribus côpiîs coâctîs, âcerrimum impetum in castra fêcêrunt. Tum Pullô, 4cum Rômânî tardiôrês5 vidêrentur, "Cûr dubitâs," inquit, "Vorêne? Quam commodiôrem occâsiônem exspectâs? Hic diês dê virtûte nostrâ iûdicâbit." Haec6 cum dîxisset, extrâ mûnîtiônês prôcessit et in eam hostium partem quae côfertissima 7vidêbâtur inrûpit. Neque Vorênus quidem tum vâllô8 sêsê continet, sed Pullônem subsequitur. Tum Pullô pîlum in hostîs immittit atque ûnum ex multitûdine prôcurrentem trâicit. Hunc percussum et exanimâtum hostês scûtîs prôtegunt et in Pullônem omnês têla coniciunt. Eius scûtum trânsfîgitur et têlum in balteô dêfîgitur. Hic câsus vâgînam âvertit et dextram manum eius gladium êdûcere cônantis9 morâtur. Eum ita impedîtum hostês circumsistunt.

Tum vêro 10eî labôrantî Vorênus, cum sit inimîcus, tamen auxilium dat. Ad hunc cônfestim 11â Pullône omnis multitûdô sê convertit. Gladiô comminus pugnat Vorênus, atque, ûnô interfectô, reliquôs paulum prôpellit. Sed înstâns cupidius12 înfêlîx, 13pede sê fallente, concidit.

Huic rûrsus circumventô auxilium dat Pullô, atque ambô incolumês, plûribus interfectîs, summâ cum laude intrâ mûnîtiônês sê recipiunt. Sic inimîcôrum alter alterî auxilium dedit nec de eôrum virtûte quisquam iûdicâre potuit.

1. A centurion commanded a company of about sixty men. He was a common soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for his courage and fighting qualities. The centurions were the real leaders of the men in battle. There were sixty of them in a legion. The centurion in the picture (p. 216) has in his hand a staff with a crook at one end, the symbol of his authority.
2. virtûte, § 501. 30.
3. Abl. of manner.
4. cum ... vidêrentur, § 501. 46.
5. tardiôrês, too slow, a not infrequent translation of the comparative degree.
6. Haec, obj. of dîxisset. It is placed before cum to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. What is the construction of dîxisset?
7. vidêbatur, inrûpit. Why is the imperfect used in one case and the perfect in the other? Cf. § 190.
8. vâllô, abl. of means, but in English we should say within the rampart. Cf. ingentî stabulô, p. 201, l. 13, and note.
9. cônantis, pres. part. agreeing with eius.
10. eî labôrantî, indir. obj. of dat.
11. â Pullône, from Pullo, abl. of separation.
12. cupidius, too eagerly.
13. pede sê fallente, lit. the foot deceiving itself; in our idiom, his foot slipping.

LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED

Cum iam sex hôrâs pugnatum esset1 ac nôn sôlum vîrês sed etiam têla Rômânôs dêficerent1, atque hostês âcrius instârent,1 et vâllum scindere fossamque complêre incêpissent,1 Caesar, vir reî mîlitâris perîtissimus, suîs imperâvit ut proelium paulisper intermitterent,2 et, signô datô, ex castrîs êrumperent.2 3Quod iussî sunt faciunt, et subitô ex omnibus portîs êrumpunt. Atque tam celeriter mîlitês concurrêrunt et tam propinquî erant hostês4 ut spatium pîla coniciendî5 nôn darêtur. Itaque reiectîs pîlîs 6comminus gladiîs pugnâtum est. Diû et audâcter hostês restitêrunt et in extrêmâ spê salûtis tantam virtûtem praestitêrunt ut â dextrô cornû vehementer 7multitûdine suôrum aciem Rômanam premerent. 8Id imperâtor cum animadvertisset, Pûblium adulêscentem cum equitâtû mîsit quî labôrantibus9 auxilium daret. Eius impetum sustinêre nôn potuêrunt hostês10 et omnês terga vertêrunt. Eôs in fugam datôs Pûblius subsecûtus est ûsque ad flûmen Rhênum, quod ab eô locô quînque mîlia passuum aberat. Ibi paucî salûtem sibi repperêrunt. Omnibus reliquîs interfectîs, Pûblius et equitês in castra sêsê recêpêrunt. Dê hâc calamitâte fînitimae gentês cum certiôrês factae essent, ad Caesarem lêgâtôs mîsêrunt et sê suaque omnia dêdidêrunt.

1. pugnâtum esset, dêficerent, înstârent, incêpissent. These are all subjunctives with cum. Cf. § 501. 46.
2. intermitterent, êrumperent. What use of the subjunctive?
3. Quod, etc., they do as ordered. The antecedent of quod is id understood, which would be the object of faciunt.
4. ut ... darêtur. Is this a clause of purpose or of result?
5. coniciendî, § 402.
6. comminus gladiîs pugnâtum est, a hand-to-hand conflict was waged with swords.
7. multitûdine suôrum, by their numbers. suôrum is used as a noun. What is the literal translation of this expression?
8. Id imperâtor. Id is the obj. and imperâtor the subj. of animadvertisset.
9. labôrantibus. This participle agrees with iîs understood, the indir. obj. of daret; qui ... daret is a purpose clause, § 501. 40.
10. hostês, subj. of potuêrunt.

LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY · ITS GREAT FORESTS AND STRANGE ANIMALS

Initâ aestâte Caesar litterîs certior fîêbat et per explôrâtôrês cognôscêbat plûrîs cîvitâtês Galliae novîs rêbus studêre,1 et contrâ populum Rômânum coniûrâre1 obsidêsque 2inter sê dare,1 atque cum hîs Germânôs quôsdam quoque sêsê coniûnctûrôs esse.1 Hîs litterîs nûntiîsque commôtus Caesar cônstituit quam celerrimê in Gallôs proficîscî,3 ut eôs inopînantîs opprimeret, et Labiênum lêgâtum cum duâbus legiônibus peditum et duôbus mîlibus equitum in Germânôs mittere.3 4Itaque rê frûmentâriâ comparâtâ castra môvit. Ab utrôque5 rês bene gesta est; nam Caesar tam celeriter in hostium fînîs pervênit ut spatium 6côpiâs côgendî nôn darêtur7; et Labiênus dê Germânîs tam grave supplicium sûmpsit ut nêmô ex eâ gente in reliquum tempus Gallîs auxilium dare audêret.7

Hoc iter in Germâniam Pûblius quoque fêcit et, 8cum ibi morârêtur, multa mîrâbilia vîdit. Praesertim vêrô ingentem silvam mîrâbâtur, quae tantae magnitûdinis esse dîcêbâtur 9ut nêmô eam trânsîre posset, nec quisquam scîret aut initium aut fînem. Quâ dê rê plûra cognôverat â mîlite quôdam quî ôlim captus â Germânîs multôs annôs ibi incoluit. Ille10 dê silvâ dîcêns, "Înfînîtae magnitûdinis est haec silva," inquit; "nee quisquam est 11huius Germâniae 12quî initium eius sciat aut ad fînem adierit. Nâscuntur illîc multa tâlia animâlium genera quâlia reliquîs in locîs nôn inveniuntur. Sunt bovês quî ûnum13 cornû habent; sunt etiam animâlia quae appellantur alcês. Hae nûllôs crûrum14 articulôs habent. Itaque, sî forte concidêrunt, sêsê êrigere nûllô modô possunt. Arborês habent prô15 cubîlibus; ad eâs sê applicant atque ita reclînâtae quiêtem capiunt. Tertium est genus eôrum quî ûrî appellantur. Hî sunt paulô minôrês elephantîs.16 Magna vis eôrum est et magna vêlôcitâs. Neque hominî neque ferae parcunt.17"

1. Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect statements after certior fîêbat, he was informed, and cognôscêbat, he learned. Cf. § 501.48, 49.
2. inter sê, to each other.
3. proficîscî, mittere. These infinitives depend upon cônstituit.
4. Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided. Every fifteen days grain was distributed. Each soldier received about two pecks. This he carried in his pack, and this constituted his food, varied occasionally by what he could find by foraging.
5. Abl. of personal agent, § 501. 33.
6. côpiâs côgendî, § 501. 37. 1.
7. darêtur, audêret, § 501. 43. audêret is not from audiô.
8. cum ... morârêtur, § 501. 46.
9. ut ... posset, ... scîret, § 501. 43.
10. Ille, subj. of inquit.
11. huius Germâniae, of this part of Germany.
12. quî ... scîat ... adierit, § 501. 45.
13. ûnum, only one.
14. crûrum, from crûs.
15. prô, for, in place of.
16. elephantîs, § 501. 34.
17. parcunt. What case is used with this verb?

LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY

Pûblius plûrîs diês in Germâniâ morâtus1 in Galliam rediit, et ad Caesaris castra sê contulit. Ille quia molestê ferêbat Gallôs2 eius regiônis obsidês dare recûsâvisse et exercituî frûmentum praebêre nôluisse, cônstituit eîs3 bellum înferre. Agrîs vâstâtîs, vîcîs incênsîs, pervênit ad oppidum validissimum quod et nâtûrâ et arte mûnîtum erat. Cingêbâtur mûrô vîgintî quînque pedês4 altô. Â lateribus duôsitum, praeruptô fastîgiô ad plânitiem vergêgat; â quârtô tantum5 latere aditus erat facilis. Hoc oppidum oppugnâre, 6cum opus esset difficillimum, tamen cônstituit Caesar. Et castrîs mûnîtîs Pûbliô negôtium dedit ut rês 7ad oppugnandum necessâriâs parâret.

[Illustration: siege shed
Caption: VINEA]

Rômânôrum autem oppugnâtiô est haec.8 Prîmum turrês aedificantur quibus mîlitês in summum mûrum êvâdere possint9; vîneae10 fîunt quibus têctî mîlitês ad mûrum succêdant; pluteî11 parantur post quôs mîlitês tormenta12 administrent; sunt quoque arietês quî mûrum et portâs discutiant. Hîs omnibus rêbus comparâtîs, deinde 13agger ab eâ parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum vîneîs ad ipsum oppidum agitur. Tum turris in aggere prômovêtur; arietibus quî sub vîneîs conlocâtî erant mûrus et portae discutiuntur; ballistîs, catapultîs, reliquîsque tormentîs lapidês et têla in oppidum coniciuntur. Postrêmô cum iam turris et agger altitûdinem mûrî adaequant et arietês moenia perfrêgêrunt,14 signô datô mîlitês inruunt et oppidum expugnant.

1. morâtus. Is this part. active or passive in meaning?
2. Gallôs, subj. acc. of the infins. recûsâvisse and nôluisse. The indirect statement depends upon molestê ferêbat.
3. eîs, § 501. 15.
4. pedês, § 501. 21.
5. tantum, adv. only.
6. cum ... esset, a clause of concession, § 501. 46.
7. ad oppugnandum, a gerund expressing purpose.
8. haec, as follows.
9. possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar constructions follow.
10. vîneae. These vîneae were wooden sheds, open in front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a fortification. They were about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers.
11. pluteî, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. These were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving the engines of war.
12. tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the catapult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They had a range of about two thousand feet and were very effective.
13. The agger, or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just out of reach of the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards the point to be attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on a level with the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber, and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram (aries) in the lowest story. (See picture, p. 221.)
14. perfrêgêrunt, from perfringô.

LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN · THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED

[Illustration: ballista
Caption: BALLISTA]

Omnibus rêbus necessâriîs ad oppugnandum â Pûbliô comparâtîs, dêlîberâtur in conciliô quod cônsilium 1oppidî expugnandî ineant.2 Tum ûnus3 ex centuriônibus, vir reî mîlitâris perîtissimus, "Ego suâdeô," inquit, "ut ab eâ parte, ubi aditus sit4 facillimus, aggerem exstruâmus5 et turrim prômoveâmus5 atque ariete admôtô simul mûrum discutere cônêmur.5" 6Hoc cônsilium cum omnibus placêret, Caesar concilium dîmîsit. Deinde mîlitês hortâtus ut priôrês victôriâs memoriâ7 tenêrent, iussit aggerem exstruî, turrim et arietem admovêrî. Neque oppidânîs8 cônsilium dêfuit. Aliî ignem et omne genus têlôrum dê mûrô in turrim coniêcêrunt, aliî ingentia saxa in vîneâs et arietem dêvolvêrunt. Diû utrimque âcerrimê pugnâtum est. Nê vulnerâtî quidem pedem rettulêrunt. Tandem, 9dê tertiâ vigiliâ, Pûblius, quem Caesar illî operî10 praefêcerat, nûntiâvit partem11 mûrî ictibus arietis labefactam concidisse. Quâ rê audîtâ Caesar signum dat; mîlitês inruunt et magnâ cum caede hostium oppidum capiunt.

1. oppidî expugnandî. Is this a gerund or a gerundive construction? Cf. § 501. 37.
2. ineant. § 501. 50.
3. ûnus. subj. of inquit.
4. sit. This is a so-called subjunctive by attraction, which means that the clause beginning with ubi stands in such close connection with the subjv. clause beginning with ut, that its verb is attracted into the same mood.
5. All these verbs are in the same construction.
6. Hoc cônsilium, subj. of placêret. For the order cf. Haec cum, etc., p. 215, l. 22, and note; Id imperâtor cum, p. 217, l. 8.
7. memoriâ, abl. of means.
8. oppidânîs, § 501. 15.
9. Between twelve and three o'clock in the morning. The night was divided into four watches.
10. operî, § 501. 15.
11. partem, subj. acc. of concidisse.

[Illustration: siege towers, battering rams, siege shed
Caption: TURRES, ARIETES, VINEA]

Postrîdiê eius diêî, hôc oppidô expugnâtô, 12captîvôrum quî nôbilissimî sunt ad imperâtôrem ante praetôrium13 addûcuntur. Ipse, lôrîcâ aurâtâ et paludâmentô purpureô însignis, captîvôs per interpretem in hunc modum interrogat:14 Vôs quî estis15?

Interpres. Rogat imperâtor quî sîtis.

Captîvî. Fîliî rêgis sumus.

Interpres. Dîcunt sê fîliôs esse rêgis.

Imperâtor. Cûr mihi tantâs iniûriâs intulistis?

Interpres. Rogat cûr sibi tantâs iniûriâs intuleritis.

Captîvî. Iniûriâs eî nôn intulimus sed prô patriâ bellum gessimus. Semper voluimus Rômânîs esse amîcî, sed Rômânî sine causâ nôs domô patriâque expellere cônâtî sunt.

Interpres. 16Negant sê iniûriâs tibi intulisse, sed prô patriâ bellum gessisse. 17Semper sê voluisse amîcôs Rômânîs esse, sed Rômânôs sine causâ sê domô patriâque expellere cônâtôs esse.

Imperâtor. 18Manêbitisne in reliquum tempus in fidê, hâc rebelliône condônâtâ?

Tum vêrô captîvî multîs cum lacrimîs iûrâvêrunt sê in fidê mânsûrôs esse, et Caesar eôs incolumîs domum dîmîsit.

12. captîvôrum ... sunt, the noblest of the captives.
13. The general's headquarters.
14. Study carefully these direct questions, indirect questions, and indirect statements.
15. See Plate III, p. 148.
16. Negant, etc., they say that they have not, etc. Negant is equivalent to dîcunt nôn, and the negative modifies intulisse, but not the remainder of the indirect statement.
17. Semper, etc., that they have always, etc.
18. Manêbitisne in fidê, will you remain loyal?

LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN CÆSAR AND POMPEY · THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA

Nê cônfectô1 quidem bellô Gallicô, 2bellum cîvîle inter Caesarem et Pompêium exortum est. Nam Pompêius, quî summum imperium petêbat, senâtuî persuâserat ut Caesarem reî pûblicae hostem3 iûdicâret et exercitum eius dîmittî iubêret. Quibus cognitîs rêbus Caesar exercitum suum dîmittere recûsâvit, atque, hortâtus mîlitês ut ducem totiêns victôrem ab inimîcôrum iniûriîs dêfenderent, imperâvit ut sê Rômam sequerentur. Summâ cum alacritâte mîlitês pâruêrunt, et trânsitô Rubicône4 initium bellî cîvîlis factum est.

Italiae urbês quidem omnês ferê 5rêbus Caesaris favêbant et eum benignê excêpêrunt. Quâ rê commôtus Pompêius ante Caesaris adventum Rômâ excessit et Brundisium6 pervênit, inde 7paucîs post diêbus cum omnibus côpiîs ad Êpîrum mare trânsiit. Eum Caesar cum septem legiônibus et quîngentîs equitibus secûtus est, et însignis inter Caesaris comitâtum erat Pûblius.

Plûribus leviôribus proeliîs factîs, tandem côpiae adversae ad Pharsâlum8 in Thessaliâ sitam castra posuêrunt. Cum Pompeî exercitus esset bis tantus quantus Caesaris, tamen erant multî quî veterânâs legiônês quae Gallôs et Germânôs superâverant vehementer timêbant. Quôs9 10ante proelium commissum Labiênus11 lêgâtus, quî ab Caesare nûper dêfêcerat, ita adlocûtus est: "12Nôlîte exîstimâre hunc esse exercitum veterânôrum mîlitum. Omnibus interfuî proeliîs13 neque temerê incognitam rem prônûntiô. Perexigua pars illîus exercitûs quî Gallôs superâvit adhûc superest. Magna pars occîsa est, multî domum discessêrunt, multî sunt relictî in Italiâ. Hae côpiae quâs vidêtis in 14citeriôre Galliâ nûper cônscrîptae sunt." Haec15 cum dîxisset, iûrâvit sê nisi victôrem in castra nôn reversûrum esse. 16Hoc idem Pompêius et omnês reliquî iûrâvêrunt, et magnâ spê et laetitiâ, sîcut certam ad victôriam, côpiae ê castrîs exiêrunt.

Item Caesar, animô17 ad dîmicandum parâtus, exercitum suum êdûxit et septem cohortibus 18praesidiô castrîs relictîs côpiâs triplicî aciê înstrûxit. Tum, mîlitibus studiô pugnae ârdentibus, tubâ signum dedit. Mîlitês prôcurrêrunt et pîlîs missîs gladiôs strînxêrunt. Neque vêrô virtûs hostibus dêfuit. Nam et têla missa sustinuêrunt et impetum gladiôrum excêpêrunt et ôrdinês cônservâvêrunt. Utrimque diû et âcriter pugnâtum est nec quisquam pedem rettulit. Tum equitês Pompêî aciem Caesaris circumîre cônâtî sunt. Quod19 ubi Caesar animadvertit, tertiam aciem,20 quae ad id tempus quiêta fuerat, prôcurrere iussit. Tum vêrô integrôrum impetum21 dêfessî hostês sustinêre nôn potuêrunt et omnês terga vertêrunt. Sed Pompêius dê fortûnîs suîs dêspêrâns sê in castra equô contulit, inde mox cum paucîs equitibus effûgit.

1. With nê ... quidem the emphatic word stands between the two.
2. The Civil War was caused by the jealousy and rivalry between Cæsar and Pompey. It resulted in the defeat and subsequent death of Pompey and the elevation of Cæsar to the lordship of the Roman world.
3. hostem, predicate accusative, § 501. 22.
4. The Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that marked the boundary of Cæsar's province. By crossing it with an armed force Cæsar declared war upon Pompey and the existing government. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon early in the year 49 B.C.
5. rêbus Caesaris favêbant, favored Cæsar's side. In what case is rêbus?
6. Brundisium, a famous port in southern Italy whence ships sailed for Greece and the East. See map.
7. paucîs post diêbus, a few days later; literally, afterguards by a few days. Cf. paucîs ante annîs, p. 213, l. 12, and note.
7. The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C. In importance it ranks as one of the great battles of the world.
8. Quôs, obj. of adlocûtus est.
10. ante proelium commissum, before the beginning of the battle.
11. Labiênus, Cæsar's most faithful and skillful lieutenant in the Gallic War. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 49 B.C., he deserted Cæsar and joined Pompey. His defection caused the greatest joy among the Pompeian party; but he disappointed the expectations of his new friends, and never accomplished anything of importance. He fought against his old commander in several battles and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 45 B.C.
12. Nôlîte exîstimâre, don´t think.
13. proeliîs, § 501. 15.
14. citeriôre Galliâ. This name is applied to Cisalpine Gaul, or Gaul south of the Alps.
15. Haec, obj. of dîxisset.
16. Hoc idem, obj. of iûrâvêrunt.
17. animô, § 501. 30.
18. praesidiô castrîs, § 501. 17.
19. Quod, obj. of animadvertit.
20. aciem, subj. of prôcurrere.
21. impetum, obj. of sustinêre.

LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR

[Illustration: standard-bearer
Caption: SIGNIFER]

Pompêiô amîcîsque eius superâtîs atque omnibus hostibus ubîque victîs, Caesar imperâtor Rômam rediit et 1extrâ moenia urbis in campô Mârtiô castra posuit. Tum vêrô amplissimîs honôribus adfectus est. Dictâtor creâtus est, et eî triumphus â senâtû est dêcrêtus. 2Quô diê de Gallîs triumphum êgit, tanta multitûdô hominum in urbem undique cônflûxit 3ut omnia loca essent cônferta. Templa patêbant, ârae fûmâbant, columnae sertîs ôrnâtae erant. 4Cum vêrô pompa urbem intrâret, quantus hominum fremitus ortus est! Prîmum per portam ingressî sunt senâtus et magistrâtûs. Secûtî sunt tîbîcinês, signiferî, peditês laureâ corônâtî canentês: "Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, quî subêgit Galliam," et "Mîlle, mîlle, mîlle, mîlle Gallôs trucîdâvimus." Multî praedam captârum urbium portâbant, arma, omnia bellî înstrûmenta. Secûtî sunt equitês, animôsîs atque splendidissimê ôrnâtîs equîs vectî, inter quôs Pûblius adulêscêns fortissimus habêbâtur. Addûcêbantur taurî, arietês, 5quî dîs immortâlibus immolârentur. Ita longô agmine prôgrediêns exercitus 6sacrâ viâ per forum in Capitôlium perrêxit.

[Illustration: lictors with fasces
Caption: LICTORES CUM FASCIBUS]

Imperâtor ipse cum urbem intrâret, undique laetô clâmôre multitûdinis salûtâtus est. Stâbat in currû aureô quem quattuor albî equî vehêbant. Indûtus 7togâ pictâ, alterâ manû habênâs et lauream tenêbat, alterâ eburneum scêptrum. Post eum servus in currû stâns auream corônam super caput eius tenêbat. Ante currum miserrimî captîvî, rêgês prîncipêsque superâtârum gentium, catênîs vînctî, prôgrediêbantur; et vîgintî quattuor lîctôrês8 laureatâs fascîs ferentês et signiferî currum Caesaris comitâbantur. Conclûdit agmen multitûdô captîvôrum, quî, in servitûtem redâctî,9 dêmissô vultû, vînctîs10 bracchiîs, sequuntur; quibuscum veniunt longissimô ôrdine mîlitês, etiam hî praedam vel insignia mîlitâria ferentês.

Caesar cum Capitôlium ascendisset, in templô Iovî Capitôlînô sacra fêcit. Simul11 captivôrum quî nôbilissimî erant, abductî in carcerem,12 interfectî sunt. Sacrîs factîs Caesar dê Capitôliô dêscendit et in forô mîitibus suîs honôrês mîlitârîs dedit eîsque pecûniam ex bellî praedâ distribuit.

Hîs omnibus rêbus cônfectîs, Pûblius Caesarem valêre13 iussit et quam celerrimê ad vîllam contendit ut patrem mâtremque salûtâret.

15Dê rêbus gestîs P. Cornêlî Lentulî hâctenus.

1. A victorious general with his army was not allowed to enter the city until the day of his triumph. A triumph was the greatest of all military honors.
2. Quô diê, on the day that, abl. of time.
3. ut ... essent, § 501. 43.
4. Cum ... intrâret, § 501. 46.
5. quî ... immolârentur, § 501. 40.
6. The Sacred Way was a noted street running along one side of the Forum to the base of the Capitoline Hill, on whose summit stood the magnificent temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This route was always followed by triumphal processions.
7. The toga picta worn by a general in his triumph was a splendid robe of Tyrian purple covered with golden stars. See Plate IV, p. 213.
8. The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the higher magistrates and made a way for them through the streets. On their shoulders they carried the fasces, a bundle of rods with an ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of the law.
9. dêmissô vultû, with downcast countenance.
10. vînctîs, from vinciô.
12. Simul, etc., At the same time those of the captives who were the noblest.
12. The prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of the Capitoline Hill.
13. valêre iussit, bade farewell to.
14. This sentence marks the end of the story.

APPENDIX I

DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC.

NOUNS

460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive singular.

First Declension—Â-stems, Gen. Sing. -ae

Second Declension—O-stems, Gen. Sing.

Third Declension—Consonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing. -is

Fourth Declension—U-stems, Gen. Sing. -ûs

Fifth Declension—Ê-stems, Gen. Sing. -êî or -eî

461. FIRST DECLENSION. Â-STEMS

domina, lady   Stem dominâ-   Base domin-
SingularPlural
TerminationsTerminations
Nom.domina-adominae-ae
Gen.dominae-aedominârum-ârum
Dat.dominae-aedominîs-îs
Acc.dominam-amdominâs-âs
Abl.dominâdominîs-îs

a. Dea and fîlia have the termination -âbus in the dative and ablative plural.

462. SECOND DECLENSION. O-STEMS

a. Masculines in -us

dominus, master   Stem domino-   Base domin-
SingularPlural
TerminationsTerminations
Nom.dominus-usdominî
Gen.dominîdominôrum-ôrum
Dat.dominôdominîs-îs
Acc.dominum-umdominôs-ôs
Abl.dominôdominîs-îs

1. Nouns in -us of the second declension have the termination -e´ in the vocative singular, as domine.

2. Proper names in -ius, and filius, end in in the vocative singular, and the accent rests on the penult, as Vergi´lî, fîlî.

b. Neuters in -um

pîlum, spear   Stem   pîlo- Base pîl-
SingularPlural
TerminationsTerminations
Nom.pîlum-umpîla-a
Gen.pîlîpîlôrum-ôrum
Dat.pîlôpîlîs-îs
Acc.pîlum-umpîla-a
Abl.pîlôpîlîs-îs

1. Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in in the genitive singular, not in -iî, and the accent rests on the penult.

c. Masculines in -er and -ir

puer, boyager, fieldvir, man
Stemspuero-agro-viro-
Basespuer-agr-vir-
SingularTerminations
Nom.pueragervir
Gen.puerîagrîvirî
Dat.puerôagrôvirô
Acc.puerumagrumvirum-um
Abl.puerôagrôvirô
Plural
Nom.puerîagrîvirî
Gen.puerôrumagrôrumvirôrumrum
Dat.puerîsagrîsvirîss
Acc.puerôsagrôsvirôss
Abl.puerîsagrîsvirîss

463. THIRD DECLENSION.

CLASSIFICATION I. Consonant Stems1. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only.
2. Stems that add no termination in the nominitive singular: a. masculines and feminines; b. neuters.
II. I-Stems.Masculines, feminines, and neuters.

464. I. CONSONANT STEMS

1. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only

prînceps, m., chiefmîles, m., soldierlapis, m., stone
Bases or
Stems
prîncip-mîlit-lapid-
SingularTerminations
Nom.prîncepsmîleslapis-s
Gen.prîn´cipismîlitislapidis-is
Dat.prîn´cipîmîlitîlapidî
Acc.prîn´cipemmîlitemlapidem-em
Abl.prîn´cipemîlitelapide-e
Plural
Nom.prîn´cipêsmîlitêslapidês-ês
Gen.prîn´cipummîlitumlapidum-um
Dat.prînci´pibusmîlitibuslapidibus-ibus
Acc.prîn´cipêsmîlitêslapidês-ês
Abl.prînci´pibusmîlitibuslapidibus-ibus
 
rêx, m., kingiûdex, m., judgevirtûs, f., manliness
Bases or
Stems
rêg-iûdic-virtût-
Nom.rêxiûdexvirtûs-s
Gen.rêgisiûdicisvirtû´tis-is
Dat.rêgîiûdicîvirtû´tî
Acc.rêgemiûdicemvirtû´tem-em
Abl.rêgeiûdicevirtû´te-e
Plural
Nom.rêgêsiûdicêsvirtû´tês-ês
Gen.rêgumiûdicumvirtû´tum-um
Dat.rêgibusiûdicibusvirtû´tibus-ibus
Acc.rêgêsiûdicêsvirtû´tês-ês
Abl.rêgibusiûdicibusvirtû´tibus-ibus

Note. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 233. 3.

2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular

a. Masculines and Feminines

cônsul, m., consullegiô, f., legionôrdô, m., rowpater, m., father
Bases or
Stems
cônsul-legiôn-ôrdin-patr-
SingularTerminations
Nom.cônsullegiôôrdôpater
Gen.cônsulislegiônisôrdinispatris-is
Dat.cônsulîlegiônîôrdinîpatrî
Acc.cônsulemlegiônemôrdinempatrem-em
Abl.cônsulelegiôneôrdinepatre-e
Plural
Nom.cônsulêslegiônêsôrdinêspatrês-ês
Gen.cônsulumlegiônumôrdinumpatrum-um
Dat.cônsulibuslegiônibusôrdinibuspatribus-ibus
Acc.cônsulêslegiônêsôrdinêspatrês-ês
Abl.cônsulibuslegiônibusôrdinibuspatribus-ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 236. 1-3.

b. Neuters

flûmen, n., rivertempus, n., timeopus, n., workcaput, n., head
Bases or
Stems
flûmin-tempor-oper-capit-
SingularTerminations
Nom.flûmentempusopuscaput
Gen.flûministemporisoperiscapitis -is-is
Dat.flûminîtemperîoperîcapitî
Acc.flûmentempusopuscaput
Abl.flûminetemporeoperecapite-e
Plural
Nom.flûminatemporaoperacapita-a
Gen.flûminumtemporumoperumcapitum-um
Dat.flûminibustemporibusoperibuscapitibus-ibus
Acc.flûminatemporaoperacapita-a
Abl.flûminibustemporibusoperibuscapitibus-ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 238. 2, 3.

465. II. I-STEMS

a. Masculines and Feminines

caedês, f., slaughterhostis, m., enemyurbs, f., citycliêns, m., retainer
Stemscaedi-hosti-urbi-clienti-
Basescaed-host-urb-client-
SingularTerminations
Nom.caedêshostisurbscliêns-s, -is, or -ês
Gen.caedishostisurbisclientis-is
Dat.caedîhostîurbîclientî
Acc.caedemhostemurbemclientem-em (-im)
Abl.caedehosteurbecliente-e ()
Plural
Nom.caedêshostêsurbêsclientês-ês
Gen.caediumhostiumurbiumclientium-ium
Dat.caedibushostibusurbibusclientibus-ibus
Acc.caedîs, -êshostîs, -êsurbîs, -êsclientîs, -ês-îs, -ês
Abl.caedibushostibusurbibusclientibus-ibus

1. Avis, cîvis, fînis, ignis, nâvis, have the abl. sing. in or -e.

2. Turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrî or turre.

b. Neuters

însigne, n., decorationanimal, n., animalcalcar, n., spur
Stemsînsigni-animâli-calcâri-
Basesînsign-animâl-calcâr-
SingularTerminations
Nom.însigneanimalcalcar-e or
Gen.însignisanimâliscalcâris-is
Dat.însignîanimâlîcalcârî
Acc.însigneanimalcalcar-e or
Abl.însignîanimâlîcalcârî
Plural
Nom.însigniaanimâliacalcâria-ia
Gen.însigniumanimâliumcalcârium-ium
Dat.însignibusanimâlibuscalcâribus-ibus
Acc.însigniaanimâliacalcâria-ia
Abl.însignibusanimâlibuscalcâribus-ibus

466. THE FOURTH DECLENSION. U-STEMS

adventus, m., arrivalcornû, n., horn
Stemsadventu-cornu-
Basesadvent-corn-
SingularTerminations
MASC.NEUT.
Nom.adventuscornû-us
Gen.adventûscornûs-ûs-ûs
Dat.advent (û)cornû-uî (û)
Acc.adventumcornû-um
Abl.adventûcornû
Plural
Nom.adventûscornua-ûs-ua
Gen.adventuumcornuum-uum-uum
Dat.adventibuscornibus-ibus-ibus
Acc.adventûscornua-ûs-ua
Abl.adventibuscornibus-ibus-ibus

467. THE FIFTH DECLENSION. Ê-STEMS

diês, m., dayrês, f. thing
Stemsdiê-rê-
Basesdi-r-
SingularTerminations
Nom.diêsrês-ês
Gen.diêîr-êî or -eî
Dat.diêîr-êî or -eî
Acc.diemrem-em
Abl.diêrê
Plural
Nom.diêsrês-ês
Gen.diêrumrêrum-êrum
Dat.diêbusrêbus-êbus
Acc.diêsrês-ês
Abl.diêbusrêbus-êbus

468. SPECIAL PARADIGMS

deus, m., goddomus, f., housevîs, f., strengthiter, n., way
Stemsdeo-domu-vî- and vîri-iter- and itiner-
Basesde-dom-v- and vîr-iter- and itiner-
Singular
Nom.deusdomusvîsiter
Gen.deîdomûsvîs (rare)itineris
Dat.deôdomuî, -ôvî (rare)itinerî
Acc.deumdomumvimiter
Abl.deôdomô, -ûvîitinere
Plural
Nom.deî, dîdomûsvîrêsitinera
Gen.deôrum, deumdomuum, -ôrumvîriumitinerum
Dat.deîs, dîsdomibusvîribusitineribus
Acc.deôsdomôs, -ûsvîrîs, -êsitinera
Abl.deîs, dîsdomibusvîribusitineribus

a. The vocative singular of deus is like the nominative.

b. The locative of domus is domî.

ADJECTIVES

469. FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. O- AND Â-STEMS

a. Adjectives in -us

bonus, good   Stems bono- m. and n., bona- f.   Base bon-
Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.bonusbonabonum
Gen.bonîbonaebonî
Dat.bonôbonaebonô
Acc.bonumbonambonum
Abl.bonôbonâbonô
Plural
Nom.bonîbonaebona
Gen.bonôrumbonârumbonôrum
Dat.bonîsbonîsbonîs
Acc.bonôsbonâsbona
Abl.bonîsbonîsbonîs

b. Adjectives in -er

lîber, free   Stems lîbero- m. and n., lîberâ- f.   Base lîber-
Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.lîberlîberalîberum
Gen.lîberîlîberaelîberî
Dat.lîberôlîberaelîberô
Acc.lîberumlîberamlîberum
Abl.lîberôlîberâlîberô
Plural
Nom.lîberîlîberaelîbera
Gen.lîberôrumlîberârumlîberôrum
Dat.lîberîslîberîslîberîs
Acc.lîberôslîberâslîbera
Abl.lîberîslîberîslîberîs
pulcher, pretty   Stems pulchro- m. and n., pulchrâ- f.   Base pulchr-
Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.pulcherpulchrapulchrum
Gen.pulchrîpulchraepulchrî
Dat.pulchrôpulchraepulchrô
Acc.pulchrumpulchrampulchrum
Abl.pulchrôpulchrâpulchrô
Plural
Nom.pulchrîpulchraepulchra
Gen.pulchrôrumpulchrârumpulchrôrum
Dat.pulchrîspulchrîspulchrîs
Acc.pulchrôspulchrâspulchra
Abl.pulchrîspulchrîspulchrîs

470. THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

alius, another   Stems alio- m. and n., aliâ- f.   Base ali-
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.aliusaliaaliudaliîaliaealia
Gen.alîusalîusalîusaliôrumaliârumaliôrum
Dat.aliîaliîaliîaliîsaliîsaliîs
Acc.aliumaliamaliudaliôsaliâsalia
Abl.aliôaliâaliôaliîsaliîsaliîs
 
ûnus, one, only   Stems ûno- m. and n., ûnâ- f.   Base ûn-
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.ûnusûnaûnumûnîûnaeûna
Gen.ûnîusûnîusûnîusûnôrumûnârumûnôrum
Dat.ûnîûnîûnîûnîsûnîsûnîs
Acc.ûnumûnamûnumûnôsûnâsûna
Abl.ûnôûnâûnôûnîsûnîsûnîs

a. For the complete list see § 108.

471. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. I-STEMS

I. THREE ENDINGS

âcer, âcris, âcre, keen, eager Stem âcri-   Base âcr-
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.âcerâcrisâcreâcrêsâcrêsâcria
Gen.âcrisâcrisâcrisâcriumâcriumâcrium
Dat.âcrîâcrîâcrîâcribusâcribusâcribus
Acc.âcremâcremâcreâcrîs, -êsâcrîs, -êsâcria
Abl.âcrîâcrîâcrîâcribusâcribusâcribus

II. TWO ENDINGS

omnis, omne, every, all Stem omni-   Base omn-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.omnisomneomnêsomnia
Gen.omnisomnisomniumomnium
Dat.omnîomnîomnibusomnibus
Acc.omnemomneomnîs, -êsomnia
Abl.omnîomnîomnibusomnibus

III. ONE ENDING

pâr, equal   Stem pari-   Base par-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.pârpârparêsparia
Gen.parisparispariumparium
Dat.parîparîparibusparibus
Acc.parempârparîs, -êsparia
Abl.parîparîparibusparibus

1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular.

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472. PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

amâns, loving   Stem amanti-   Base amant-
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.amânsamânsamantêsamantia
Gen.amantisamantisamantiumamantium
Dat.amantîamantîamantibusamantibus
Acc.amantemamânsamantîs, -êsamantia
Abl.amante, -îamante, -îamantibusamantibus
 
iêns, going   Stem ienti-, eunti-   Base ient-, eunt-
Nom.iênsiênseuntêseuntia
Gen.euntiseuntiseuntiumeuntium
Dat.euntîeuntîeuntibuseuntibus
Acc.euntemiênseuntîs, -êseuntia
Abl.eunte, -îeunte, -îeuntibuseuntibus

473. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
MASC.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
altus (alto-)altioraltiusaltissimus-a-um
lîber (lîbero-)lîberiorlîberiuslîberrimus-a-um
pulcher (pulchro-)pulchriorpulchriuspulcherrimus-a-um
audâx (audâci-)audâcioraudâciusaudâcissimus-a-um
brevis (brevi-)breviorbreviusbrevissimus-a-um
âcer (âcri-)âcriorâcriusâcerrimus-a-um

474. DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

altior, higher
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.altioraltiusaltiôrêsaltiôra
Gen.altiôrisaltiôrisaltiôrumaltiôrum
Dat.altiôrîaltiôrîaltiôribusaltiôribus
Acc.altiôremaltiusaltiôrêsaltiôra
Abl.altiôrealtiôrealtiôribusaltiôribus
plûs, more
Nom.——plûsplûrêsplûra
Gen.——plûrisplûriumplûrium
Dat.————plûribusplûribus
Acc.——plûsplûrîs (-ês)plûra
Abl.——plûreplûribusplûribus

475. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
bonus, -a, -um, goodmelior, melius, betteroptimus, -a, -um, best
malus, -a, -um, badpeior, peius, worsepessimus, -a, -um, worst
magnus, -a, -um, greatmaior, maius, greatermaximus, -a, -um, greatest
multus, -a, -um, much——, plûs, moreplûrimus, -a, -um, most
parvus, -a, -um, smallminor, minus, smallerminimus, -a, -um, smallest
senex, senis, oldseniormaximus nâtû
iuvenis, -e, youngiûniorminimus nâtû
vetus, veteris, oldvetustior, -iusveterrimus, -a, -um
facilis, -e, easyfacilior, -iusfacillimus, -a, -um
difficilis, -e, difficultdifficilior, -iusdifficillimus, -a, -um
similis, -e, similarsimilior, -iussimillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, -e, dissimilardissimilior, -iusdissimillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e, lowhumilior, -iushumillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e, slendergracilior, -iusgracillimus, -a, -um
exterus, outwardexterior, outer, exteriorextrêmus
extimus
outermost, last
înferus, belowînferior, lowerînfimus
îmus
lowest
posterus, followingposterior, laterpostrêmus
postumus
last
superus, abovesuperior, highersuprêmus
summus
highest
[cis, citrâ, on this side]citerior, hithercitimus, hithermost
[in, intrâ, in, within]interior, innerintimus, inmost
[prae, prô, before]prior, formerprîmus, first
[prope, near]propior, nearerproximus, next
[ultrâ, beyond]ulterior, furtherultimus, furthest

476. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
cârê (cârus), dearlycâriuscârissimê
miserê (miser), wretchedlymiseriusmiserrimê
âcriter (âcer), sharplyâcriusâcerrimê
facile (facilis), easilyfaciliusfacillimê

477. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
diû, long, a long timediûtiusdiûtissimê
bene (bonus), wellmelius, betteroptimê, best
male (malus), illpeius, worsepessimê, worst
magnopere, greatlymagis, moremaximê, most
multum (multus), muchplûs, moreplûrimum, most
parum, littleminus, lessminimê, least
saepe, oftensaepîussaepissimê

478. NUMERALS

The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting ûnus, duo, três, the hundreds above one hundred, and mîlle used as a noun. The ordinals are declined like bonus, -a, -um.

CardinalsOrdinals
(How many) (In what order)
1,ûnus, -a, -um,oneprîmus, -a, -umfirst
2,duo, duae, duotwosecundus (or alter)second
3,três, triathree,tertiusthird,
4,quattuoretc.quârtusetc.
5,quînquequîntus
6,sexsextus
7,septemseptimus
8,octôoctâvus
9,novemnônus
10,decemdecimus
11,ûndecimûndecimus
12,duodecimduodecimus
13,tredecim (decem (et) três)tertius decimus
14,quattuordecimquârtus decimus
15, quîndecimquîntus decimus
16,sêdecimsextus decimus
17,septendecimseptimus decimus
18,duodêvîgintî (octôdecim)duodêvîcênsimus
19,ûndêvîgintî (novendecim)ûndêvîcênsimus
20,vîgintîvîcênsimus
21,vîgintî ûnus or
ûnus et vîgintî, etc.
vîcênsimus prîmus or
ûnus et vîcênsimus, etc.
30,trîgintâtrîcênsimus
40,quadrâgintâquadrâgênsimus
50,quînquâgintâquînquâgênsimus
60,sexâgintâsexâgênsimus
70,septuâgintâseptuâgênsimus
80,octôgintâoctôgênsimus
90,nônâgintânônâgênsimus
100,centumcentum
101,centum (et) ûnus, etc.centum (et) ûnus, etc.
120,centum (et) vîgintîcentum (et) vîgintî
121,centum (et) vîgintî ûnus, etc.centum (et) vîgintî ûnus, etc.
200,ducentî, -ae, -aducentî, -ae, -a
300,trecentîtrecentî
400,quadringentîquadringentî
500,quîngentîquîngentî
600,sescentîsescentî
700,septingentîseptingentî
800,octingentîoctingentî
900,nôngentînôngentî
1000,mîllemîlle

479. Declension of duo, two, três, three, and mîlle, a thousand.

Masc.Fem.Neut.M. and F.Neut.Sing.Plur.
N.duoduaeduotrêstrîamîllemîlia
G.duôrumduârumduôrumtriumtriummîllemîlium
D.duôbusduâbusduôbustribustribusmîllemîlibus
A.duôs or duoduâsduotrîs or trêstriamîllemîlia
A.duôbusduâbusduôbustribustribusmîllemîlibus

Note. Mîlle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the declension of ûnus cf. § 470.

PRONOUNS

480. PERSONAL

ego, I, yousuî, of himself, etc.
Sing.Plur.Sing.Plur.Sing.Plur.
Nom.egonôsvôs————
Gen.meînostrum, -trîtuîvestrum, -trîsuîsuî
Dat.mihinôbîstibivôbîssibisibi
Acc.nôsvôssê, sêsêsê, sêsê
Abl.nôbîsvôbîssê, sêsêsê, sêsê

Note that suî is always reflexive.

481. DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the pronominal endings -îus or -ius and in the gen. and dat. sing.

ipse, self
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.ipseipsaipsumipsîipsaeipsa
Gen.ipsî´usipsî´usipsî´usipsôrumipsârumipsôrum
Dat.ipsîipsîipsîipsîsipsîsipsîs
Acc.ipsumipsamipsumipsôsipsâsipsa
Abl.ipsôipsâipsôipsîsipsîsipsîs
 
hic, this (here), he
Nom.hichaechochaehaec
Gen.huiushuiushuiushôrumhârumhôrum
Dat.huichuichuichîshîshîs
Acc.hunchanchochôshâshaec
Abl.hôchâchôchîshîshîs
 
iste, this, that (of yours), he
Nom.isteistaistudistîistaeista
Gen.istî´usistî´usistî´usistôrumistârumistôrum
Dat.istîistîistîistîsistîsistîs
Acc.istumistamistudistôsistâsista
Abl.istôistâistôistîsistîsistîs
ille, that (yonder), he
Nom.illeillailludillîillaeilla
Gen.illî´usillî´usillî´usillôrumillârumillôrum
Dat.illîillîillîillîsillîsillîs
Acc.illumillamilludillôsillâsilla
Abl.illôillâillôillîsillîsillîs
 
is, this, that, he
Nom.iseaidiî, eîeaeea
Gen.eiuseiuseiuseôrumeârumeôrum
Dat.iîs, eîsiîs, eîsiîs, eîs
Acc.eumeamideôseâsea
Abl.iîs, eîsiîs, eîsiîs, eîs
 
îdem, the same
Nom.îdeme´ademidemiî´dem
eî´dem
eae´deme´adem
Gen.eius´demeius´demeius´demeôrun´demeârun´demeôrun´dem
Dat.eî´demeî´demeî´demiîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem
Acc.eun´demean´demidemeôs´demeâs´deme´adem
Abl.eô´demeâ´demeô´demiîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem
iîs´dem
eîs´dem

Note. In the plural of is and îdem the forms with two i's are preferred, the two i's being pronounced as one.

482. RELATIVE

quî, who, which, that
SingularPlural
MASC.FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quîquaequodquîquaequae
Gen.cuiuscuiuscuiusquôrumquârumquôrum
Dat.cuicuicuiquibusquibusquibus
Acc.quemquamquodquôsquâsquae
Abl.quôquâquôquibusquibusquibus

483. INTERROGATIVE

quis, substantive, who, what
SingularPlural
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quisquidquiquaequae
Gen.cuiuscuiusquôrumquârumquôrum
Dat.cuicuiquibusquibusquibus
Acc.quemquidquôsquâsquae
Abl.quôquôquibusquibusquibus

The interrogative adjective quî, quae, quod, is declined like the relative.

484. INDEFINITES

quis and quî, as declined above,1 are used also as indefinites (some, any). The other indefinites are compounds of quis and quî.

quisque, each
SubstantiveAdjective
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quisquequidquequisquequaequequodque
Gen.cuius´quecuius´quecuius´quecuius´quecuius´que
Dat.cuiquecuiquecuiquecuiquecuique
Acc.quemquequidquequemquequamquequodque
Abl.quôquequôquequôquequâquequôque
1. qua is generally used instead of quae in the feminine nominative singular and in the neuter nominative and accusative plural.

485. quîdam, a certain one, a certain

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has quoddam and the substantive quiddam.

Singular
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quîdamquaedamquoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Gen.cuius´damcuius´damcuius´dam
Dat.cuidamcuidamcuidam
Acc.quendamquandamquoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Abl.quôdamquâdamquôdam
Plural
Nom.quîdamquaedamquaedam
Gen.quôrun´damquârun´damquôrun´dam
Dat.quibus´damquibus´damquibus´dam
Acc.quôsdamquâsdamquaedam
Abl.quibus´damquibus´damquibus´dam

486. quisquam, substantive, any one (at all)

MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.
Nom.quisquamquicquam (quidquam)
Gen.cuius´quamcuius´quam
Dat.cuiquamcuiquam
Acc.quemquamquicquam (quidquam)
Abl.quôquamquôquam

487. aliquis, substantive, some one.   aliquî, adjective, some

Singular
SubstantiveAdjective
MASC. AND FEM.NEUT.MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.aliquisaliquidaliquîaliquaaliquod
Gen.alicu´iusalicu´iusalicu´iusalicu´iusalicu´ius
Dat.alicuialicuialicuialicuialicui
Acc.aliquemaliquidaliquemaliquamaliquod
Abl.aliquôaliquôaliquôaliquâaliquô
Plural for both Substantive and Adjective
MASC.FEM.NEUT.
Nom.aliquîaliquaealiqua
Gen.aliquô´rumaliquâ´rumaliquô´rum
Dat.ali´quibusali´quibusali´quibus
Acc.aliquôsaliquâsaliqua
Abl.ali´quibusali´quibusali´quibus

a. quis (quî), any one, any, is the least definite (§ 297. b). aliquis (aliquî), some one, some, is more definite than quis. quisquam, any one (at all), and its adjective ûllus, any, occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses of comparison.

REGULAR VERBS

488. FIRST CONJUGATION. Â-VERBS. AMÔ

Principal Parts amô, amâre, amâvî, amâtus
Pres. Stem amâ-   Perf. Stem amâv-   Part. Stem amât-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I love, am loving, do love, etc.I am loved, etc.
amôamâmusamoramâmur
amâsamâtisamâris, -reamâminî
amatamantamâturamantur
IMPERFECT
I loved, was loving, did love, etc.I was loved, etc.
amâbamamâbâmusamâbaramâbâmur
amâbâsamâbâtisamâbâris, -reamâbâminî
amâbatamâbantamâbâturamâbantur
FUTURE
I shall love, etc.I shall be loved, etc.
amâamâbimusamâboramâbimur
amâbisamâbitisamâberis, -reamâbiminî
amâbitamâbuntamâbituramâbuntur
PERFECT
I have loved, loved, did love, etc.I have been (was) loved, etc.
amâviamâvimusamâtus, -a, -umsumamâtî, -ae, -asumus
amâvistîamâvistisesestis
amâvitamâvêrunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had loved, etc.I had been loved, etc.
amâveramamâverâmusamâtus, -a, -umeramamâtî, -ae, -aerâmus
amâverâsamâverâtiserâserâtis
amâveratamâveranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have loved, etc.I shall have been loved, etc.
amâverôamâverimusamâtus, -a, -umerôamâtî, -ae, -aerimus
amâverisamâveritiseriseritis
amâveritamâverinteriterunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
amemamêmusameramêmur
amêsamêtisamêris, -reamêminî
ametamentamêturamentur
IMPERFECT
amâremamâremusamâreramârêmur
amârêsamârêtisamârêris, -reamârêminî
amâretamârentamârêturamârentur
PERFECT
amâverimamâverimusamâtus, -a, -umsimamâtî, -ae, -asîmus
amâverisamâveritissîssîtis
amâveritamâverintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
amâvissemamâvissêmusamâtus, -a, -umessemamâtî, -ae, -aessêmus
amâvissêsamâvissêtisessêsessêtis
amâvissetamâvissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
amâ, love thouamâre, be thou loved
amâte, love yeamâminî, be ye loved
FUTURE
amâ, thou shalt loveamâtor, thou shalt be loved
amâ, he shall loveamâtor, he shall be loved
amâtôte, you shall love——
amantô, they shall loveamantor, they shall be loved
INFINITIVE
Pres. amâre, to loveamâ, to be loved
Perf. amâvisse, to have lovedamâtus, -a, -um esse, to have been loved
Fut. amâtûrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to love[amâtum îrî], to be about to be loved
PARTICIPLES
Pres. amâns, -antis, lovingPres. ——
Fut. amâtûrus, -a, -um, about to loveGerundive1 amandus, -a, -um, to be loved
Perf. ——Perf. amâtus, -a, -um, having been loved, loved
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. amandî, of loving Acc. [amâtum], to love
Dat. amandô, for loving Abl. [amâ], to love, in the loving
Acc. amandum, loving
Abl. amandô, by loving
1. Sometimes called the future passive participle.

489. SECOND CONJUGATION. Ê-VERBS. MONEÔ

Principal Parts moneô, monêre, monuî, monitus
Pres. Stem monê-   Perf. Stem monu-   Part. Stem monit-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I advise, etc.,I am advised, etc.
moneômonêmusmoneormonêmur
monêsmonêtismonêris, -remonêminî
monetmonentmonêturmonentur
IMPERFECT
I was advising, etc.,I was advised, etc.
monêbammonêbâmusmonêbarmonêbâmur
monêbâsmonêbâtismonêbâris, -remonêbâminî
monêbatmonêbantmonêbâturmonêbântur
FUTURE
I shall advise, etc.,I shall be advised, etc.
monêmonêbimusmonêbormonêbimur
monêbismonêbitismonêberis, -remonêbiminî
monêbitmonêbuntmonêbiturmonêbuntur
PERFECT
I have advised, I advised, etc.I have been (was) advised, etc.
monuîmonuimusmonitus, -a, -umsummonitî, -ae, -asumus
monuistîmonuistisesestis
monuitmonuêrunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had advised, etc.,I had been advised, etc.
monuerammonuerâmusmonitus, -a, -umerammonitî, -ae, -aerâmus
monuerâsmonuerâtiseraseratis
monueratmonueranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have advised, etc.I shall have been advised, etc.
monuerômonuerimusmonitus, -a, -umerômonitî, -ae, -aerimus
monuerismonuerîtiseriseritis
monueritmonuerînteriterunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
moneammoneâmusmonearmoneâmur
moneâsmoneâtismoneâris, -remoneâminî
moneatmoneantmoneâturmoneantur
IMPERFECT
monêremmonêrêmusmonêrermonêrêmur
monêrêsmonêrêtismonêrêris, -remonêrêminî
monêretmonêrentmonêrêturmonêrentur
PERFECT
monuerimmonuerimusmonitus, -a, -umsimmonitî, -ae, -asîmus
monuerismonueritissîssîtis
monueritmonuerintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
monuissemmonuissêmusmonitus, -a, -umessemmonitî, -ae, -aessêmus
monuissêsmonuissêtisessêsessêtis
monuissetmonuissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
monê, advise thoumonêre, be thou advised
monête, advise yemonêminî, be ye advised
FUTURE
monê, thou shall advisemonêtor, thou shalt be advised
monê, he shall advisemonêtor, he shall be advised
monêtôte, you shall advise——
monentô, they shall advisemonentor, they shall be advised
INFINITIVE
Pres. monêre, to advisemonê, to be advised
Perf. monuisse, to have advisedmonitus, -a, -um esse, to have been advised
Fut. monitûrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to advise[monitum îrî], to be about to be advised
PARTICIPLES
Pres. monêns, -entis, advisingPres. ——
Fut. monitûrus, -a, -um, about to adviseGer. monendus, -a, -um, to be advised
Perf. ——Perf. monitus, -a, -um, having been advised, advised
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. monendî, of advisingAcc. [monitum], to advise
Dat. monendô, for advisingAbl. [monitû], to advise, in the advising
Acc. monendum, advising
Abl. monendô, by advising

490. THIRD CONJUGATION. E-VERBS. REGÔ

Principal Parts regô, regere, rexî, rêctus
Pres. Stem rege-   Perf. Stem rêx-   Part. Stem rêct-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I rule, etc.I am ruled, etc.
regôregimusre´gorre´gimur
regisregitisre´geris, -reregi´minî
regitreguntre´giturregun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was ruling, etc.I was ruled, etc.
regêbamregêbâmusregê´barregêbâ´mur
regêbâsregêbâtisregêbâ´ris, -reregêbâ´minî
regêbatregêbantregêbâ´turregêban´tur
FUTURE
I shall rule, etc.I shall be ruled, etc.
regamregêmusre´garregê´mur
regêsregêtisregê´ris, -reregê´minî
regetregentregê´turregen´tur
PERFECT
I have ruled, etc.I have been ruled, etc.
rêxîrêximusrêctus, -a, -umsumrêctî, -ae, -asumus
rêxistîrêxistisesestis
rêxitrêxêrunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had ruled, etc.I had been ruled, etc.
rêxeramrêxerâmusrêctus, -a, -umeramrêctî, -ae, -aerâmus
rêxerâsrêxerâtiserâserâtis
rêxeratrêxeranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have ruled, etc.I shall have been ruled, etc.
rêxerôrêxerimusrêctus, -a, -umerôrêctî, -ae, -aerimus
rêxerisrêxeritiseriseritis
rêxeritrêxerinteriterunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
regamregâmusregarregâmur
regâsregâtisregâris, -reregâminî
regatregantregâturregantur
IMPERFECT
regeremregerêmusregererregerêmur
regerêsregerêtisregerêris, -reregerêminî
regeretregerentregerêturregerentur
PERFECT
rêxerimrêxerimusrêctus, -a, -umsimrêctî, -ae, -asîmus
rêxerisrêxeritissîssîtis
rêxeritrêxerintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
rêxissemrêxissêmusrêctus, -a, -umessemrêctî, -ae, -aessêmus
rêxissêsrêxissêtisessêsessêtis
rêxissetrêxissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
rege, rule thouregere, be thou ruled
regite, rule yeregiminî, be ye ruled
FUTURE
regitô, thou shalt ruleregitor, thou shalt be ruled
regitô he shall ruleregitor, he shall be ruled
regitôte, ye shall rule——
reguntô, they shall rulereguntor, they shall be ruled
INFINITIVE
Pres. regere, to ruleregî, to be ruled
Perf. rêxisse, to have ruledrêctus, -a, -um esse, to have been ruled
Fut.rêctûrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to rule[rêctum îrî], to be about to be ruled
PARTICIPLES
Pres. regêns, -entis, rulingPres. ——
Fut. rêctûrus, -a, -um, about to ruleGer. regendus, -a, -um, to be ruled
Perf. ——Perf. rêctus, -a, -um, having been ruled, ruled
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. regendî, of rulingAcc [rêctum], to rule
Dat. regendô, for rulingAbl. [rêctû], to rule, in the ruling
Acc. regendum, ruling
Abl. regendô, by ruling

491. FOURTH CONJUGATION. Î-VERBS. AUDIÔ

Principal Parts audiô, audîre, audîvî, audîtus
Pres. Stem audî-   Perf. Stem audîv-   Part. Stem audît-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I hear, etc.I am heard, etc.
audiôaudîmusau´dioraudî´mur
audîsaudîtisaudî´ris, -reaudî´minî
auditaudiuntaudî´turaudiun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was hearing, etc.I was heard, etc.
audiêbamaudiêbâmusaudiê´baraudiêbâ´mur
audiêbâsaudiêbâtisaudiêbâ´ris, -reaudiêbâ´minî
audiêbataudiêbantaudiêbâ´turaudiêban´tur
FUTURE
I shall hear, etc.I shall be heard, etc.
audiamaudiêmusau´diaraudiê´mur
audiêsaudiêtisaudiê´ris, -reaudiê´minî
audietaudientaudiê´turaudien´tur
PERFECT
I have heard, etc.I have been heard, etc.
audîvîaudîvimusaudîtus, -a, -umsumaudîtî, -ae, -asumus
audîvistîaudîvistisesestis
audîvitaudîvêrunt, -reestsunt
PLUPERFECT
I had heard, etc.I had been heard, etc.
audîveramaudîverâmusaudîtus, -a, -umeramaudîtî, -ae, -aerâmus
audîverâsaudîverâtiserâserâtis
audîverataudîveranteraterant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have heard, etc.I shall have been heard, etc.
audîverôaudîverimusaudîtus, -a, -umerôaudîtî, -ae, -aerimus
audîverisaudîveritiseriseritis
audîveritaudîverinteriterunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
audiamaudiâmusaudiaraudiâmur
audiâsaudiâtisaudiâris, -reaudiâminî
audiataudiantaudiâturaudiantur
IMPERFECT
audîremaudîrêmusaudîreraudîrêmur
audîrêsaudîrêtisaudîrêris, -reaudîrêminî
audîretaudîrentaudîrêturaudîrentur
PERFECT
audîverimaudiverimusaudîtus, -a, -umsimaudîtî, -ae, -asîmus
audîverisaudiveritissîssîtis
audîveritaudîverintsitsint
PLUPERFECT
audîvissemaudîvissêmusaudîtus, -a, -umessemaudîtî, -ae, -aessêmus
audîvissêsaudîvissêtisessêsessêtis
audîvissetaudîvissentessetessent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
audî, hear thouaudîre, be thou heard
audîte, hear yeaudîminî, be ye heard
FUTURE
audî, thou shalt hearaudîtor, thou shalt be heard
audî, he shall hearaudîtor, he shall be heard
audîtôte, ye shall hear——
audiuntô, they shall hearaudiuntor, they shall be heard
INFINITIVE
Pres. audîre, to hearaudî, to be heard
audîvisse, to have heardaudîtus, -a, -um esse, to have been heard
audîtûrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to hear[audîtum îrî, to be about to be heard
PARTICIPLES
Pres. audiêns, -entis, hearingPres. ——
Fut. audîtûrus, -a, -um, about to hearGer. audiendus, -a, -um to be heard
Perf. ——Perf. audîtus, -a, -um, having been heard, heard
GERUND
Nom. ——SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. audiendî, of hearingAcc. [audîtum], to hear
Dat. audiendô, for hearingAbl. [audîtu], to hear, in the hearing
Acc. audiendum, hearing
Abl. audiendô, by hearing

492. THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN -IÔ. CAPIÔ

Principal Parts capiô, capere, cêpî, captus
Pres. Stem cape-   Perf. Stem cêp-   Part. Stem capt-  
ACTIVEPASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
capiôcapimusca´piorca´pimur
capiscapitisca´peris, -recapi´minî
capitcapiuntca´piturcapiun´tur
IMPERFECT
capiêbamcapiebamuscapiê´barcapiêbâ´mur
capiêbascapiêbâtiscapiêba´ris, -recapiêbâ´minî
capiêbatcapiêbantcapiêbâ´turcapieban´tur
FUTURE
capiamcapiêmusca´piarcapiê´mur
capiêscapiêtiscapiê´ris, -recapiê´minî
capietcapientcapiê´turcapien´tur
PERFECT
cêpî, cêpistî, cêpit, etc.captus, -a, -um sum, es, est, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cêperam, cêperâs, cêperat, etc.captus, -a, -um eram, erâs, erat, etc.
FUTURE PERFECT
cêperô, cêperis, cêperit, etc.captus, -a, -um erô, eris, erit, etc.
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
capiam, capiâs, capiat, etc.capiar, -iâris, -re, -iâtur, etc.
IMPERFECT
caperem, caperês, caperet, etc.caperer, -erêris, -re, -erêtur, etc.
PERFECT
cêperim, cêperis, cêperit, etc.captus, -a, -um sim, sîs, sit, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cêpissem, cêpissês, cêpisset, etc.captus,-a, -um essem, essês, esset, etc.
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
2d Pers. capecapitecaperecapiminî
FUTURE
2d Pers. capicapitôtecapitor——
3rd Pers. capicapiuntôcapitorcapiuntor
INFINITIVE
Pres. caperecapî
Perf. cêpissecaptus, -a, -um esse
Fut. captûrus, -a, -um esse[captum îrî]
PARTICIPLES
Pres. capiêns, -ientisPres. ——
Fut. captûrus, -a, -umGer. capiendus, -a, -um
Perf. ——Perf. captus, -a, -um
GERUNDSUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. capiendîAcc. [captum]
etc.Abl. [captû]

493. DEPONENT VERBS

Principal PartsI.hortor, hortârî, hortâtus sum, urge
II.vereor, verêrî, veritus sum, fear
III.sequor, sequî, secûtus sum, follow
IV.partior, partîrî, partîtus sum, share, divide

Note. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -iô verbs of the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capiô.

Indicative
Pres.hortorvereorsequorpartior
hortâris, -reverêris, -resequeris, -repartîris, -re
hortâturverêtursequiturpartîtur
hortâmurverêmursequimurpartîmur
hortâminîverêminîsequiminîpartîminî
hortanturverentursequunturpartiuntur
Impf.hortâbarverêbarsequêbarpartiêbar
Fut.hortâborverêborsequarpartiar
Perf.hortâtus sumveritus sumsecûtus sumpartîtus sum
Plup.hortâtus eramveritus eramsecûtus erampartîtus eram
F. P.hortâtus erôveritus erôsecûtus erôpartîtus erô
Subjunctive
Pres.horterverearsequarpartiar
Impf.hortârerverêrersequererpartîrer
Perf.hortâtus simveritus simsecûtus simpartîtus sim
Plup.hortâtus essemveritus essemsecûtus essempartîtus essem
Imperative
Pres.hortâreverêresequerepartîre
Fut.hortâtorverêtorsequitorpartîtor
Infinitive
Pres.hortârîverêrîsequîpartîrî
Perf.hortâtus esseveritus essesecûtus essepartîtus esse
Fut.*hortâtûrus esse*veritûrus esse*secûtûrus esse*partîtûrus esse
Participles
Pres.*hortâns*verêns*sequêns*partiêns
Fut.*hortâturus*veritûrus*secûtûrus*partîtûrus
Perf.hortâtusveritussecûtuspartîtus
Ger.hortandusverendussequenduspartiendus
Gerund
*hortandî, etc.*verendî, etc.*sequendî, etc.*partiendî, etc.
Supine
*[hortâtus, -tû]*[veritum, -tû]*[secûtum, -tû]*[partîtum, -tû]

IRREGULAR VERBS

494. sum, am, be

Principal Parts sum, esse, fuî, futûrus
Pres. Stem es-   Perf. Stem fu-   Part. Stem fut-  
Indicative
Present
SINGULARPLURAL
sum, I amsumus, we are
es, thou artestis, you are
est, he (she, it) issunt, they are
Imperfect
eram, I waserâmus, we were
erâs, thou wasterâtis, you were
erat, he waserant, they were
Future
erô, I shall beerimus, we shall be
eris, thou wilt beeritis, you will be
erit, he will beerunt, they will be
Perfect
fuî, I have been, wasfuimus, we have been, were
fuistî, thou hast been, wastfuistis, you have been, were
fuit, he has been, wasfuêrunt, fuêre, they have been, were
Pluperfect
fueram, I had beenfuerâmus, we had been
fuerâs, thou hadst beenfuerâtis, you had been
fuerat, he had beenfuerant, they had been
Future Perfect
fuerô, I shall have beenfuerimus, we shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have beenfueritis, you will have been
fuerit, he will have beenfuerint, they will have been
Subjunctive
PresentImperfect
SINGULARPLURALSINGULARPLURAL
simsîmusessemessêmus
sîssîtisessêsessêtis
sitsintessetessent
PerfectPluperfect
fuerimfuerimusfuissemfuissêmus
fuerisfueritisfuissêsfuissêtis
fueritfuerintfuissetfuissent
Imperative
PRESENTFUTURE
2d Pers. Sing. es, be thou2d Pers. Sing. es, thou shalt be
2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye3d Pers. Sing. es, he shall be
2d Pers. Plur. estôte, ye shall be
3d Pers. Plur. suntô, they shall be
InfinitiveParticiple
Pres. esse, to be
Perf. fuisse, to have been
Fut. futûrus, -a, -um esse or fore,
to be about to be
futûrus, -a, -um, about to be

495. possum, be able, can

Principal Parts possum, posse, potuî, ——
IndicativeSubjunctive
SINGULARPLURALSINGULARPLURAL
Pres.possumpos´sumuspossimpossî´mus
potespotes´tispossîspossî´tis
potestpossuntpossitpossint
Impf.poterampoterâmuspossempossê´mus
Fut.poterôpoterimus————
Perf.potuîpotuimuspotuerimpotuerimus
Plup.potuerampotuerâmuspotuissempotuissêmus
F. P.potuerôpotuerimus————
Infinitive
Pres. possePerf. potuisse
Participle
Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful

496. prôsum, benefit

Principal Parts prôsum, prôdesse, prôfuî, prôfutûrus
Pres. Stem prôdes-   Perf. Stem prôfu-   Part. Stem prôfut-  
IndicativeSubjunctive
SINGULARPLURALSINGULARPLURAL
Pres.prôsumprô´sumusprôsimprôsî´mus
prôdesprôdes´tisprôsîsprôsî´tis
prôdestprôsuntprôsitprôsint
Impf.prôderamprôderâmusprôdessemprodessê´mus
Fut.prôderôprôderimus————
Perf.prôfuîprôfuimusprôfuerimprôfuerimus
Plup.prôfueramprôfuerâmusprôfuissemprôfuissêmus
F. P.prôfuerôprôfuerimus————
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. prôdes, prôdesteFut. 2d Pers. prôdestô, prôdestôte
Infinitive
Pres. prôdessePerf. prôfuisseFut. prôfutûrus, -a, -um esse
Future Participle prôfutûrus, -a, -um

497.

Principal
Parts
volô, velle, voluî, ——, be willing, will, wish
nôlô, nôlle, nôluî, ——, be unwilling, will not
mâlô, mâlle, mâluî, ——, be more willing, prefer

Nôlô and mâlô are compounds of volô. Nôlô is for ne (not) + volô, and mâlô for (from magis, more) + volô. The second person vîs is from a different root.

Indicative
SINGULAR
Pres.volônôlômâlô
vîsnôn vismâvîs
vultnôn vultmâvult
PLURAL
volumusnôlumusmâlumus
vultisnôn vultismâvul´tis
voluntnôluntmâlunt
Impf.volêbamnôlêbammâlêbam
Fut.volam, volês, etc.nôlam, nôlês, etc.mâlam, mâlês, etc.
Perf.voluînôluîmâluî
Plup.volueramnôluerammâlueram
F. P.voluerônôluerômâluerô
Subjunctive
SINGULAR
Pres.velimnôlimmâlim
velîsnôlîsmâlîs
velitnôlitmâlit
PLURAL
velî´musnôlî´musmâlî´mus
velî´tisnôlî´tismâlî´tis
velintnôlintmâlint
Impf.vellemnôllemmâllem
Perf.voluerimnôluerimmâluerim
Plup.voluissemnôluissemmâluissem
Imperative
Pres.——nôlî
nôlîte
——
Fut.——nôlîtô, etc.——
Infinitive
Pres.vellenôllemâlle
Perf.voluissenôluissemâluisse
Participle
Pres.volêns, -entisnôlêns, -entis——

498. ferô, bear, carry, endure

Principal Parts ferô, ferre, tulî, lâtus
Pres. Stem fer-   Perf. Stem tul-   Part. Stem lât-  
Indicative
ACTIVEPASSIVE
Pres.ferôferimusferorferimur
fersfertîsferris, -referimimî
fertferuntferturferuntur
Impf.ferêbamferêbar
Fut.feram, ferês, etc.ferar, ferêris, etc.
Perf.tulîlâtus, -a, -um sum
Plup.tuleramlâtus, -a, -um eram
F. P.tulerôlâtus, -a, -um erô
Subjunctive
Pres.feram, ferâs, etc.ferar, ferâris, etc.
Impf.ferremferrer
Perf.tulerimlâtus, -a, -um sim
Plup.tulissemlâtus, -a, -um essem
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. ferferteferreferiminî
Fut. 2d Pers. fertôfertôtefertor
3d Pers. fertôferuntofertorferuntor
Infinitive
Pres.ferreferrî
Perf.tulisselâtus, -a, -um esse
Fut.lâtûrus, -a, -um esse——
Participles
Pres.ferêns, -entisPres. ——
Fut.lâtûrus, -a, -umGer. ferendus, -a, -um
Perf.——Perf. lâtus, -a, -um
GerundSupine (Active Voice)
Gen. ferendîAcc. ferendumAcc. [lâtum]
Dat. ferendôAbl. ferendôAbl. [lâtû]

499. , go

Principal Parts eô, îre, iî (îvî), itum (n. perf. part.)
Pres. Stem î-   Perf. Stem î- or îv-   Part. Stem it-
IndicativeSubjunctiveImperative
SING.PLUR.
Pres.
îs
it
îmus
îtis
eunt
eam2d Pers. îîte
Impf.îbamîrem
Fut.îbô——2d Pers. îtô
3d Pers. îtô
îtôte
euntô
Perf.iî (îvî)ierim (îverim)
Plup.ieram (îveram)îssem (îvissem)
F. P.ierô (îverô)
InfinitiveParticiples
Pres.îrePres. iêns, gen. euntis (§ 472)
Perf.îsse (îvisse)Fut. itûrus, -a, -um
Fut.itûrus, -a, -um esseGer. eundum
GerundSupine
Gen. eundîAcc. [itum]
Dat. eundôAbl. [itû]
Acc. eundum
Abl. eundô

a. The verb is used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive, as îtur, itum est, etc.

b. In the perfect system the forms with v are very rare.

500. fîô, passive of faciô; be made, become, happen

Principal Parts fîô, fierî, factus sum
IndicativeSubjunctiveImperative
Pres.fîô
fîs
fit
——
——
fîunt
fîam2d Pers.fîte
Impf.fîêbamfierem
Fut.fîam——
Perf.factus, -a, -um sumfactus, -a, -um sim
Plup.factus, -a, -um eramfactus, -a, -um essem
F. P.factus, -a, -um erô
InfinitiveParticiples
Pres.fierîPerf. factus, -a, -um
Perf.factus, -a, -um esseGer. faciendus, -a, -um
Fut.[factum îrî]

[Illustration: Fortification protected by a wall and a ditch
Caption: CASTRA MURO FOSSAQUE MUNIUNTUR]

APPENDIX II

501. RULES OF SYNTAX

Note. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. The number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end of each.

Nominative Case

1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the question Who? or What? § 36.

Agreement

2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject. § 28.

3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. § 76.

4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. § 81.

5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. § 65.

6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. § 215. a.

7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. § 224.

Prepositions

8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or ablative case. § 52.

Genitive Case

9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive and answers the question Whose? § 38.

10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. § 409.

11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive. § 331.

12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective. § 443.

Dative Case

13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. § 45.

14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crêdô, faveô, noceô, pâreô, persuâdeô, resistô, studeô, and others of like meaning. § 154.

15. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prô, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative. § 426.

16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. § 143.

17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which; often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected. § 437.

Accusative Case

18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and answers the question Whom? or What? § 37.

19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. § 214.

20. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rûs the preposition is omitted. §§ 263, 266.

21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative. § 336.

22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives. § 392.

Ablative Case

23. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what? § 102.

24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? or With what? § 103.

25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom? § 104.

26. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? or In what manner? § 105.

27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference. § 317.

28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called the ablative absolute. § 381.

29. 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 444.

2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 445.

30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. § 398.

31. The place from which is expressed by â or ab, , ê or ex with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rûs the preposition is omitted. §§ 264, 266.

32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. § 180.

33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition â or ab. This is called the ablative of the personal agent. § 181.

34. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative. § 309.

35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. § 275.

36. 1. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where? Before names of towns, small islands, and rûs the preposition is omitted. §§ 265, 266.

2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or second declension, and the word domus express the place in which by the locative. § 268.

Gerund and Gerundive

37. 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns. § 406. 1.

2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual. § 406. 2.

38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causâ, is used to express purpose. § 407.

Moods and Tenses of Verbs

39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by secondary. § 358.

40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause. § 349.

41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as object with verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive. § 366.

42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest). § 372.

43. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nôn, and have the verb in the subjunctive. § 385.

44. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nôn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about. § 386.

45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. § 390.

46. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place. § 396.

47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive. § 416.

48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. § 419.

49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive. § 418.

50. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence. § 432.

[Illustration: seated lady
Caption: DOMINA]

APPENDIX III

REVIEWS1

1. It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned for a written test.

I. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR THROUGH LESSON VIII

Lesson IX

502. Give the English of the following words:1

Nouns
agricola
ancilla
aqua
casa
causa
cêna
corôna
dea
domina
fâbula
fera
fîlia
fortûna
fuga
gallîna
iniûria
însula
lûna
nauta
pecûnia
puella
pugna
sagitta
silva
terra
tuba
via
victôria
Adjectives
alta
bona
clâra
grâta
lâta
longa
magna
mala
nova
parva
pulchra
sôla
Verbs
amat
dat
est
habitat
labôrat
laudat
nârrat
necat
nûntiat
parat
portat
pugnat
sunt
vocat
PrepositionsPronounsAdverbsConjunctionsInterrogative
Particle
â or ab
ad
cum

ê or ex
in
mea
tua
quis
cuius
cui
quem
quid
cûr
deinde
nôn
ubi
et
quia
quod
-ne
1. Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in the reviews. Words used in Cassar's "Gallic War" are in heavy type.

503. Give the Latin of the following words:1

Underline the words you do not remember. Do not look up a single word till you have gone through the entire list. Then drill on the words you have underlined.
flight
story
new
lives (verb)
away from
who
why
forest
wreath
deep, high
dinner
famous
cottage
battle (noun)
trumpet
lady, mistress
whom
island
wide
tells
money
calls
with
your
then, in the
next place

daughter
to whom
fortune
out from
labors (verb)
gives
small
in
and
sailor
farmer
goddess
wild beast
praises (verb)
alone
pleasing
prepares
are
to
because
arrow
my
kills
girl
fights (verb)
carries
chicken
victory
land
what
way
bad
loves
pretty
water
great
is
announces
injury, wrong
where
not
good
maid
down from
long
cause
whose

1. The translations of words used in Cæsar are in italics.

504. Review Questions. How many syllables has a Latin word? How are words divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the antepenult? When is a syllable short? When is a syllable long? What is the law of Latin accent? Define the subject of a sentence; the predicate; the object; the copula. What is inflection? declension? conjugation? What is the ending of the verb in the third person singular, and what in the plural? What does the form of a noun show? Name the Latin cases. What case is used for the subject? the direct object? the possessor? What relation is expressed by the dative case? Give the rule for the indirect object. How are questions answered in Latin? What is a predicate adjective? an attributive adjective? What is meant by agreement? Give the rule for the agreement of the adjective. What are the three relations expressed by the ablative? What can you say of the position of the possessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the adjective? What is the base? What is grammatical gender? What is the rule for gender in the first declension? What are the general principles of Latin word order?

505. Fill out the following summary of the first declension:

The First or Â-Declension1. Ending in the nominative singular
2. Rule for gender
3. Case terminationsa. Singular
b. Plural
4. Irregular nouns
Go on to Lesson IX

II. REVIEW OF LESSONS IX-XVII
Lesson XVIII

506. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension
agrî cultûra
cônstantia
côpia
dîligentia
fâma
fêmina
galea
inopia
lacrima
lôrîca
patria
praeda
Nouns of the Second Declension
ager
amîcus
arma (plural)
auxilium
bellum
carrus
castrum
cibus
cônsilium
domicilium
dominus
equus
fîlius
fluvius
frûmentum
gladius
lêgâtus
lîberî
magister
mûrus
numerus
oppidânus
oppidum
pîlum
populus
praemium
proelium
puer
scûtum
servus
studium
têlum
vîcus
vir
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensons
aeger, aegra, aegrum
alius, alia, aliud
alter, altera, alterum
armâtus, -a, -um
crêber, crêbra, crêbrum
dûrus, -a, -um
fînitimus, -a, -um
înfîrmus, -a, -um
legiônârius, -a, -um
lîber, lîbera, lîberum
mâtûrus, -a, -um
meus, -a, -um
miser, misera, miserum
multus, -a, -um
neuter, neutra, neutrum
noster, nostra, nostrum
alter, altera, alterum
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
sôlus, -a, -um
suus, -a, -um
fînitimus, -a, -um
tuus, -a, -um
ûllus, -a, -um
ûnus, -a, -um
uter, utra, utrum
validus, -a, -um
vester, vestra, vestrum
VerbsDemonstrative
Pronoun
Adverbs
arat
cûrat
dêsîderat
mâtûrat
properat
is, ea, id

Conjunctions
an
-que
sed

iam
quô
saepe

Preposition
apud

507. Give the Latin of the following words:

sword
corselet
man
your (plural)
hasten
but
among
tear (noun)
village
strong
long for
and (enclitic)
often
want (noun)
which (of two)
care for
or (in a question)
whither
wagon
townsman
wretched
ripe
war
number
my
free (adj.)
children
wall
grain
weapon
one
plow (verb)
this or that
already
helmet
river
zeal
any
he
son
slave
your (singular)
she
woman
horse
shield (noun)
whole
it
aid (noun)
legionary
weak
arms
master
(of school)
friend
neighboring
sick
lieutenant
field
report, rumor
abode
boy
his own
alone
prize (noun)
master (owner)
carefulness
plenty
troops
plan (noun)
people
beautiful
no (adj.)
our
battle
spear
food
steadiness
fatherland
town
fort
camp
neither (of two)
much
agriculture
other
the other (of two)
hard
booty
frequent
armed

508. Review Questions. How many declensions are there? What three things must be known about a noun before it can be declined? What three cases of neuter nouns are always alike, and in what do they end in the plural? What two plural cases are always alike? When is the vocative singular not like the nominative? What is a predicate noun? With what does it agree? What is an appositive? Give the rule for the agreement of an appositive. How can we tell whether a noun in -er is declined like puer or like ager? Decline bonus, lîber, pulcher. How can we tell whether an adjective in -er is declined like lîber or like pulcher? Why must we say nauta bonus and not nauta bona? Name the Latin possessive pronouns. How are they declined? With what does the possessive pronoun agree? When do we use tuus and when vester? Why is suus called a reflexive possessive? What is the non-reflexive possessive of the third person? When are possessives omitted? What four uses of the ablative case are covered by the relations expressed in English by with? Give an illustration in Latin of the ablative of manner; of the ablative of cause; of the ablative of means; of the ablative of accompaniment. What ablative regularly has cum? What ablative sometimes has cum? What uses of the ablative never have cum? Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline alius, nûllus. Decline is. What does is mean as a demonstrative adjective or pronoun? What other important use has it?

509. Fill out the following summary of the second declension:

The Second or
O-Declension
1. Endings in the nominative
2. Rule for gender
3. Case terminations of nouns in -usa. Singular
b. Plural
a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us
4. Case terminations of nouns in -uma. Singular
b. Plural
5. Peculiarities of nouns in -er and -ir
6. Peculiarities of nouns in -ius and -ium
Go on to Lesson XVIII

III. REVIEW OF LESSONS XVIII-XXVI
Lesson XXVII

510. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension
disciplîna
fôrma
poena
potentia
rêgîna
superbia
trîstitia
Nouns of the Second Declension
lûdusôrnâmentumsacrumsociusverbum
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions
amîcus
antîquus
fînitimus
grâtus
idôneus
inimîcus
interfectus
îrâtus
laetus
molestus
perpetuus
proximus
septem
superbus
AdverbsConjunctionsPersonal Pronoun
hodiê
ibi
maximê
mox
nunc
nûper
etiam
nôn sôlum ... sed etiam
ego
Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. IICONJ. IIICONJ. IV
volô, -âre


IRREGULAR VERB
sum, esse
dêleô, -êre
doceô, -êre
faveô, -êre
habeô, -êre
iubeô, -êre
moneô, -êre
moveô, -êre
noceô, -êre
pâreô, -êre
persuâdeô, -êre
sedeô, -êre
studeô, -êre
videô, -êre
agô, -ere
capiô, -ere
crêdô, -ere
dîcô, -ere
dûcô, -ere
faciô, -ere
fugiô, -ere
iaciô, -ere
mittô, -ere
rapiô, -ere
regô, -ere
resistô, -ere
audiô, -îre
mûniô, -îre
reperiô, -îre
veniô, -îre

511. Give the Latin of the following words. In the case of verbs always give the first form and the present infinitive.

ancient
come
resist
see
be
fly
I
proud
word
sadness
find
rule (verb)
be eager for
not only ... but also
seven
ally, companion
pride
fortify
send
sit
also
school
hear
hurl
persuade
only
nearest
sacred rite
queen
flee
obey
lately
constant
ornament
power
make, do
injure
now
annoying
lead
move
soon
glad
punishment
believe
advise
especially, most of all
angry
beauty
say
command (verb)
there
slain
training
take
have
to-day
unfriendly
drive
favor (verb)
suitable
pleasing
teach
neighboring
destroy
friendly
seize

512. Review Questions. What is conjugation? Name two important differences between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense? What is mood? What are the Latin moods? When do we use the indicative mood? Name the six tenses of the indicative. What are personal endings? Name those you have had. Inflect sum in the three tenses you have learned. How many regular conjugations are there? How are they distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are formed from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What is the meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in the first two conjugations? in the last two? Before what letters is a final long vowel of the stem shortened? What are the three possible translations of a present, as of pugnô? Inflect arô, sedeô, mittô, faciô, and veniô, in the present, imperfect, and future active. What forms of -iô verbs of the third conjugation are like audiô? what like regô? Give the rule for the dative with adjectives. Name the special intransitive verbs that govern the dative. What does the imperative mood express? How is the present active imperative formed in the singular? in the plural? What three verbs have a shortened present active imperative? Give the present active imperative of portô, dêleô, agô, faciô, mûniô.

Go on to Lesson XXVII

IV. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVII-XXXVI
Lesson XXXVII

513. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension
âlacûramoraportaprôvinciavîta
Nouns of the Second Declension
animus
aurum
bracchium
deus
locus
mônstrum
nâvigium
ôrâculum
perîculum
ventus
vînum
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions
adversus
attentus
cârus
commôtus
dêfessus
dexter
dubius
maximus
perfidus
plênus
saevus
sinister
Adverbs
anteâ
celeriter
dênique
diû
frûstrâ
graviter
ita
longê
semper
subitô
tamen
tum
Conjunctions
autemubi
Prepositions
perprôsine
Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. II
adpropinquô
nâvigô
occupô
postulô
recûsô
reportô
servô
stô
superô
temptô
vâstô
vulnerô
contineô
egeô
prohibeô
respondeô
teneô
CONJ. IIIIRREGULAR VERB
discêdôgerôinterficiôabsum

514. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

be away
wind
through
if
savage
wound (verb)
wine
delay
faithless
right
seize
quickly
before, in behalf of
battle
down from or concerning
moreover
greatest
oracle
danger
lay waste
gate
doubtful
opposite, adverse
demand
finally
attentive
then, at that time
weary
overcome, conquer
boat, ship
sail (verb)
life
save
full
refuse
heavily
monster
approach
nevertheless
place
be without,
lack

moved
gold
restrain, keep from
without
hold
suddenly
dear
always
god
hold in, keep
afar
thus, so, as follows
arm (noun)
when
in vain
stand
bring back, win
before, previously
depart,
go away

province
care, trouble
kill
reply (verb)
wing
mind, heart
left (adj.)
bear, carry on
try
for a long time

515. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs:

sum

teneô
iubeô
agô
mittô
mûniô
moveô
crêdô
rapiô
reperiô
dêleô
resistô
audiô
moneô
capiô
doceô
regô
faveô
noceô
dîcô
pâreô
dûcô
faciô
persuâdeô
sedeô
studeô
fugiô
veniô
iaciô
videô
absum
egeô
gerô
stô

516. Review Questions. What are the personal endings in the passive voice? What is the letter -r sometimes called? What are the distinguishing vowels of the four conjugations? What forms constitute the principal parts? What are the three different conjugation stems? How may they be found? What are the tenses of the indicative? of the infinitive? What tense of the imperative have you learned? What forms are built on the present stem? on the perfect stem? on the participial stem? What are the endings of the perfect active indicative? What is the tense sign of the pluperfect active? of the future perfect active? How is the present active infinitive formed? the present passive infinitive? How is the present active imperative formed? the present passive imperative? How is the perfect active infinitive formed? the perfect passive infinitive? How is the future active infinitive formed? What is a participle? How are participles in -us declined? Give the rule for the agreement of the participle. How are the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive indicative formed? Conjugate the verb sum in all moods and tenses as far as you have learned it (§ 494). What is meant by the separative ablative? How is the place from which expressed in Latin? Give the rule for the ablative of separation; for the ablative of the personal agent. How can we distinguish between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect definite? the perfect indefinite? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect indefinite and the imperfect? What two cases in Latin may be governed by a preposition? Name the prepositions that govern the ablative. What does the preposition in mean when it governs the ablative? the accusative? What are the three interrogatives used to introduce yes-and-no questions? Explain the force of each. What words are sometimes used for yes and no? What are the different meanings and uses of ubi?

Go on to Lesson XXXVII

V. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXVII-XLIV
Lesson XLV

517. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSIONSECOND DECLENSION
rîpabarbarî
captîvus
castellum
impedîmentum
THIRD DECLENSION
animal
arbor
avis
caedês
calamitâs
calcar
caput
cîvis
cliêns
collis
cônsul
dêns
dux
eques
fînis
flûmen
fôns
frâter
homô
hostîs
ignis
imperâtor
însigne
iter
iûdex
labor
lapis
legiô
mare
mâter
mênsis
mîles
môns
nâvis
opus
ôrâtor
ôrdô
pater
pedes
pês
pôns
prînceps
rêx
salûs
sanguis
soror
tempus
terror
turris
urbs
victor
virtûs
vîs
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions
barbarusdextersinistersummus
PrepositionsAdverbsConjunctions
in with the abl.
in with the acc.
trâns
cotîdiê
numquam
nec, neque
nec ... nec, or neque ... neque
Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. III
cessô
confirmô
oppugnô
vetô
accipiô
incipiô
petô
ponô
vincô
vivô

518. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

forbid
rank, row
brother
force
across
savages
horseman
never
mountain
manliness, courage
leader
put, place
time
savage, barbarous
sister
seek
captive
hindrance, baggage
man-of-war
judge
defeat, disaster
fire
tree
foot soldier
receive
general
highest
fountain
orator
neither ... nor
and not
left
tooth
soldier
month
city
victor
daily
live (verb)
conquer
consul
mother
retainer
citizen
head
safety
assail, storm
begin
march
decoration
bridge
bird
cease
man
river
work (noun)
and
ship
bank
redoubt, fort
sea
tower
drill (verb)
legion
terror
into, to
right (adj.)
in
stone
blood
labor (noun)
king
spur
chief
slaughter
strengthen
foot
enemy
animal
father

519. Review Questions. Give the conjugation of possum. What is an infinitive? What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the English? What is the case of the subject of the infinitive? What is meant by a complementary infinitive? In the sentence The bad boy cannot be happy, what is the case of happy? Give the rule. Decline quî. Give the rule for the agreement of the relative. What are the two uses of the interrogative? Decline quis. What is the base of a noun? How is the stem formed from the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same? How many declensions of nouns are there? Name them. What are the two chief divisions of the third declension? How are the consonant stems classified? Explain the formation of lapis from the stem lapid-, mîles from mîlit-, rêx from rêg-. What nouns have i-stems? What peculiarities of form do i-stems have,—masc., fem., and neut.? Name the five nouns that have and -e in the abl. Decline turris. Give the rules for gender in the third declension. Decline mîles, lapis, rêx, virtûs, cônsul, legiô, homô, pater, flûmen, opus, tempus, caput, caedês, urbs, hostis, mare, animal, vîs, iter.

520. Fill out the following scheme:

The Third DeclensionGender EndingsMasculine
Feminine
Neuter
Case TerminationsI. Consonant Stemsa. Masc. and fem.
b. Neuters
II. I-Stemsa. Masc. and fem.
b. Neuters
Irregular Nouns
Go on to Lesson XLV

VI. REVIEW OF LESSONS XLV-LII

Lesson LIII

521. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSIONSECOND DECLENSION
amîcitia
hôra
littera
annus
modus
nûntius
oculus
rêgnum
signum
supplicium,
supplicium dare
supplicium sûmere dê
tergum,
tergum vertere
vestîgium
THIRD DECLENSIONFOURTH DECLENSION
aestâs
corpus
hiems
lîbertâs
lûx,
prîma lûx
nômen
nox
pars
pâx
rûs
sôl
vôx
vulnus
adventus
cornû
domus
equitâtus
exercitus
fluctus
impetus
lacus
manus
metus
portus
FIFTH DECLENSIONINDECLINABLE NOUN
aciês
diês
fidês,
in fidem venîre
rês,
rês gestae
rês adversae
rês pûblica
rês secundae
spês nihil
Adjectives
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONSTHIRD DECLENSION
dênsus
invîsus
mîrus
paucî
prîmus
prîstinus
pûblicus
secundus
tantus
vêrus
âcer, âcris, âcre
brevis, breve
difficilis, difficile
facîlis, facile
fortis, forte
gravis, grave
incolumis, incolume
omnis, omne
pâr, pâr
vêlôx, vêlôx
Pronouns
PERSONALDEMONSTRATIVEINTENSIVEINDEFINITE
ego
nôs
suî

vôs
hic
îdem
ille
iste
ipsealiquis, aliquî
quîdam
quis, quî
quisquam
quisque
AdverbsConjunctionsPrepositions
nê ... quidem
ôlim
paene
quoque
satis
vêrô
itaque
nisi
ante
post
propter
Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. IICONJ. IIICONJ. IV
conlocô
convocô
cremô
dêmônstrô
mandô
dêbeô
exerceô
maneô
placeô
sustineô
committô,
committere proelium
dêcidô
êripiô
sûmô,
sûmere supplicium dê
trâdûcô
vertô
dêsiliô

522. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

if not, unless
on account of
unharmed
public
commonwealth
leap down, dismount
lead across
remain
call together
friendship
footprint, trace
each
fear (noun)
hope
therefore
behind, after
so great
equal
in truth, indeed
that (yonder)
a certain
fall down
owe, ought
measure, mode
eye
name
wave, billow
thing, matter
exploits
republic
prosperity
adversity
former, old-time
all, every
any one (at all)
this (of mine)
heavy, serious
hateful, detested
true
burn
snatch from
letter
punishment
inflict
punishment on

suffer punishment
liberty
sun
sustain
take up, assume
hour
reign, realm
messenger
part, direction
body
harbor
faith, protection
of himself
also, too
sufficiently
burn
that (of yours)
before
you (plur.)
light
daybreak
winter
attack
line of battle
army
drill, train
join battle
house, home
midday
wonderful
brave
almost
the same
some, any
if any one
self, very
not even
easy
dense
point out, explain
difficult
first
arrange, station
please
year
peace
back
turn the back, retreat
night
hand, force
lake
day
commit, intrust
a few only
sharp, eager
we
turn
you (sing.)
I
signal
summer
cavalry
wound
horn, wing
country
second, favorable
short
voice
formerly, once
arrival
come under the
protection of

swift
nothing

523. Review Questions. By what declensions are Latin adjectives declined? What can you say about the stem of adjectives of the third declension? Into what classes are these adjectives divided? How can you tell to which of the classes an adjective belongs? Decline âcer, omnis, pâr. What are the nominative endings and genders of nouns of the fourth or u-declension? What nouns are feminine by exception? Decline adventus, lacus, cornû, domus. Give the rules for the ordinary expression of the place to which, the place from which, the place in which. What special rules apply to names of towns, small islands, and rûs? What is the locative case? What words have a locative case? What is the form of the locative case? Translate Galba lives at home, Galba lives at Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii. What is the rule for gender in the fifth or ê-declension? Decline diês, rês. When is the long ê shortened? What can you say about the plural of the fifth declension? Decline tuba, servus, pîlum, ager, puer, mîles, cônsul, flûmen, caedês, animal. How is the time when expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. Decline ego, tû, is. What are the reflexives of the first and second persons? What is the reflexive of the third person? Decline it. Translate I see myself, he sees himself, he sees him. Decline ipse. How is ipse used? Decline îdem. Decline hic, iste, ille. Explain the use of these words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns. Decline aliquis, quisquam, quîdam, quisque.

Go on to Lesson LIII

VII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LIII-LX

Lesson LXI

524. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSIONSECOND DECLENSION
aquila
fossa
aedificium
captîvus
concilium
imperium
negôtium
spatium
vâllum
THIRD DECLENSION
agmen
celeritâs
cîvitâs
clâmor
cohors
difficultâs
explôrâtor
gêns
lâtitûdô
longitûdô
magnitûdô
mêns
mercâtor
mîlle
mors
mulier
multitûdô
mûnîtiô
nêmô
obses
opîniô
regiô
rûmor
scelus
servitûs
timor
vallês
FOURTH DECLENSIONFIFTH DECLENSION
aditus
commeâtus
passus rês frûmentâria
Adjectives
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
aequus
bînî
ducentî
duo
exterus
înferus
maximus
medius
minimus
opportûnus
optimus
pessimus
plûrimus
posterus
prîmus
reliquus
secundus
singulî
superus
tardus
ternî
ûnus
THIRD DECLENSION
alacer, alacris, alacre
audâx, audâx
celer, celeris, celere
citerior, citerius
difficilis, difficile
dissimilis, dissimile
facilis, facile
gracilis, gracile
humilis, humile
ingêns, ingêns
interior, interius
lênis, lêne
maior, maius
melior, melius
minor, minus
nôbilis, nôbile
peior, peius
——, plûs
prior, prius
recêns, recêns
similis, simile
três, tria
ulterior, ulterius
Adverbs
âcriter
audâcter
bene
facile
ferê
fortiter
magis
magnopere
maximê
melius
minimê
multum
optimê
parum
paulô
plûrimum
prope
propius
proximê
quam
statim
tam
undique
ConjunctionsPrepositions
atque, ac
aut
aut ... aut
et ... et
nam
quâ dê causâ
quam ob rem
simul atque or
simul ac
circum
contrâ
inter
ob
trâns
Verbs
CONJ. ICONJ. II
cônor
hortor
moror
vexô
obtineô
perterreô
valeô
vereor
CONJ. III
abdô
cadô
cognôscô
cônsequor
contendô
cupiô
currô
dêdô
dêfendô
êgredior
incendô
incolô
însequor
occîdô
patior
premô
proficîscor
prôgredior
quaerô
recipiô
relinquô
revertor
sequor
statuô
subsequor
suscipiô
trâdô
trahô
CONJ. III
oriorperveniô

525. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

on account of
nearly
keenly, sharply
thousand
two
opportune
remaining
above (adj.)
next
grain supply
pace
shout (noun)
from all sides
against
around
three
further
line of march
manor
region
fortification
eagle
almost
boldly
bravely
across
between, among
hither (adj.)
so
less
more
most
worst
difficulty
hostage
death
command, power
captive
or
and
arrive
attempt, try
length
width
scout
cohort
tribe, nation
business
by a little
somewhat
crime
difficult
equal
move forward,
advance

multitude
woman
desire (verb)
give over, surrender
kill
overtake
hasten, strive
hide
one
first
second, favorable
two hundred
former
inner
middle
low
outward
three by three
provisions
speed
ditch
wherefore or therefore
for this reason
fear (noun)
return
inquire
set out
move out, disembark
fear (verb)
worse
greater, larger
two by two
least (adv.)
opinion,
expectation

approach, entrance
trader
magnitude, size
council, assembly
space, room
either ...  or
rise, arise
suffer, allow
press hard
fall
surrender
set fire to
defend
possess, hold
delay (verb)
nearest (adv.)
nearer (adv.)
better (adj.)
well known, noble
mild, gentle
swift
eager
low (adj.)
slender
one by one
no one
least (adv.)
little (adv.)
learn, know
drag
undertake
run
fix, decide
leave
abandon
be strong
receive, recover
terrify, frighten
dwell
state, citizenship
valley
slavery
greatly
best of all (adv.)
better (adv.)
well (adv.)
very much
much
unlike
like (adj.)
slow
very greatly, exceedingly
building
mind (noun)
easily
easy
recent
huge, great
bold
immediately
as soon as
for
than
best (adj.)
greatest
follow close
encourage
annoy, ravage
hide
follow
pursue
both ... and
rampart

526. Review Questions. What is meant by comparison? In what two ways may adjectives be compared? Compare clârus, brevis, vêlôx, and explain the formation of the comparative and the superlative. What are the adverbs used in comparison? Compare brevis by adverbs. Decline the comparative of vêlôx. How are adjectives in -er compared? Compare âcer, pulcher, liber. What are possible translations for the comparative and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the superlative in -limus. Translate in two ways Nothing is brighter than the sun. Give the rule for the ablative with comparatives. Compare bonus, magnus, malus, multus, parvus, exterus, înferus, posterus, superus. Decline plûs. Compare citerior, interior, propior, ulterior. Translate That route to Italy is much shorter. Give the rule for the expression of measure of difference. Name five words that are especially common in this construction. How are adverbs usually formed from adjectives of the first and second declensions? from adjectives of the third declension? Compare the adverbs cârê, lîberê, fortiter, audâcter. What cases of adjectives are sometimes used as adverbs? What are the adverbs from facilis? multus? prîmus? plûrimus? bonus? magnus? parvus? Compare prope, saepe, magnopere. How are numerals classified? Give the first twenty cardinals. Decline ûnus, duo, três, mîlle. How are the hundreds declined? What is meant by the partitive genitive? Give the rule for the partitive genitive. What sort of words are commonly used with this construction? What construction is used with quîdam and cardinal numbers excepting mîlle? Give the first twenty ordinals. How are they declined? How are the distributives declined? Give the rule for the expression of duration of time and extent of space. What is the difference between the ablative of time and the accusative of time? What is a deponent verb? Give the synopsis of one. What form always has a passive meaning? Conjugate amô, moneô, regô, capiô, audiô, in the active and passive.

Go on to Lesson LXI

VIII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LXI-LXIX

Lesson LXX

527. Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See §§ 502, 503, 506, 507.

528. Review Questions. Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What time is denoted by these tenses? What are the mood signs of the present subjunctive? How may the imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do the perfect subjunctive and the future perfect indicative active differ in form? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active formed? Inflect the subjunctive active and passive of cûrô, dêleô, vincô, rapiô, mûniô. Inflect the subjunctive tenses of sum; of possum. What are the tenses of the participles in the active? What in the passive? Give the active and passive participles of amô, moneô, regô, capiô, audiô. Decline regêns. What participles do deponent verbs have? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect participle of a deponent verb and of one not deponent? Give the participles of vereor. How should participles usually be translated? Conjugate volô, nolô, mâlô, fîô.

What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their fundamental ideas? How is purpose usually expressed in English? How is it expressed in Latin? By what words is a Latin purpose clause introduced? When should quô be used? What is meant by sequence of tenses? Name the primary tenses of the indicative and of the subjunctive; the secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly followed by substantive clauses of purpose? What construction follows iubeô? What construction follows verbs of fearing? How is consequence or result expressed in Latin? How is a result clause introduced? What words are often found in the principal clause foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may negative purpose be distinguished from negative result? What is meant by the subjunctive of characteristic or description? How are such clauses introduced? Explain the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. After what verbs are two accusatives commonly found? What do these accusatives become when the verb is passive?

Go on to Lesson LXX

[Illustration: coin showing general commanding soldiers
Caption: IMPERATOR MILITES HORTATUR]

SPECIAL VOCABULARIES

The words in heavy type are used in Cæsar's "Gallic War."

LESSON IV, § 39

Nouns

dea, goddess (deity)
Diâ´na, Diana
fera, a wild beast (fierce)
Lâtô´na, Latona
sagit´ta, arrow

Verbs

est, he (she, it) is; sunt, they are
necat, he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill

Conjunction1

et, and

Pronouns

quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who?
cuius (pronounced c[oo]i´y[oo]s, two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.

LESSON V, § 47

Nouns

corô´na, wreath, garland, crown
fâ´bula, story (fable)
pecû´nia, money (pecuniary)
pugna, battle (pugnacious)
victô´ria, victory

Verbs

dat, he (she, it) gives
nârrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)

Conjunction1

quia or quod, because

Pronoun

cui (pronounced c[oo]i, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom? for whom?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.

LESSON VI, § 56

Adjectives

bona, good
grâta, pleasing
magna, large, great
mala, bad, wicked
parva, small, little
pulchra, beautiful, pretty
sôla, alone

Nouns

ancil´la, maidservant
Iûlia, Julia

Adverbs1

cûr, why
nôn, not

Pronouns

mea, my; tua, thy, your (possesives)
quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., what?
-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (§ 16) added to the first word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat, he loves, but amat´ne? does he love? est, he is; estne? is he? Of course -ne is not used when the sentence contains quis, cûr, or some other interrogative word.
1. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.

LESSON VII, § 62

Nouns

casa, -ae, f., cottage
cêna, -ae, f., dinner
gallî´na, -ae, f., hen, chicken
în´sula, ae, f., island (pen-insula)

Adverbs

de-in´de, then, in the next place
ubi, where

Preposition

ad, to, with acc. to express motion toward

Verbs

ha´bitat, he (she, it) lives, is living, does live (inhabit)
laudat, he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise (laud)
parat, he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare
vocat, he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites, is inviting, does invite (vocation)

Pronoun

quem, interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., whom?

LESSON VIII, § 69

Nouns

Italia, -ae, f., Italy
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily
tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube)
via, -ae, f., way, road, street (viaduct)

Adjectives

alta, high, deep (altitude)
clâra, clear, bright; famous
lâta, wide (latitude)
longa, long (longitude)
nova, new (novelty)

LESSON IX, § 77

Nouns
bellum, -î, n., war (re-bel)
cônstantia, -ae, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness
dominus, -î, m., master, lord (dominate)
equus, -î, m., horse (equine)
frûmentum, -î, n., grain
lêgâtus, -î, m., lieutenant, ambassador (legate)
Mârcus, -î, m., Marcus, Mark
mûrus, -î, m., wall (mural)
oppidânus, -î, m., townsman
oppidum, -î, n., town
pîlum, -î, n., spear (pile driver)
servus, -î, m., slave, servant
Sextus, -î, m., Sextus

Verbs

cûrat, he (she, it) cares for, with acc.
properat, he (she, it) hastens

LESSON X, § 82

Nouns
amîcus, -î, m., friend (amicable)
Germânia, -ae, f., Germany
patria, -ae, f., fatherland
populus, -î, m., people
Rhênus, -î, m., the Rhine
vîcus, -î, m., village

LESSON XI, § 86

Nouns
arma, armôrum, n., plur., arms, especially defensive weapons
fâma, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, fame
galea, -ae, f., helmet
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (predatory)
têlum, -î, n., weapon of offense, spear
Adjectives
dûrus, -a, -um, hard, rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome (durable)
Rômânus, -a, -um, Roman. As a noun, Rômânus, -î, m., a Roman

LESSON XII, § 90

Nouns

fîlius, fîlî, m., son (filial)
fluvius, fluvî, m., river (fluent)
gladius, gladî, m., sword (gladiator)
praesidium, praesi´dî, n., garrison, guard, protection
proelium, proelî, n., battle

Adjectives

fînitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, neighboring, near to. As a noun, fînitimî, -ôrum, m., plur., neighbors
Germânus, -a, -um, German. As a noun, Germânus, -î, m., a German
multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many

Adverb

saepe, often

LESSON XIII, § 95

Nouns
ager, agrî, m., field (acre)
côpia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (copious); plur., troops, forces
Cornêlius, Cornê´lî, m., Cornelius
lôrî´ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, corselet
praemium, praemî, n., reward, prize (premium)
puer, puerî, m., boy (puerile)
Rôma, -ae, f., Rome
scûtum, -î, n., shield (escutcheon)
vir, virî, m., man, hero (virile)
Adjectives
legiônârius, -a, -um,1 legionary, belonging to the legion. As a noun, legiônâriî, -ôrum, m., plur., legionary soldiers
lîber, lîbera, lîberum, free (liberty) As a noun. lîberî, -ôrum, m., plur., children (lit. the freeborn)
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, beautiful

Preposition

apud, among, with acc.

Conjunction

sed, but
1. The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -iî and the vocative in -ie; not in , as in nouns.

LESSON XIV, § 99

Nouns
auxilium, auxi´lî, n., help, aid (auxiliary)
castrum, -î, n., fort (castle); plur., camp (lit. forts)
cibus, -î, m., food
cônsilium, cônsi´lî, n., plan (counsel)
dîligentia, -ae, f., diligence, industry
magister, magistrî, m., master, teacher1
Adjectives
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick
crêber, crêbra, crêbrum, frequent
miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate (miser)
1. Observe that dominus, as distinguished from magister, means master in the sense of owner.

LESSON XV, § 107

Nouns

carrus, -î, m., cart, wagon
inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the opposite of côpia
studium, studî, n., zeal, eagerness (study)

Verb

mâtûrat, he (she, it) hastens. Cf. properat

Adjectives

armâtus, -a, -um, armed
înfîrmus, -a, -um, week, feeble (infirm)
vali´dus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy

Adverb

iam, already, now
-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. § 16) and always added to the second of two words to be connected, as arma têla´que, arms and weapons.

LESSON XVII, § 117

Nouns
agrî cultûra, -ae, f., agriculture
domicilîum, domîci´lî, n., dwelling place (domicile) abode
fêmina, -ae, f., woman (female)
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul
Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul
lacrima, -ae, f., tear
numerus, -î, m., number (numeral)

Adjective

mâtûrus, -a, -um, ripe, mature

Verbs

arat, he (she, it) plows (arable)
dêsîderat, he (she, it) misses, longs for (desire), with acc.

Adverb

quô, whither

Conjunction

an, or, introducing the second half of a double question, as Is he a Roman or a Gaul, Estne Romanus an Gallus?

LESSON XVIII, § 124

Nouns

lûdus, -î, m.,school
socius, socî, m., companion, ally (social)

Adjectives

îrâtus, -a, -um, angry, furious (irate)
laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad (social)
Adverbs
hodiê, to-day
ibi, there, in that place
mox, presently, soon, of the immediate future
nunc, now, the present moment
nûper, lately, recently, of the immediate past

LESSON XX, § 136

Nouns
fôrma, -ae, f., form, beauty
poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty
potentia, -ae, f., power (potent)
regîna, -ae, f., queen (regal)
superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness
trîstîtîa, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow

Adjectives

septem, indeclinable, seven
superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty (superb)

Conjunctions

nôn sôlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also

LESSON XXI, § 140

Nouns

sacrum, -î, n., sacrifice, offering, rite
verbum, -î, n., word (verb)

Verbs

sedeô, -êre, sit (sediment)
volô, -âre, fly (volatile)

Adjectives

interfectus, -a, -um, slain
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying (molest)
perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual, continuous
ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative.

LESSON XXII, § 146

Nouns
disciplîna, -ae, f., training, culture, discipline
ôrnâmentum, -î, n., ornament, jewel
Gâius, Gâî, m., Caius, a Roman first name
Tiberius, Tibe´rî, m., Tiberius, a Roman first name

Verb

doceô, -êre, teach (doctrine)

Adverb

maximê, most of all, especially

Adjective

antîquus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)

LESSON XXVII, § 168

Nouns

âla, -ae, f., wing
deus, -î, m., god (deity)1
monstrum, -î, n., omen, prodigy; monster
ôrâculum, -î, n., oracle

Verb

vâstô, -âre, lay waste, devastate

Adjectives

commôtus, -a, -um, moved, excited
maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maximum)
saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage

Adverbs

ita, thus, in this way, as follows
tum, then, at that time
1. For the declension of deus, see § 468

LESSON XXVIII, § 171

Verbs

respondeô, -êre, respond, reply
servô, -âre, save, preserve

Adjective

cârus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)

Conjunction

autem, but, moreover, now. Usually
stands second, never first

Noun

vîta, -ae, f., life (vital)

LESSON XXIX, § 176

Verb

superô, -âre, conquer, overcome (insuperable)

Nouns

cûra, -ae, f., care, trouble
locus, -î, m., place, spot (location). Locus is neuter in the plural and is declined loca, -ôrum, etc.
perîculum, -î, n., danger, peril

Adverbs

semper, always
tamen, yet, nevertheless

Prepositions

, with abl., down from; concerning
per, with acc., through

Conjunction

si, if

LESSON XXX, § 182

Verbs
absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be absent, be distant, with separative abl.
adpropinquô, -âre, draw near, approach (propinquity), with dative1
contineô, -êre, hold together, hem in, keep (contain)
discêdô, -ere, depart, go away, leave, with separative abl.
egeô, -êre, lack, need, be without, with separative abl.
interficiô, -ere, kill
prohibeô, -êre, restrain, keep from (prohibit)
vulnerô, -âre, wound (vulnerable)

Nouns

prôvincia, -ae, f., province
vînum, -î, n., wine

Adjective

dêfessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out

Adverb

longê, far, by far, far away
1. This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used with ad and the accusative.

LESSON XXXI, § 188

Nouns

aurum, -î, n., gold (oriole)
mora, -ae, f., delay
nâvigium, nâvi´gî, n., boat, ship
ventus, -î, m., wind (ventilate)

Verb

nâvigô, -âre, sail (navigate)

Adjectives

attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious)
perfidus, -a, -um, faithless, treacherous (perfidy)

Adverb

anteâ, before, previously

Preposition

sine, with abl., without

LESSON XXXII, § 193

Nouns

animus, -î, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling (animate)
bracchium, bracchî, n., forearm, arm
porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)

Adjectives

adversus, -a, -um, opposite; adverse, contrary
plênus, -a, -um, full (plenty)

Preposition

prô, with abl., before; in behalf of; instead of

Adverb

diû, for a long time, long

LESSON XXXIV, § 200

Adverbs
celeriter, quickly (celerity)
dênique, finally
graviter, heavily, severely (gravity)
subitô, suddenly

Verb

reportô, -âre, -âvî, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)

LESSON XXXVI, § 211

dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dextrous)
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left
frûstrâ, adv., in vain (frustrate)
gerô, gerere, gessî, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; bellum gerere, to wage war
occupô, occupâre, occupâvî, occupâtus, seize, take possession of (occupy)
postulô, postulâre, postulâvî, postulâtus, demand (ex-postulate)
recûsô, recûsâre, recûsâvî, recûsâtus, refuse
stô, stâre, stetî, status, stand
temptô, temptâre, temptâvî, temptâtus, try, tempt, test; attempt
teneô, tenêre, tenuî, ——, keep, hold (tenacious)

The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:
1. ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as,
Ubi mônstrum audîvêrunt, fûgêrunt, when they heard the monster, they fled
2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as,
Videô oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba lives
Ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place in which.

LESSON XXXVII, § 217

neque or nec, conj., neither, nor, and ... not; neque ... neque, neither ... nor
castellum, -î, n., redoubt, fort (castle)
cotîdiê, adv., daily
cessô, cessâre, cessâvî, cessâtus, cease, with the infin.
incipiô, incipere, incêpî, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin.
oppugnô, oppugnâre, oppugnâvî, oppugnâtus, storm, assail
petô, petere, petivi or petiî, petîtus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, ask (petition)
pônô, pônere, posuî, positus, place, put (position); castra pônere, to pitch camp
possum, posse, potuî, ——, be able, can (potent), with the infin.
vetô, vetâre, vetuî, vetitus, forbid (veto), vith the infin.; opposite of iubeô, command
vincô, vincere, vîcî, victus, conquer (in-vincible)
vîvô, vîvere, vîxî, ——, live, be alive (re-vive)

LESSON XXXIX, § 234

barbarus, -a, -um, strange, foreign, barbarous. As a noun, barbarî, -ôrum, m., plur., savages, barbarians
dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. the verb dûcô
eques, equitis, m., horseman, cavalryman (equestrian)
iûdex, iûdicis, m., judge
lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary)
mîles, mîlitis, m., soldier (militia)
pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier (pedestrian)
pês, pedis,1 m., foot (pedal)
prînceps, prîncipis, m., chief (principal)
rêx, rêgis, m., king (regal)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
virtûs, virtûtis, f., manliness, courage (virtue)
1. Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.

LESSON XL, § 237

Caesar, -aris, m., Cæsar
captîvus, -î, m., captive, prisoner
cônsul, -is, m., consul
frâter, frâtris, m., brother (fraternity)
homô, hominis, m., man, human being
impedîmentum, -î, n., hindrance (impediment); plur. impedîmenta, -ôrum, baggage
imperâtor, imperâtôris, m., commander in chief, general (emperor)
legiô, legiônis, f., legion
mâter, mâtris, f., mother (maternal)
ôrdô, ôrdinis, m., row, rank (order)
pater, patris, m., father (paternal)
salûs, salûtis, f., safety (salutary)
soror, sorôris, f., sister (sorority)

LESSON XLI, § 239

calamitâs, calamitâtis, f., loss, disaster, defeat (calamity)
caput, capitis, n., head (capital)
flûmen, flûminis, n., river (flume)
labor, labôris, m., labor, toil
opus, operis, n., work, task
ôrâtor, ôrâtôris, m., orator
rîpa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream)
tempus, temporis, n., time (temporal)
terror, terrôris, m., terror, fear
victor, victôris, m., victor
accipiô, accipere, accêpî, acceptus, receive, accept
cônfirmô, cônfîrmâre, cônfîrmâvî, cônfîrmâtus, strengthen, establish, encourage (confirm)

LESSON XLIII, § 245

animal, animâlis (-ium1), n., animal
avis, avis (-ium), f., bird (aviation)
caedês, caedis (-ium), f., slaughter
calcar, calcâris (-ium), n., spur
cîvis, cîvis (-ium), m. and f., citizen (civic)
cliêns, clientis (-ium), m., retainer, dependent (client)
fînis, fînis (-ium), m., end, limit (final); plur., country, territory
hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f., enemy in war (hostile). Distinguish from inimîcus, which means a personal enemy
ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire (ignite)
însigne, însignis (-ium), n. decoration, badge (ensign)
mare, maris (-ium2), n., sea (marine)
nâvis, nâvis (-ium), f., ship (naval);
nâvis longa, man-of-war
turris, turris (-ium), f., tower (turret)
urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). An urbs is larger than an oppidum.
1. The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.
2. The genitive plural of mare is not in use.

LESSON XLIV, § 249

arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor)
collis, collis (-ium), m., hill
dêns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist)
fôns, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, spring; source
iter, itineris, n., march, journey, route (itinerary)
mênsis, mênsis (-ium), m., month
moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls, fortifications. Cf. mûrus
môns, montis (-ium), m., mountain;
summus môns, top of the mountain
numquam, adv., never
pôns, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon)
sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (sanguinary)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
trâns, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic)
vîs (vîs), gen. plur. virium, f. strength, force, violence (vim)

LESSON XLV, § 258

âcer, âcris, âcre, sharp, keen, eager (acrid)
brevis, breve, short, brief
difficilis, difficile, difficult
facilis, facile, facile, easy
fortis, forte, brave (fortitude)
gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious (grave)
omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus)
pâr, gen. paris, equal (par)
paucî, -ae, -a, few, only a few (paucity)
secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, opposite of adversus
signum, -î, n., signal, sign, standard
vêlôx, gen. vêlôcis, swift (velocity)
conlocô, conlocâre, conlocâvî, conlocâtus, arrange, station, place (collocation)
dêmônstrô, dêmônstrâre, dêmônstrâvî, dêmônstrâtus, point out, explain (demonstrate)
mandô, mandâre, mandâvî, mandâtus, commit, intrust (mandate)

LESSON XLVI, § 261

adventus, -ûs, m., approach, arrival (advent)
ante, prep, with acc., before (ante-date)
cornû, -ûs, n., horn, wing of an army (cornucopia);
â dextrô cornû, on the right wing;
â sinistrô cornû, on the left wing
equitâtus, -ûs, m., cavalry
exercitus, -ûs, m., army
impetus, -ûs, m., attack (impetus); impetum facere in, with acc., to make an attack on
lacus, -ûs, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus, m., lake
manus, -ûs, f., hand; band, force (manual)
portus, -ûs, m., harbor (port)
post, prep, with acc., behind, after (post-mortem)
cremô, cremâre, cremâvî, cremâtus, burn (cremate)
exerceô, exercêre, exercuî, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise)

LESSON XLVII, § 270

Athênae, -ârum, f., plur., Athens
Corinthus, -î, f., Corinth
domus, -ûs, locative domî, f., house, home (dome). Cf. domicilium
Genâva, -ae, f., Geneva
Pompêii, -ôrum, m., plur., Pompeii, a city in Campania. See map
propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of
rûs, rûris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. rûra, n., country (rustic)
tergum, tergî, n., back; â tergô, behind, in the rear
vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vulnerable)
committô, committere, commîsî, commissus, intrust, commit; proelium committere, join battle
convocô, convocâre, convocâvî, convocâtus, call together, summon (convoke)
timeô, timêre, timuî, ——, fear; be afraid (timid)
vertô, vertere, vertî, versus, turn, change (convert); terga vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat

LESSON XLVIII, § 276

aciês, -êî, f., line of battle
aestâs, aestâtis, f., summer
annus, -î, m., year (annual)
diês, diêî, m., day (diary)
fidês, fideî, no plur., f., faith, trust; promise, word; protection; in fidem venîre, to come under the protection
fluctus, -ûs, m. wave, billow (fluctuate)
hiems, hiemis, f., winter
hôra, -ae, f., hour
lûx, lûcis, f., light (lucid); prîma lux, daybreak
merîdiês, acc. -em, abl. , no plur., m., midday (meridian)
nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (nocturnal)
prîmus, -a, -um, first (prime)
rês, reî, f., thing, matter (real);
rês gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things performed); rês adversae, adversity; rês secundae, prosperity
spês, speî, f., hope

LESSON XLIX, § 283

amîcitia, -ae, f., friendship (amicable)
itaque, conj., and so, therefore, accordingly
littera, -ae, f., a letter of the alphabet;
plur., a letter, an epistle
metus, metûs, m., fear
nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing (nihilist)
nûntius, nûntî, m., messenger. Cf. nûntiô
pâx, pâcis, f., peace (pacify)
rêgnum, -î, n., reign, sovereignty, kingdom
supplicum, suppli´cî, n., punishment;
supplicum sûmere dê, with abl., inflict punishment on;
supplicum dare, suffer punishment. Cf. poena
placeô, placêre, placuî, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf. § 154
sûmô, sûmere, sûmpsî, sûmptus, take up, assume
sustineô, sustinêre, sustinuî, sustentus, sustain

LESSON L, § 288

corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal)
dênsus, -a, -um, dense
îdem, e´adem, idem, demonstrative pronoun, the same (identity)
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, self; even, very
mîrus, -a, -um, wonderful, marvelous (miracle)
ôlim, adv., formerly, once upon a time
pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, direction
quoque, adv., also. Stands after the word which it emphasizes
sôl, sôlis, m., sun (solar)
vêrus, -a, -um, true, real (verity)
dêbeô, dêbêre, dêbuî, dêbitus, owe, ought (debt)
êripiô, êripere, êripuî, êreptus, snatch from

LESSON LI, § 294

hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative pronoun, this (of mine); he, she, it
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative pronoun that (yonder); he, she, it
invîsus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, with dative Cf. § 143
iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours); he, she, it
lîbertâs, -âtis, f., liberty
modus, -î, m., measure; manner, way, mode
nômen, nôminis, n., name (nominate)
oculus, -î, m., eye (oculist)
prîstinus, -a, -um, former, old-time (pristine)
pûblicus, -a, -um, public, belonging to the state; rês pûblica, reî pûblicae, f., the commonwealth, the state, the republic
vestîgium, vestî´gî, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige
vôx, vôcis, f., voice

LESSON LII, § 298

incolumis, -e, unharmed
nê ... quidem, adv., not even. The emphatic word stands between and quidem
nisi, conj., unless, if ... not
paene, adv., almost (pen-insula)
satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satisfaction)
tantus, -a, -um, so great
vêrô, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. As a conj. but, however, usually stands second, never first.
dêcidô, dêcidere, dêcidî, ——, fall down (deciduous)
dêsiliô, dêsilîre, dêsiluî, dêsultus, leap down, dismount
maneô, manêre, mânsî, mânsûrus, remain
trâdûcô, trâdûcere, trâdûxî, trâductus, lead across

LESSON LIII, § 306

aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline)
audâx, gen. audâcis, adj., bold, audacious
celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick (celerity). Cf. vêlôx
explôratôr, -ôris, m., scout, spy (explorer)
ingêns, gen. ingentis, adj., huge, vast
medius, -a, -um, middle, middle part of (medium)
mêns, mentis (-ium), f., mind (mental). Cf. animus
opportûnus, -a, -um, opportune
quam, adv., than. With the superlative quam gives the force of as possible, as quam audâcissimî virî, men as bold as possible
recens, gen. recentis, adj., recent
tam, adv., so. Always with an adjective or adverb, while ita is generally used with a verb
quaerô, quaerere, quaesîvî, quaesîtus, ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf. petô

LESSON LIV, § 310

alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, excited (alacrity)
celeritâs, -âtis, f., speed (celerity)
clâmor, clâmôris, m., shout, clamor
lênis, lêne, mild, gentle (lenient)
mulier, muli´eris, f., woman
multitûdô, multitûdinis, f., multitude
nêmo, dat. nêminî, acc. nêminem (gen. nûllîus, abl. nûllô, from nûllus), no plur., m. and f., no one
nôbilis, nôbile, well known, noble
noctû, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal)
statim, adv., immediately, at once
subitô, adv., suddenly
tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy)
cupiô, cupere, cupîvî, cupîtus, desire, wish (cupidity)

LESSON LV, § 314

aedificium, aedifi´cî, n., building, dwelling (edifice)
imperium, impe´rî, n., command, chief power; empire
mors, mortis (-ium), f., death (mortal)
reliquus, -a, -um, remaining, rest of. As a noun, m. and n. plur., the rest (relic)
scelus, sceleris, n., crime
servitûs, -ûtis, f., slavery (servitude)
vallês, vallis (-ium), f., valley
abdô, abdere, abdidî, abditus, hide
contendô, contendere, contendî, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend)
occîdô, occîdere, occîdî, occîsus, cut down, kill. Cf. necô, interficiô
perterreô, perterrêre, perterruî, perterritus, terrify, frighten
recipiô, recipere, recêpî, receptus, receive, recover; sê recipere, betake one's self, withdraw, retreat
trâdô, trâdere, trâdidî, trâditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor)

LESSON LVI, § 318

aditus, -ûs, m., approach, access; entrance
cîvitâs, cîvitâtis, f., citizenship; body of citizens, state (city)
inter, prep, with acc., between, among (interstate commerce)
nam, conj., for
obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage
paulô, adv. (abl. n. of paulus), by a little, somewhat
incolô, incolere, incoluî, ——, transitive, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf.
habitô, vîvô
relinquô, relinquere, relîquî, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquish)
statuô, statuere, statuî, statûtus, fix, decide (statute), usually with infin.

LESSON LVII, § 326

aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal
cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
currô, currere, cucurrî, cursus, run (course)
difficultâs, -âtis, f., difficulty
fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse)
gêns, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, nation (Gentile)
negôtium, negôtî, n., business, affair, matter (negotiate)
regiô, -ônis, f., region, district
rûmor, rûmôris, m., rumor, report. Cf. fâma
simul atque, conj., as soon as
suscipiô, suscipere, suscêpî, susceptus, undertake
trahô, trahere, trâxî, trâctus, drag, draw (ex-tract)
valeô, valêre, valuî, valitûrus, be strong; plûrimum valêre, to be most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf. validus

LESSON LVIII, § 332

commeâtus, -ûs, m.. provisions
lâtitûdô, -inis, f., width (latitude)
longitûdô, -inis, f., length (longitude)
magnitûdô, -inis, f., size, magnitude
mercâtor, mercâtôris, m., trader, merchant
mûnîtiô, -ônis, f., fortification (munition)
spatium, spatî, n., room, space, distance; time
cognôscô, cognôscere, cognôvî, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know (re-cognize)
côgô, côgere, coêgî, coâctus, collect; compel (cogent)
dêfendô, dêfendere, dêfendî, dêfênsus, defend
incendô, incendere, incendî, incênsus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). Cf. cremô
obtineô, obtinêre, obtinuî, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain)
perveniô, pervenîre, pervênî, perventus, come through, arrive

LESSON LIX, § 337

agmen, agminis, n., line of march, column; prîmum agmen, the van; novissimum agmen, the rear
atque, ac, conj., and; atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac before consonants only. Cf. et and -que
concilium, conci´lî, n., council, assembly
Helvêtiî, -ôrum, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
passus, passûs, m., a pace, five Roman feet; mîlle passuum, a thousand (of) paces, a Roman mile
quâ dê causâ, for this reason, for what reason
vâllum, -î, n., earth-works, rampart
cadô, cadere, cecidî, câsûrus, fall (decadence)
dêdô, dêdere, dêdidî, dêditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one's self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object
premô, premere, pressî, pressus, press hard, harass
vexô, vexâre, vexâvî, vexâtus, annoy, ravage (vex)

LESSON LX, § 341

aut, conj., or; aut ... aut, either ... or
causâ, abl. of causa, for the sake of, because of. Always stands after the gen. which modifies it
ferê, adv., nearly, almost
opîniô, -ônis, f., opinion, supposition, expectation
rês frûmentâria, reî frûmentâriae, f. (lit. the grain affair), grain supply
timor, -ôris, m., fear. Cf. timeô
undique, adv., from all sides
cônor, cônârî, cônâtus sum, attempt, try
êgredior, êgredî, êgressus sum, move out, disembark; prôgredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress)
moror, morârî, morâtus sum, delay
orior, orirî, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from) (origin)
proficîscor, proficîscî, profectus sum, set out
revertor, revertî, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., revertî
sequor, sequî, secûtus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following compounds of sequor and the force of the different prefixes: cônsequor (follow with), overtake; însequor (follow against), pursue; subsequor (follow under), follow close after

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such; they are inserted to show etymological meanings.

{Transcriber's Note:
The "parentheses" are shown in square brackets [ ], as in the original.}

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V 

 
A
â or ab, prep. with abl. from, by, off. Translated on in â dextrô cornû, on the right wing; â fronte, on the front or in front; â dextrâ, on the right; â latere, on the side; etc.
ab-dô, -ere, -didî, -ditus, hide, conceal
ab-dûcô, -ere, -dûxî, -ductus, lead off, lead away
abs-cîdô, -ere, -cîdî,-cîsus [ab(s), off, + caedô, cut], cut off
ab-sum, -esse, âfuî, âfutûrus, be away, be absent, be distant, be off; with â or ab and abl., § 501.32
ac, conj., see atque
ac-cipiô, -ere, -cêpî, -ceptus [ad, to, + capiô, take], receive, accept
âcer, âcris, âcre, adj. sharp; figuratively, keen, active, eager (§ 471)
acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter, sour
aciês, -êî, f. [âcer, sharp], edge; line of battle
âcriter, adv. [âcer, sharp], compared âcrius, âcerrimê, sharply, fiercely
ad, prep. with acc. to, towards, near. With the gerund or gerundive, to, for
ad-aequô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, make equal, make level with
ad-dûcô, -ere, -dûxî, -ductus, lead to; move, induce
ad-eô, -îre, -iî, -itus, go to, approach, draw near, visit, with acc. (§ 413)
ad-ferô, ad-ferre, at-tulî, ad-lâtus, bring, convey; report, announce; render, give (§ 426)
ad-ficiô, -ere, -fêcî, -fectus [ad, to, + faciô, do], affect, visit
adflîctâtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of adflîctô, shatter], shattered
ad-flîgô, -ere, -flîxî, -flîctus, dash upon, strike upon; harass, distress
ad-hibeô, -êre, -uî, -itus [ad, to, + habeô, hold], apply, employ, use
ad-hûc, adv. hitherto, as yet, thus far
aditus, -ûs, m. [adeô, approach], approach, access; entrance. Cf. adventus
ad-ligô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, bind to, fasten
ad-loquor, -loquî, -locûtus sum, dep. verb [ad, to, + loquor, speak], speak to, address, with acc.
ad-ministrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, manage, direct
admîrâtiô, -ônis, f. [admîror, wonder at], admiration, astonishment
ad-moveô, -êre, -môvî, -môtus, move to; apply, employ
ad-propinquô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, come near, approach, with dat.
ad-sum, -esse, -fuî, -futûres, be present; assist; with dat., § 426
adulêscêns, -entis, m. and f. [part. of adolêscô, grow], a youth, young man, young person
adventus, -ûs, m. [ad, to, + veniô, come], approach, arrival (§ 466)
adversus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of advertô, turn to], turned towards, facing; contrary, adverse.
rês adversae, adversity
aedificium, aedifi´cî, n. [aedificô, build], building, edifice
aedificô, -âre, -âvi, -âtus [aedês, house, + faciô, make], build
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, feeble
aequâlis, -e, adj. equal, like. As a noun, aequâlis, -is, m. or f. one of the same age
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, level; equal
Aesôpus, -î, m. Æsop, a writer of fables
aestâs, -âtis, f. summer, initâ aestâte, at the beginning of summer
aetâs, -âtis, f. age
Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a country in Africa
Âfrica, -ae, f. Africa
Âfricânus, -a, -um, adj. of Africa. A name given to Scipio for his victories in Africa
ager, agrî, m. field, farm, land (§ 462. c)
agger, -eris, m. mound
agmen, -inis, n. [agô, drive], an army on the march, column.
prîmum agmen, the van
agô, -ere, êgî, âctus, drive, lead; do, perform.
vîtam agere, pass life
agricola, -ae, m. [ager, field, + colô, cultivate], farmer
agrî cultûra, -ae, f. agriculture
âla, -ae, f. wing
alacer, -cris, -cre, adj. active, eager. Cf. âcer
alacritâs, -âtis, f. [alacer, active], eagerness, alacrity
alacriter, adv. [alacer, active], comp alacrius, alacerrimê, actively, eagerly
albus, -a, -um, adj., white
alcês, -is, f. elk
Alcmêna, -ae, f. Alcme´na, the mother of Hercules
aliquis (-quî), -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. pron. some one, some (§ 487)
alius, -a, -ud (gen. -îus, dat. ), adj. another, other.
alius ... alius, one ... another.
aliî ... aliî, some ... others (§ 110)
Alpês, -ium, f. plur. the Alps
alter, -era, -erum (gen. -îus, dat. ), adj. the one, the other (of two).
alter ... alter, the one ... the other (§ 110)
altitûdô, -inis, f. [altus, high], height
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall, deep
Amâzonês, -um, f. plur. Amazons, a fabled tribe of warlike women
ambô, -ae, -ô, adj. (decl. like duo), both
amîcê, adv. [amîcus, friendly], superl. amîcissimê, in a friendly manner
amiciô, -îre, ——, -ictus [am-, about, + iaciô, throw], throw around, wrap about, clothe
amîcitia, -ae, f. [amîcus, friend], friendship
amîcus, -a, -um, adj. [amô, love], friendly. As a noun, amîcus, -î, m. friend
â-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus, send away; lose
amô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, love, like, be fond of (§ 488)
amphitheâtrum, -î, n. amphitheater
amplus, -a, -um, adj. large, ample; honorable, noble
an, conj. or, introducing the second part of a double question
ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant
ancora, -ae, f. anchor
Andromeda, -ae, f. Androm´eda, daughter of Cepheus and wife of Perseus
angulus, -î, m. angle, corner
anim-advertô, -ere, -tî, -sus [animus, mind, + advertô, turn to], turn the mind to, notice
animal, -âlis, n. [anima, breath], animal (§ 465. b)
animôsus, -a, -um, adj. spirited
animus, -î, m. [anima, breath], mind, heart; spirit, courage, feeling; in this sense often plural
annus, -i, m. year
ante, prep, with acc. before
anteâ, adv. [ante], before, formerly
antîquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante, before], former, ancient, old
aper, aprî, m. wild boar
Apollô, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, brother of Diana
ap-pâreô, -êre, -uî, —— [ad + pâreô, appear], appear
ap-pellô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, call by name, name. Cf. nôminô, vocô
Appius, -a, -um, adj. Appian
ap-plicô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, apply, direct, turn
apud, prep, with acc. among; at, at the house of
aqua, -ae, f. water
aquila, -ae, f. eagle
âra, -ae, f. altar
arbitror, -ârî, -âtus sum, think, suppose (§ 420. c). Cf. exîstimô, putô
arbor, -oris, f. tree (§ 247. 1. a)
Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a district in southern Greece
ârdeô, -êre, ârsî, ârsûrus, be on fire, blaze, burn
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep
Arîcia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on the Appian Way, near Rome
ariês, -etis, m. battering-ram (p. 221)
arma, -ôrum, n. plur. arms, weapons. Cf. têlum
armâtus, -a, -um, adj. [armô, arm], armed, equipped
arô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, plow, till
ars, artis, f. art, skill
articulus, -î, m. joint
ascrîbô, -ere, -scrîpsî, -scrîptus [ad, in addition, + scrîbô, write], enroll, enlist
Âsia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia Minor
at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed
Athênae, -ârum, f. plur. Athens
Atlâs, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan who was said to hold up the sky
at-que, ac, conj. and, and also, and what is more. atque may be used before either vowels or consonants, ac before consonants only
attentus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of attendô, direct (the mind) toward], attentive, intent on, careful
at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj. thunderstruck, astounded
audâcia, -ae, f. [audâx, bold], boldness, audacity
audâcter, adv. [audâx, bold], compared audâcius, audâcissimê, boldly
audâx, -âcis, adj. bold, daring
audeô, -êre, ausus sum, dare
audiô, -îre, -îvî or -îî, -îtus, hear, listen to (§§ 420.d; 491)
Augêâs, -ae, m. Auge´as, a king whose stables Hercules cleaned
aura, -ae, f. air, breeze
aurâtus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], adorned with gold
aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], golden
aurum, -î, n. gold
aut, conj. or.
aut ... aut, either ... or
autem, conj., usually second, never first, in the clause, but, moreover, however, now. Cf. at, sed
auxilium, auxi´lî, n. help, aid, assistance; plur. auxiliaries
â-vertô, -ere, -tî, -sus, turn away, turn aside
avis, -is, f. bird (§ 243. 1)
 
B
ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an engine for hurling missiles (p. 220)
balteus, -î, m. belt, sword belt
barbarus, -î, m. barbarian, savage
bellum, -î, n. war.
bellum înferre, with dat. make war upon
bene, adv. [for bonê, from bonus], compared melius, optimê, well
benignê, adv. [benignus, kind], compared benignius, benignissimê, kindly
benignus, -a, -um, adj. good-natured, kind, often used with dat.
bînî, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. two each, two at a time (§ 334)
bis, adv. twice
bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared melior, optimus, good, kind (§ 469. a)
bôs, bovis (gen. plur. boum or bovum, dat. and abl. plur. bôbus or bûbus), m. and f. ox, cow
bracchium, bracchî, n. arm
brevis, -e, adj. short
Brundisium, -î, n. Brundisium, a seaport in southern Italy. See map
bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket made of small concave plates of gold fastened by a spring (p. 212)
 
C
C. abbreviation for Gâius, Eng. Caius
cadô, -ere, ce´cidî, câsûrus, fall
caedês, -is, f. [caedô, cut], (a cutting down), slaughter, carnage (§ 465. a)
caelum, -î, n. sky, heavens
Caesar, -aris, m. Cæsar, the famous general, statesman, and writer
calamitâs, -âtis, f. loss, calamity, defeat, disaster
calcar, -âris, n. spur (§ 465. b)
Campânia, -ae, f. Campania., a district of central Italy. See map
Campânus, -a, -um, adj. of Campania
campus, -î, m. plain, field, esp. the Campus Martius, along the Tiber just outside the walls of Rome
canis, -is, m. and f. dog
canô, -ere, ce´cinî, ——, sing
cantô, -âre, -âvi, -âtus [canô, sing], sing
Capênus, -a, -um, adj. of Capena, esp. the Porta Cape´na, the gate at Rome leading to the Appian Way
capiô, -ere, cêpî, captus, take, seize, capture (§ 492)
Capitôlînus, -a, -um, adj. belonging to the Capitol, Capitoline
Capitôlium, Capitô´lî, n. [caput, head], the Capitol, the hill at Rome on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and the citadel
capsa, -ae, f. box for books
captîvus, -î, m. [capiô, take], captive
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large city of Campania. See map
caput, -itis, n. head (§ 464. 2. b)
carcer, -eris, m. prison, jail
carrus, -î, m. cart, wagon
cârus, -a, -um, adj. dear; precious
casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage
castellum, -î, n. [dim. of castrum, fort], redoubt, fort
castrum, -î, n. fort. Usually in the plural, castra, -ôrum, a military camp.
castra pônere, to pitch camp
câsus, -us, m. [cadô, fall], chance; misfortune, loss
catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an engine for hurling stones
catêna, -ae, f. chain
caupôna, -ae, f. inn
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason, quâ dê causâ, for this reason
cêdô, -ere, cessî, cessûrus, give way, retire
celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet
celeritâs, -âtis, f. [celer, swift], swiftness, speed
celeriter, adv. [celer, swift], compared celerius, celerrimê, swiftly
cêna, -ae, f. dinner
centum, indecl. numeral adj. hundred
centuriô, -ônis, m. centurion, captain
Cêpheus (dissyl.), -eî (acc. Cêphea), m. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda
Cerberus, -î, m. Cerberus, the fabled three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades
certâmen, -inis, n. [certô, struggle], struggle, contest, rivalry
certê, adv. [certus, sure], compared certius, certissimê, surely, certainly
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, certain, sure.
aliquem certiôrem facere (to make some one more certain), to inform some one
cervus, -î, m. stag, deer
cessô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, delay, cease
cibâria, -ôrum, n. plur. food, provisions
cibus, -î, m. food, victuals
Cimbrî, -ôrum, m. plur. the Cimbri
Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj. Cimbrian
cînctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of cingô, surround], girt, surrounded
cingô, -ere, cînxî, cînctus, gird, surround
circiter, adv. about
circum, prep, with acc. around
circum´-dô, -dare, -dedî, -datus, place around, surround, inclose
circum´-eô, -îre, -iî, -itus, go around
circum-sistô, -ere, circum´stetî, ——, stand around, surround
circum-veniô, -îre, -vênî, -ventus (come around), surround
citerior, -ius, adj. in comp., superl. citimus, hither, nearer (§ 475)
cîvîlis, -e, adj. [cîvis], civil
cîvis, -is, m. and f. citizen (§ 243. 1)
cîvitâs, -âtis, f. [cîvis, citizen], (body of citizens), state; citizenship
clâmor, -ôris, m. shout, cry
clârus, -a, -um, adj. clear; famous, renowned; bright, shining
classis, -is, f. fleet
claudô, -ere, -sî, -sus, shut, close
clavus, -î, m. stripe
cliêns, -entis, m. dependent, retainer, client (§ 465. a)
Cocles, -itis, m. (blind in one eye), Cocles, the surname of Horatius
co-gnôscô, -ere, -gnôvî, -gnîtus, learn, know, understand. Cf. sciô (§ 420. b)
côgô, -ere, coêgî, coâctus [co(m)-, together, + agô, drive], (drive together), collect; compel, drive
cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
collis, -is, m. hill, in summô colle, on top of the hill (§ 247. 2. a)
collum, -î, n. neck
colô, -ere, coluî, cultus, cultivate, till; honor, worship; devote one's self to
columna, -ae, f. column, pillar
com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a prefix, together, with, or intensifying the meaning of the root word
coma, -ae, f. hair
comes, -itis, m. and f. [com-, together, + , go], companion, comrade
comitâtus, -ûs, m. [comitor, accompany], escort, company
comitor, -ârî, -âtus sum, dep. verb [comes, companion], accompany
com-meâtus, -ûs, m. supplies
com-minus, adv. [com-, together, + manus, hand], hand to hand
com-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus, join together; commit, intrust.
proelium committere, join battle.
sê committere with dat, trust one's self to
commodê, adv. [commodus, fit], compared commodius, commodissimê, conveniently, fitly
commodus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
com-môtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of commoveô, move], aroused, moved
com-parô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [com-, intensive, + parô, prepare], prepare; provide, get
com-pleô, -êre, -plêvî, -plêtus [com-, intensive, + pleô, fill], fill up
complexus, -ûs, m. embrace
com-primô, -ere, -pressî, -pressus [com-, together, + premô, press], press together, grasp, seize
con-cidô, -ere, -cidî, —— [com-, intensive, + cadô, fall], fall down
concilium, conci´lî, n. meeting, council
con-clûdô, -ere, -clûsî, -clûsus [com-, intensive, + claudô, close], shut up, close; end, finish
con-currô, -ere, -currî, -cursus [com-, together, + currô, run], run together; rally, gather
condiciô, -ônis, f. [com-, together, + dicô, talk], agreement, condition, terms
con-dônô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, pardon
con-dûcô, -ere, -dûxî, -ductus, hire
côn-ferô, -ferre, -tulî, -lâtus, bring together.
sê cônferre, betake one's self
côn-fertus, -a, -um, adj. crowded, thick
cônfestim, adv. immediately
côn-ficiô, -ere, -fêcî, -fectus [com-, completely, + faciô, do], make, complete, accomplish, finish
côn-fîrmô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, make firm, establish, strengthen, affirm, assert
côn-fluô, -ere, -flûxî, ——, flow together
côn-fugiô, -ere, -fûgî, -fugitûrus, flee for refuge, flee
con-iciô, -ere, -iêcî, -iectus [com-, intensive, + iaciô, throw], hurl
con-iungô, -ere, -iûnxî, -iûnctus [com-, together, + iungô, join], join together, unite
con-iûrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [com-, together, + iûrô, swear], unite by oath, conspire
con-locô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [com-, together, + locô, place], arrange, place, station
conloquium, conlo´quî, n. [com-, together, + loquor, speak], conversation, conference
cônor, -ârî, -âtus sum, dep. verb, endeavor, attempt, try
côn-scendô, -ere, -scendî, -scênsus [com-, intensive, + scandô, climb], climb up, ascend.
nâvem cônscendere, embark, go on board
côn-scrîbô, -ere, -scrîpsî, -scrîptus [com-, together, + scrîbô, write], (write together), enroll, enlist
côn-secrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [com-, intensive, + sacrô, consecrate], consecrate, devote
côn-sequor, -sequî, -secûtus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + sequor, follow], pursue; overtake; win
côn-servô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [com-, intensive, + servô, save], preserve, save
cônsilium, cônsi´lî, n. plan, purpose, design; wisdom
côn-sistô, -ere, -stitî, -stitus [com-, intensive, + sistô, cause to stand], stand firmly, halt, take one's stand
côn-spiciô, -ere, -spêxî, -spectus [com-, intensive, + spiciô, spy], look at attentively, perceive, see
cônstantia, -ae, f. firmness, steadiness, perseverance
côn-stituô, -ere, -uî, -ûtus [com-, intensive, + statuô, set], establish, determine, resolve
côn-stô, -âre, -stitî, -stâtûrus [com-, together, + stô, stand], agree; be certain ; consist of
cônsul, -ulis, m. consul (§ 464. 2. a)
côn-sûmô, -ere, -sûmpsî, -sûmptus [com-, intensive, + sumô, take], consume, use up
con-tendô, -ere, -dî, -tus, strain; hasten; fight, contend, struggle
con-tineô, -êre, -uî, -tentus [com-, together, + teneô, hold], hold together, hem in, contain; restrain
contrâ, prep, with acc. against, contrary to
con-trahô, -ere, -trâxî, -trâctus [com-, together, + trahô, draw], draw together; of sails, shorten, furl
contrôversia, -ae, f. dispute, quarrel
con-veniô, -îre, -vênî, -ventus [com-, together, + veniô, come], come together, meet, assemble
con-vertô, -ere, -vertî, -versus [com-, intensive, + vertô, turn], turn
con-vocô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [com-, together, + vocô, call], call together
co-orior, -îrî, -ortus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + orior, rise], rise, break forth
côpia, -ae, f. [com-, intensive, + ops, wealth], abundance, wealth, plenty. Plur. côpiae, -ârum, troops
coquô, -ere, coxî, coctus, cook
Corinthus, -î, f. Corinth, the famous city on the Isthmus of Corinth
Cornêlia, -ae, f. Cornelia, daughter of Scipio and mother of the Gracchi
Cornêlius, Cornê´lî, m. Cornelius, a Roman name
cornû, -ûs, n. horn; wing of an army, â dextrô cornû, on the right wing (§ 466)
corôna, -ae, f. garland, wreath; crown
corônâtus, -a, -um, adj. crowned
corpus, -oris, n. body
cor-ripiô, -ere, -uî, -reptus [com-, intensive, + rapiô, seize], seize, grasp
cotîdiânus, -a, -um, adj. daily
cotîdiê, adv. daily
crêber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick, crowded, numerous, frequent
crêdô, -ere, -dîdî, -ditus, trust, believe, with dat. (§ 501.14)
cremô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, burn
creô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, make; elect, appoint
Creôn, -ontis, m. Creon, a king of Corinth
crêscô, -ere, crêvî, crêtus, rise, grow, increase
Crêta, -ae, f. Crete, a large island in the Mediterranean
Crêtaeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan
crûs, crûris, n. leg
crûstulum, -î, n. pastry, cake
cubîle, -is, n. bed
cultûra, -ae, f. culture, cultivation
cum, conj. with the indic. or subjv. when; since; although (§ 501.46)
cum, prep, with abl. with (§ 209)
cupidê, adv. [cupidus, desirous], compared cupidius, cupidissimê, eagerly
cupiditâs, -âtis, f. [cupidus, desirous], desire, longing
cupiô, -ere, -îvî or -iî, -îtus, desire, wish. Cf. volô
cûr, adv. why, wherefore
cûra, -ae, f. care, pains; anxiety
cûria, -ae, f. senate house
cûrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [cûra, care], care for, attend to, look after
currô, -ere, cucurrî, cursus, run
currus, -ûs, m. chariot
cursus, -ûs, m. course
custôdiô, -îre, -îvî, -îtus [custôs, guard], guard, watch
 
D
Daedalus, -î, m. Dæd´alus, the supposed inventor of the first flying machine
Dâvus, -î, m. Davus, name of a slave
, prep, with abl. down from, from; concerning, about, for (§ 209).
quâ dê causâ, for this reason, wherefore
dea, -ae, f. goddess (§ 461. a)
dêbeô, -êre, -uî, -itus [, from, + habeô, hold], owe, ought, should
decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten
dê-cernô, -ere, -crêvî, -crêtus [, from, + cernô, separate], decide, decree
dê-cidô, -ere, -cidî, —— [, down, + cadô, fall], fall down
decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. tenth
dêclîvis, -e, adj. sloping downward
dê-dô, -ere, -didî, -ditus, give up, surrender, sê dêdere, surrender one's self
dê-dûcô, -ere, -dûxî, -ductus [, down, + dûcô, lead], lead down, escort
dê-fendô, -ere, -dî, -fênsus, ward off, repel, defend
dê-ferô, -ferre, -tulî, -lâtus [, down, + ferô, bring], bring down; report, announce (§ 426)
dê-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, weary
dê-ficiô, -ere, -fêcî, -fectus [, from, + faciô, make], fail, be wanting; revolt from
dê-fîgô, -ere, -fîxî, -fîxus [, down, + fîgô, fasten], fasten, fix
dê-iciô, -ere, -iêcî, -iectus [, down, + iaciô, hurl], hurl down; bring down, kill
de-inde, adv. (from thence), then, in the next place
dêlectô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, delight
dêleô, -êre, -êvî, -êtus, blot out, destroy
dêlîberô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, weigh, deliberate, ponder
dê-ligô, -ere, -lêgî, -lêctus [, from, + legô, gather], choose, select
Delphicus, -a, -um, adj. Delphic
dêmissus, -a, -um [part. of dêmittô, send down], downcast, humble
dê-mônstrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [, out, + mônstrô, point], point out, show
dêmum, adv. at last, not till then.
tum dêmum, then at last
dênique, adv. at last, finally. Cf. postrêmô
dêns, dentis, m. tooth (§ 247. 2. a)
dênsus, -a, -um, adj. dense, thick
dê-pendeô, -êre, ——, —— [, down, + pendeô, hang], hang from, hang down
dê-plôrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [, intensive, + plôrô, wail], bewail, deplore
dê-pônô, -ere, -posuî, -positus [, down, + pônô, put], put down
dê-scendô, -ere, -dî, -scênsus [, down, + scandô, climb], climb down, descend
dê-scrîbô, -ere, -scrîpsî, -scrîptus [, down, + scrîbô, write], write down
dêsîderô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, long for
dê-siliô, -îre, -uî, -sultus [, down, + saliô, leap], leap down
dê-spêrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [, away from, + spêrô, hope], despair
dê-spiciô, -ere, -spêxi, -spectus [, down], look down upon, despise
dê-sum, -esse, -fuî, -futûrus [, away from, + sum, be], be wanting, lack, with dat. (§ 426)
deus, -î, m. god (§ 468)
dê-volvô, -ere, -volvî, -volûtus [, down, + volvô, roll], roll down
dê-vorô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [, down, + vorô, swallow], devour
dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, -terum), adj. to the right, right.
â dextrô cornû, on the right wing
Diâna, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the moon and twin sister of Apollo
dîcô, -ere, dîxî, dictus (imv. dîc), say, speak, tell. Usually introduces indirect discourse (§ 420. a)
dictâtor, -ôris, m. [dictô, dictate], dictator, a chief magistrate with unlimited power
diês, -êi or diê, m., sometimes f. in sing., day (§ 467)
dif-ferô, -ferre, distulî, dîlâtus [dis-, apart, + ferô, carry], carry apart; differ.
differre inter sê, differ from each other
dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-, not, + facilis, easy], hard, difficult (§ 307)
difficultâs, -âtis, f. [difficilis, hard], difficulty
dîligenter, adv. [dîligêns, careful], compared dîligentius, dîligentissimê, industriously, diligently
dîligentia, -ae, f. [dîligêns, careful], industry, diligence
dî-micô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, fight, struggle
dî-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus [dî-, off, + mittô, send], send away, dismiss, disband.
dîmittere animum in, direct one's mind to, apply one's self to
Diomêdês, -is, m. Dî-o-mê´dês, a name
dis-, dî-, a prefix expressing separation, off, apart, in different directions. Often negatives the meaning
dis-cêdô, -ere, -cessî, -cessus [dis-, apart, + cêdô, go], depart from, leave, withdraw, go away
dis-cernô, -ere, -crêvî, -crêtus [dis-, apart, + cernô, sift], separate; distinguish
disciplîna, -ae, f. instruction, training, discipline
discipulus, -î, m. [discô, learn], pupil, disciple
discô, -ere, didicî, ——, learn
dis-cutiô, -ere, -cussî, -cussus [dis-, apart, + quatiô, shake], shatter, dash to pieces
dis-pônô, -ere, -posuî, -positus [dis-, apart, + pônô, put], put here and there, arrange, station
dis-similis, -e, adj. [dis-, apart, + similis, like], unlike, dissimilar (§ 307)
dis-tribuô, -ere, -uî, -ûtus, divide, distribute
diû, adv., compared diûtius, diûtissimê, for a long time, long (§ 477)
dô, dare, dedî, datus, give.
in fugam dare, put to flight.
alicui negôtium dare, employ some one
doceô, -êre, -uî, -tus, teach, show
doctrîna, -ae, f. [doctor, teacher], teaching, learning, wisdom
dolor, -ôris, m. pain, sorrow
domesticus, -a, -um, adj. [domus, house], of the house, domestic
domicilium, domici´lî, n. dwelling; house, abode. Cf. domus
domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the house), lady (§ 461)
dominus, -î, m. master (of the house), owner, ruler (§ 462)
domus, -ûs, f. house, home.
domî, locative, at home (§ 468)
dormiô, -îre, -îvî, -îtus, sleep
dracô, -ônis, m. serpent, dragon
dubitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, hesitate
dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo, two], (moving two ways), doubtful, dubious
du-centî, -ae, -a, numeral adj. two hundred
dûcô, -ere, dûxî, ductus (imv. dûc), lead, conduct
dum, conj. while, as long as
duo, duae, duo, numeral adj. two (§ 479)
duo-decim, indecl. numeral adj. twelve
dûrus, -a, -um, adj. hard, tough; harsh, pitiless, bitter
dux, ducis, m. and f. [cf. dûcô, lead], leader, commander
 
E
ê or ex, prep, with abl. out of, from, off, of (§ 209)
eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory
ecce, adv. see! behold! there! here!
ê-dûcô, -ere, -dûxî, -ductus [ê, out, + dûcô, lead], lead out, draw out
ef-ficiô, -ere, -fêcî, -fectus [ex, thoroughly, + faciô, do], work out; make, cause
ef-fugiô, -ere, -fûgî, -fugitûrus [ex, from, + fugiô, flee], escape
egeô, -êre, -uî, ——, be in need of, lack, with abl. (§ 501.32)
ego, pers. pron. I; plur. nôs, we (§ 480)
ê-gredior, -î, êgressus sum, dep. verb [ê, out of, + gradior, go], go out, go forth.
ê nâvî êgredî, disembark
ê-iciô, -ere, -iêcî, -iectus [ê, forth, + iaciô, hurl], hurl forth, expel
elementum, -î, n., in plur. first principles, rudiments
elephantus, -î, m. elephant
Êlis, Êlidis, f. E´lis, a district of southern Greece
emô, -ere, êmî, êmptus, buy, purchase
enim, conj., never standing first, for, in fact, indeed. Cf. nam
Ennius, Ennî, m. Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, born 239 B.C.
eô, îre, iî (îvî), itûrus, go (§ 499)
, adv. to that place, thither
Êpîrus, -î, f. Epi´rus, a district in the north of Greece
eques, -itis, m. [equus, horse], horseman, cavalryman
equitâtus, -ûs, m. [equitô, ride], cavalry
equus, -î, m. horse
ê-rigô, -ere, -rêxî, -rêctus [ê, out, + regô, make straight], raise up
ê-ripiô, -ere, -uî, -reptus [ê, out of, + rapiô, seize], seize, rescue
ê-rumpô, -ere, -rûpî, -ruptus [ê, forth, + rumpô, break], burst forth
êruptiô, -ônis, f. sally
Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj. Erymanthian, of Erymanthus, a district in southern Greece
et, conj. and, also.
et ... et, both ... and. Cf. atque, ac, -que
etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) [et, also, + iam, now], yet, still; also, besides. Cf. quoque.
nôn sôlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
Etrûscî, -ôrum, m. the Etruscans, the people of Etruria. See map of Italy
Eurôpa, -ae, f. Europe
Eurystheus, -î, m. Eurys´theus, a king of Tiryns, a city in southern Greece
ê-vâdô, -ere, -vâsî, -vâsus [ê, out, + vâdô, go], go forth, escape
ex, see ê
exanimâtus, -a, -um [part. of exanimô, put out of breath (anima)], adj. out of breath, tired; lifeless
ex-cipiô, -ere, -cêpî, -ceptus [ex, out, + capiô, take], welcome, receive
exemplum, -î, n. example, model
ex-eô,-îre,-iî,-itûrus [ex, out, + , go], go out, go forth (§ 413)
ex-erceô, -êre, -uî, -itus [ex, out, + arceô, shut], (shut out), employ, train, exercise, use
exercitus, -us, m. [exerceô, train], army
ex-îstimô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [ex, out, + aestimô, reckon], estimate; think, judge (§ 420. c). Cf. arbitror, putô
ex-orior, -îrî, -ortus sum, dep. verb [ex, forth, + orior, rise], come forth, rise
expedîtus, -a, -um, adj. without baggage
ex-pellô, -ere, -pulî, -pulsus [ex, out, + pellô, drive], drive out
ex-piô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [ex, intensive, + pîo, atone for], make amends for, atone for
explôrâtor, -ôris, m. [explôrô, investigate], spy, scout
explôrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, examine, explore
ex-pugnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [ex, out, + pugnô, fight], take by storm, capture
exsilium, exsi´lî, n. [exsul, exile], banishment, exile
ex-spectô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [ex, out, + spectô, look], expect, wait
ex-struô, -ere, -strûxî, -strûctus [ex, out, + struô, build], build up, erect
exterus, -a, -um, adj., compared exterior, extrêmus or extimus, outside, outer (§ 312)
extrâ, prep, with acc. beyond, outside of
ex-trahô, -ere, -trâxî, -trâctus [ex, out, + trahô, drag], drag out, pull forth
extrêmus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of exterus, utmost, farthest (§ 312)
 
F
fâbula, -ae, f. story, tale, fable
facile, adv. [facilis, easy], compared facilius, facillimê, easily (§ 322)
facilis, -e, adj. [cf. faciô, make], easy, without difficulty (§ 307)
faciô, -ere, fêcî, factus (imv. fac), make, do; cause, bring about.
impetum facere in, make an attack upon.
proelium facere, fight a battle.
iter facere, make a march or journey.
aliquem certiôrem facere, inform some one.
facere verba prô, speak in behalf of.
Passive fîô, fierî, factus sum, be done, happen.
certior fierî, be informed
fallô, -ere, fefellî, falsus, trip, betray, deceive
fâma, -ae, f. report, rumor; renown, fame, reputation
famês, -is (abl. famê), f. hunger
familia, -ae, f. servants, slaves; household, family
fascês, -ium (plur. of fascis), f. fasces (p. 225)
fastîgium, fastî´gî, n. top; slope, descent
fâtum, -î, n. fate, destiny
faucês, -ium, f. plur. jaws, throat
faveô, -êre, fâvî, fautûrus, be favorable to, favor, with dat. (§ 501.14)
fêlîx, -îcis, adj. happy, lucky
fêmina, -ae, f. woman. Cf. mulier
fera, -ae, f. [ferus, wild], wild beast
ferâx, -âcis, adj. fertile
ferê, adv. about, nearly, almost
ferô, ferre, tulî, lâtus, bear.
graviter or molestê ferre, be annoyed (§ 498)
ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [ferrum, iron], made of iron
fidêlis, -e, adj. [fidês, trust], faithful, true
fidês, fideî or fidê, trust, faith; promise, word; protection.
in fidem venîre, come under the protection.
in fidê manêre, remain loyal
fîlia, -ae (dat. and abl. plur. fîliâbus), f. daughter (§ 461. a)
fîlius, fîlî (voc. sing, fîlî), m. son
fînis, -is, m. boundary, limit, end; in plur. territory, country (§ 243. 1)
fînitimus, -a, -um, adj. [fînis, boundary], adjoining, neighboring. Plur. fînitimî, -ôrum, m. neighbors
fîô, fierî, factus sum, used as passive of faciô. See faciô (§ 500)
flamma, -ae, f. fire, flame
flôs, flôris, m. flower
fluctus, -ûs, m. [of. fluô, flow], flood, wave, billow
flûmen, -inis, n. [cf. fluô, flow], river (§ 464. 2. b)
fluô, -ere, flûxî, fluxus, flow
fluvius, fluvî, m. [cf. fluô, flow], river
fodiô, -ere, fôdî, fossus, dig
fôns, fontis, m. fountain (§ 247. 2. a)
fôrma, -ae, f. form, shape, appearance; beauty
Formiae, -ârum, f. Formiae, a town of Latium on the Appian Way. See map
forte, adv. [abl. of fors, chance], by chance
fortis, -e, adj. strong; fearless, brave
fortiter, adv. [fortis, strong], compared fortius, fortissimê, strongly; bravely
fortûna, -ae, f. [fors, chance], chance, fate, fortune
forum, -î, n. market place, esp. the Forum Rômânum, where the life of Rome centered
Forum Appî, Forum of Appius, a town in Latium on the Appian Way
fossa, -ae, f. [cf. fodiô, dig], ditch
fragor, -ôris, m. [cf. frangô, break], crash, noise
frangô, -ere, frêgî, frâctus, break
frâter, -tris, m. brother
fremitus, -ûs, m. loud noise
frequentô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, attend
frêtus, -a, -um, adj. supported, trusting. Usually with abl. of means
frôns, frontis, f. front, â fronte, in front
frûctus, -ûs, m. fruit
frûmentârius, -a, -um, adj. pertaining to grain.
rês frûmentâria, grain supplies
frûmentum, -î, n. grain
frûstrâ, adv. in vain, vainly
fuga, -ae, f. [cf. fugiô, flee], flight.
in fugam dare, put to flight
fugiô, -ere, fûgî, fugitûrus, flee, run; avoid, shun
fûmô, -are, ——, ——, smoke
fûnis, -is, m. rope
furor, -ôris, m. [furô, rage], madness.
in furôrem incîdere, go mad
 
G
Gâius, Gâî, m. Gaius, a Roman name, abbreviated C., English form Caius
Galba, -ae, m. Galba, a Roman name
galea, -ae, f. helmet
Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul, the country comprising what is now Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and France
Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. Gallic
gallîna, -ae, f. hen, chicken
Gallus, -î, m. a Gaul
gaudium, gaudî, n. joy
Genâva, -ae, f. Geneva, a city in Switzerland
gêns, gentis, f. [cf. gignô, beget], race, family; people, nation, tribe
genus, -eris, n. kind, variety
Germânia, -ae, f. Germany
Germânus, -î, m. a German
gerô, -ere, gessî, gestus, carry, wear; wage.
bellum gerere, wage war.
rês gestae, exploits.
bene gerere, carry on successfully
gladiâtôrius, -a, -um, adj. gladiatorial
gladius, gladî, m. sword
glôria, -ae, f. glory, fame
Gracchus, -î, m. Gracchus, name of a famous Roman family
gracilis, -e, adj. slender (§ 307)
Graeca, -ôrum, n. plur. Greek writings, Greek literature
Graecê, adv. in Greek
Graecia, -ae, f. Greece
grammaticus, -î, m. grammarian
grâtia, -ae, f. thanks, gratitude
grâtus, -a, -um, adj. acceptable, pleasing. Often with dat. (§ 501.16)
gravis, -ê, adj. heavy; disagreeable; serious, dangerous; earnest, weighty
graviter, adv. [gravis, heavy], compared gravius, gravissimê, heavily; greatly, seriously.
graviter ferre, bear ill, take to heart
gubernâtor, -ôris, m. [gubernô, pilot], pilot
 
H
habêna, -ae, f. halter, rein.
habeô, -êre, -uî, -itus, have, hold; regard, consider, deem
habitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [cf. habeô, have], dwell, abide, inhabit. Cf. incolô, vîvô
hâc-tenus, adv. thus far
Helvêtiî, -ôrum, m. the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
Herculês, -is, m. Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, and god of strength
Hesperidês, -um, f. the Hesperides, daughters of Hesperus, who kept the garden of the golden apples
hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative adj. and pron. this (of mine); as pers. pron. he, she, it (§ 481)
hîc, adv. here
hiems, -emis, f. winter
hînc, adv. [hîc, here], from here, hence
Hippolytê, -ês, f. Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons
ho-diê, adv. [modified form of hôc diê, on this day], to-day
homô, -inis, m. and f. (human being), man, person
honestus, -a, -um, adv. [honor, honor], respected, honorable
honor, -ôris, m. honor
hôra, -ae, f. hour
Horâtius, Horâ´tî, m. Horatius, a Roman name
horribilis, -e, adj. terrible, horrible
hortor, -âri, -âtus sum, dep. verb, urge, incite, exhort, encourage (§ 493)
hortus, -î, m. garden
hospitium, hospi´tî, n. [hospes, host], hospitality
hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, foe (§ 465. a)
humilis, -e, adj. low, humble (§ 307)
Hydra, -ae, f. the Hydra, a mythical water snake slain by Hercules
 
I
iaciô, -ere, iêcî, iactus, throw, hurl
iam, adv. now, already.
nec iam, and no longer
Iâniculum, -î, n. the Janiculum, one of the hills of Rome
iânua, -ae, f. door
ibi, adv. there, in that place
Îcarus, -î, m. Ic´arus, the son of Dædalus
ictus, -ûs, m. [cf. îcô, strike], blow
îdem, e´adem, idem, demonstrative pron. [is + dem], same (§ 481)
idôneus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
igitur, conj., seldom the first word, therefore, then. Cf. itaque
ignis, -is, m. fire (§§ 243.1; 247.2.a; 465.1)
ignôtus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + (g)notus, known], unknown, strange
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (yonder); as pers. pron. he, she, it (§ 481)
illîc, adv. [cf. ille], yonder, there
im-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus [in, against, + mittô, send], send against; let in
immolô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [in, upon, + mola, meal], sprinkle with sacrificial meal; offer, sacrifice
im-mortâlis, -e, adj. [in-, not, + mortalis, mortal], immortal
im-mortâlitâs, -âtis, f. [immortâlis, immortal], immortality
im-parâtus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + parâtus, prepared], unprepared
impedîmentum, -î, n. [impediô, hinder], hindrance; in plur. baggage
impedîtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of impediô, hinder], hindered, burdened
im-pellô, -ere, -pulî, -pulsus [in, against, + pellô, strike], strike against; impel, drive, propel
imperâtor, -ôris, m. [imperô, command], general
imperium, impe´rî, n. [imperô, command], command, order; realm, empire; power, authority
imperô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, command, order. Usually with dat. and an object clause of purpose (§ 501.41). With acc. object, levy, impose
impetus, -ûs, m. attack, impetum facere in, make an attack upon
im-pônô, -ere, -posui, -positus [in, upon, + pônô, place], place upon; impose, assign
in, prep, with acc. into, to, against, at, upon, towards; with abl. in, on.
in reliquum tempus, for the future
in-, inseparable prefix. With nouns and adjectives often with a negative force, like English un-, in-
in-cautus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + cautus, careful], off one's guard
incendium, incendî, n. flame, fire. Cf. ignis, flamma
in-cendô, -ere, -dî, -cênsus, set fire to, burn
in-cidô, -ere, -cidî, ——, [in, in, on, + cadô, fall], fall in, fall on; happen.
in furôrem incidere, go mad
in-cipiô, -ere, -cêpi, -ceptus [in, on, + capiô, take], begin
in-cognitus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + cognitus, known], unknown
in-colô, -ere, -uî, ——, [in, in, + colô, dwell], inhabit; live
incolumis, -e, adj. sound, safe, uninjured, imharmed
in-crêdibilis, -e, adj. [in-, not, + crêdibilis, to be believed], incredible
inde, from that place, thence
induô, -ere, -uî, -ûtus, put on
indûtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of induô, put on], clothed
in-eô, -îre, -iî, -itus [in, into, + , go], go into; enter upon, begin, with acc. (§ 413)
în-fâns, -fantis, adj. [in-, not, + *fâns, speaking], not speaking. As a noun, m. and f. infant
în-fêlîx, -îcis, adj. [in-, not, + fêlîx, happy], unhappy, unlucky
înfênsus, -a, -um, adj. hostile
în´-ferô, înfer´re, in´tulî, inlâ´tus [in, against, + ferô, bear], bring against or upon, inflict, with acc. and dat. (§ 501.15).
bellum înferre, with dat., make war upon
înferus, -a, -um, adj. low, below (§ 312).
în-fînîtus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + fînîtus, bounded], boundless, endless
în-fîrmus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + fîrmus, strong], weak, infirm
ingenium, inge´ni, n. talent, ability
ingêns, -entis, adj. vast, huge, enormous, large. Cf. magnus
in-gredior, -gredî, -gressus sum [in, in, + gradior, walk], advance, enter
inimîcus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + amîcus, friendly], hostile. As a noun, inimîcus, -î, m. enemy, foe. Cf. hostis
initium, ini´tî, entrance, beginning
initus, -a, -um, part. of ineô.
initâ aestâte, at the beginning of summer
iniûria, -ae, f. [in, against, + iûs, law], injustice, wrong, injury.
alicui iniûriâs înferre, inflict wrongs upon some one
inopia, -ae, f. [inops, needy], want, need, lack
in-opînâns, -antis, adj. [in-, not, + opînâns, thinking], not expecting, taken by surprise
inquit, said he, said she. Regularly inserted in a direct quotation
in-rigô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, irrigate, water
in-rumpô, -ere, -rûpî, -ruptus [in, into, + rumpô, break], burst in, break in
in-ruô, -ere, -ruî,—— [in, in, + ruô, rush], rush in
în-sequor, -sequî, -secûtus sum, dep. verb [in, on, + sequor, follow], follow on, pursue
în-signe, -is, n. badge, decoration (§ 465. b)
însignis, -e, adj. remarkable, noted
înstâns, -antis, adj. [part. of însto, be at hand], present, immediate
în-stô, -âre, -stitî, -statûrus [in, upon, + stô, stand], stand upon; be at hand; pursue, press on
înstrûmentum, -î, n. instrument
în-struô, -ere, -strûxî, -strûctus [in, on, + struô, build], draw up
însula, -ae, f. island
integer, -gra, -grum, untouched, whole; fresh, new
intellegô, -ere, -lêxî, -lêctus [inter, between, +legô, choose], perceive, understand (§ 420. d)
intentô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, aim; threaten
inter, prep. with acc. between, among; during, while (§ 340)
interfectus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of inter-ficiô, kill], slain, dead
inter-ficiô, -ere, -fêcî, -fectus [inter, between, + faciô, make], put out of the way, kill. Cf. necô, occîdô, trucîdô
interim, adv. meanwhile
interior, -ius, adj. interior, inner (§ 315)
inter-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus, leave off, suspend
interpres, -etis, m. and f. interpreter
inter-rogô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, question
inter-sum, -esse, -fuî, -futûrus [inter, between, +sum, be], be present, take part in, with dat. (§ 501.15)
inter-vâllum, -î, n. interval, distance
intrâ, adv. and prep. with acc. within, in
intrô, -âre, -âvi, -âtus, go into, enter
in-veniô, -îre, -vênî, -ventus [in, upon, +veniô, come], find
invîsus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of invideô, envy], hated, detested
Iolâus, -î, m. I-o-lâ´us, a friend of Hercules
ipse, -a, -um, intensive pron. that very, this very; self, himself, herself, itself, (§ 481)
îra, -ae, f. wrath, anger
îrâtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of îrâscor, be angry], angered, enraged
is, ea, id, demonstrative adj. and pron. this, that; he, she, it (§ 481)
iste, -a, -ud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (of yours), he, she, it (§ 481)
ita, adv. so, thus. Cf. sîc and tam
Italia, -ae, f. Italy
ita-que, conj. and so, therefore
item, adv. also
iter, itineris, n. journey, march, route; way, passage (§§ 247.1.a; 468).
iter dare, give a right of way, allow to pass.
iter facere, march (see p. 159)
iubeô, -êre, iussî, iussus, order, command. Usually with the infin. and subj. acc. (§ 213)
iûdex, -icis, m. and f. judge (§ 464. 1)
iûdicô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [iûdex, judge], judge, decide (§ 420. c)
Iûlia, -ae, Julia, a Roman name
Iûlius, Iûlî, m. Julius, a Roman name
iungô, -êre, iûnxî, iûnctus, join; yoke, harness
Iûnô, -ônis, f. Juno, the queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter
Iuppiter, Iovis, m. Jupiter, the supreme god
iûrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, swear, take an oath
iussus, -a, -um, part. of iubeô, ordered
 
L
L., abbreviation for Lûcius
labefactus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of labefaciô, cause to shake], shaken, weakened, ready to fall
Labiênus, -î, m. La-bi-e´nus, one of Cæsar's lieutenants
labor, -ôris, m. labor, toil
labôrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [labor, labor], labor; suffer, be hard pressed
lacrima, -ae, f. tear
lacus, -ûs (dat. and abl. plur. lacubus), m. lake
laetê, adv. [laetus, glad], compared laetius, laetissimê, gladly
laetitia, -ae, f. [laetus, glad], joy
laetus, -a, -um, adj. glad, joyful
lapis, -idis, m. stone (§§ 247.2.a; 464.1)
Lâr, Laris, m.; plur. Larês, -um (rarely -ium), the Lares or household, gods
lâtê, adv. [lâtus, wide], compared lâtius, lâtissimê, widely
Latinê, adv. in Latin.
Latînê loquî, to speak Latin
lâtitûdô, -inis, f. [lâtus, wide], width
Lâtôna, -ae, f. Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana
latus, -a, -um, adj. wide
lâtus, -eris, n. side, flank.
ab utrôque latere, on each side
laudô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [laus, praise], praise
laurea, -ae, f. laurel
laureâtus, -a, -um, adj. crowned with laurel
laus, laudis, f. praise
lectulus, -î, m. couch, bed
lêgâtus, -î, m. ambassador; lieutenant
legiô, -ônis, f. [cf. legô, gather], (body of soldiers), legion, about 3600 men (§ 464. 2. a)
legiônârius, -a, -um, adj. legionary. Plur. legiônariî, -ôrum, m. the soldiers of the legion
legô, -ere, lêgî, lêctus, read
lênis, -e, adj. gentle, smooth, mild
lêniter, adv. [lênis, gentle], compared lênius, lênissimê, gently
Lentulus, -i, m. Lentulus, a Roman family name
leô, -ônis, m. lion
Lernaeus, -a, -um, adj. Lernæean, of Lerna, in southern Greece
Lesbia, -ae, f. Lesbia, a girl's name
levis, -e, adj. light
lêx, lêgis, f. measure, law
libenter, adv. [libêns, willing], compared libentius, libentissimê, willingly, gladly
lîber, -era, -erum, adj. free (§ 469. b)
lîberî, -ôrum, m. [lîber, free], children
lîberô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [lîber, free], set free, release, liberate
lîbertâs, -âtis, f. [lîber, free], freedom, liberty
lîctor, -ôris, m. lictor (p. 225)
lîmus, -î, m. mud
littera, -ae, f. a letter of the alphabet; in plur. a letter, epistle
lîtus, -oris, n. seashore, beach
locus, -î, m. (plur. locî and loca, m. and n.), place, spot
longê, adv. [longus, long], comp. longius, longissimê, a long way off; by far
longinquus, -a, -um, adj. [longus, long], distant, remote
longitûdô, -inis, f. [longus, long], length
longus, -a, -um, adj. long
loquor, loqui, locûtus sum, dep. verb, talk, speak
lôrîca, -ae, f. [lôrum, thong], coat of mail, corselet
lûdô, -ere, lûsî, lûsus, play
lûdus, -î, m. play; school, the elementary grades. Cf. schola
lûna, -ae, f. moon
lûx, lûcis, f. (no gen. plur.), light.
prîma lûx, daybreak
L[y]dia, -ae, f. Lydia, a girl's name
 
M
M., abbreviation for Mârcus
magicus, -a, -um, adj. magic
magis, adv. in comp. degree [magnus, great], more, in a higher degree (§ 323)
magister, -trî, m. master, commander; teacher
magistrâtus, -ûs, m. [magister, master], magistracy; magistrate
magnitûdô, -inis, f. [magnus, great], greatness, size
magnopere, adv. [abl. of magnum opus], compared magis, maximê, greatly, exceedingly (§ 323)
magnus, -a, -um, adj., compared maior, maximus, great, large; strong, loud (§ 311)
maior, maius, -ôris, adj., comp. of magnus, greater, larger (§ 311)
maiôrês, -um, m. plur. of maior, ancestors
mâlô, mâlle, mâluî, —— [magis, more, + volô, wish], wish more, prefer (§ 497)
malus, -a, -um, adj., compared peior, pessimus, bad, evil (§ 311)
mandô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [manus, hand, + , put], (put in hand), intrust; order, command
maneô, -êre, mânsî, mânsûrus, stay, remain, abide
Mânlius, Mânlî, m. Manlius, a Roman name
mânsuêtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of mânsuêscô, tame], tamed
manus, -ûs, f. hand; force, band
Mârcus, -î, m. Marcus, Mark, a Roman first name
mare, -is, n. (no gen. plur.), sea.
mare tenêre, be out to sea
margô, -inis, m. edge, border
marîtus, -î, m. husband
Marius, Marî, m. Marius, a Roman name, esp. C. Marius, the general
Mârtius, -a, -um, adj. of Mars, esp. the Campus Martius
mâter, -tris, f. mother
mâtrimônium, mâtrimô´nî, n. marriage.
in mâtrimônium dûcere, marry
mâtûrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, hasten. Cf. contendô, properô
mâtûrus, -a, -um, adj. ripe, mature
maximê, adv. in superl. degree [maximus, greatest], compared magnopere, magis, maximê, especially, very much (§ 323)
maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of magnus, greatest, extreme (§ 311)
medius, -a, -um, adj. middle part; middle, intervening
melior, -ius, -ôris, adj., comp. of bonus, better (§ 311)
melius, adv. in comp. degree, compared bene, melius, optimê, better (§ 323)
memoria, -ae, f. [memor, mindful], memory.
memoriâ tenêre, remember
mêns, mentis, f. mind. Cf. animus
mênsis, -is, m. month (§ 247. 2. a)
mercâtor, -ôris, m. [mercor, trade], trader, merchant
merîdiânus, -a, -um, adj. [merîdiês, noon], of midday
merîdiês, —— (acc. -em, abl. ), m. [medius, mid, + diês, day], noon
metus, -ûs, m. fear, dread
meus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. my, mine (§ 98)
mîles, -itis, m. soldier (§ 464. 1)
mîlitâris, -e, adj. [mîles, soldier], military.
rês mîlitâris, science of war
mîlitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [mîles, soldier], serve as a soldier
mîlle, plur. mîlia, -ium, numeral adj. and subst. thousand (§ 479)
minimê, adv. in superl. degree, compared parum, minus, minimê, least, very little; by no means (§ 323)
minimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, least, smallest (§ 311)
minor, minus, -ôris, adj. in comp. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, smaller, less (§ 311)
Mînôs, -ôis, m. Minos, a king of Crete
minus, adv. in comp. degree, compared parum, minus, minimê, less (§ 323)
Minyae, -ârum, m. the Minyae, a people of Greece
mîrâbilis, -e, adj. [mîror, wonder at], wonderful, marvelous
mîror, -ârî, -âtus sum, dep. verb [mîrus, wonderful], wonder, marvel, admire
mîrus, -a, -um, adj. wonderful
Mîsênum, -î, Mise´num, a promontory and harbor on the coast of Campania. See map
miser, -era, -erum, adj. wretched, unhappy, miserable
missus, -a, -um, part. of mittô, sent
mittô, -ere, mîsî, missus, send
modicus, -a, -um [modus, measure], modest, ordinary
modo, adv. [abl. of modus, measure, with shortened o], only, merely, just now.
modo ... modo, now ... now, sometimes ... sometimes
modus, -î, m. measure; manner, way; kind
moenia, -ium, n. plur. [cf. mûniô, fortify], walls, ramparts
molestê, adv. [molestus, troublesome], compared molestius, molestissimê, annoyingly.
molestê ferre, to be annoyed
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying, unpleasant (§ 501.16)
moneô, -êre, -uî, -itus, remind, advise, warn (§ 489)
môns, montis, m. mountain (§ 247. 2. a)
mônstrum, -î, n. monster
mora, -ae, f. delay
moror, -ârî, -âtus sum, dep. verb [mora, delay], delay, linger; impede
mors, mortis, f. [cf. morior, die], death
môs, môris, m. custom, habit
môtus, -ûs, m. [cf. moveô, move], motion, movement.
terrae môtus, earthquake
moveô, -êre, môvî, môtus, move
mox, adv. soon, presently
mulier, -eris, f. woman
multitûdô, -inis, f. [multus, much], multitude
multum (multô), adv. [multus, much], compared plûs, plûrimum, much (§ 477)
multus, -a, -um, adj., compared plûs, plûrimus, much; plur. many (§ 311)
mûniô, -îre, -îvî or -iî, -îtus, fortify, defend
mûnîtiô, -ônis, f. [mûniô, fortify], defense, fortification
mûrus, -î, m. wall. Cf. moenia
mûsica, -ae, f. music
 
N
nam, conj. for. Cf. enim
nam-que, conj., a strengthened nam, introducing a reason or explanation, for, and in fact; seeing that
nârrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, tell, relate
nâscor, nâscî, nâtus sum, dep. verb, be born, spring from
nâtûra, -ae, f. nature
nâtus, part. of nâscor
nauta, -ae, m. [for nâvita, from nâvis, ship], sailor
nâvâlis, -e, adj. [nâvis, ship], naval
nâvigium, nâvi´gî, n. ship, boat
nâvigô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [nâvis, ship, + agô, drive], sail, cruise
nâvis, -is (abl. -î or -e), f. ship (§ 243. 1).
nâvem cônscendere, embark, go on board.
nâvem solvere, set sail.
nâvis longa, man-of-war
, conj. and adv. in order that not, that (with verbs of fearing), lest; not.
nê ... quidem, not even
-ne, interrog. adv., enclitic (see §§ 16, 210). Cf. nônne and num
nec or neque, conj. [, not, + que, and], and not, nor.
nec ... nec or neque ... neque, neither ... nor
necessârius, -a, -um, adj. needful, necessary
necô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [cf. nex, death], kill. Cf. interficiô, occîdô, trucîdô
negô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, deny, say not (§ 420. a)
negôtium, negô´tî, n. [nec, not, + ôtium, ease], business, affair, matter.
alicui negôtium dare, to employ some one
Nemaeus, -a, -um, adj. Neme´an, of Neme´a, in southern Greece
nêmo, dat. nêminî (gen. nûllîus, abl. nûllô, supplied from nûllus), m. and f. [, not, + homô, man], (not a man), no one, nobody
Neptûnus, -î, m. Neptune, god of the sea, brother of Jupiter
neque, see nec
neuter, -tra, -trum (gen. -trîus, dat. -trî), adj. neither (of two) (§ 108)
nê-ve, conj. adv. and not, and that not, and lest
nihil, n. indecl. [, not, + hîlum, a whit], nothing.
nihil posse, to have no power
nihilum, -î, n., see nihil
Niobê, -ês, f. Ni´obe, the queen of Thebes whose children were destroyed by Apollo and Diana
nisi, conj. [, not, + , if], if not, unless, except
nôbilis, -e, adj. well known; noble
noceô, -êre, -uî, -itûrus [cf. necô, kill], hurt, injure, with dat. (§ 501.14)
noctû, abl. used as adv. [cf. nox, night], at night, by night
Nôla, -ae, f. Nola, a town in central Campania. See map
nôlô, nôlle, nôluî, —— [ne, not, + volô, wish], not to wish, be unwilling (§ 497)
nômen, -inis, n. [cf. nôscô, know], (means of knowing), name
nôminô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [nômen, name], name, call. Cf. appellô, vocô
nôn, adv. [, not, + ûnum, one], not.
nôn sôlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
nôn-dum, adv. not yet
nôn-ne, interrog. adv. suggesting an affirmative answer, not? (§ 210). Cf. -ne and num
nôs, pers. pron. we (see ego) (§ 480)
noster, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. our, ours. Plur. nostrî, -ôrum, m. our men (§ 98)
novem, indecl. numeral adj. nine
novus, -a, -um, adj. new.
novae rês, a revolution
nox, noctis, f. night, multâ nocte, late at night
nûllus, -a, -um (gen. -îus, dat. ) adj. [, not, + ûllus, any], not any, none, no (§ 108)
num, interrog. adv. suggesting a negative answer (§ 210). Cf. -ne and nônne. In indir. questions, whether
numerus, -î, m. number
numquam, adv. [, not, + umquam, ever], never
nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam
nûntiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [nûntius, messenger], report, announce (§ 420. a)
nûntius, nûntî, m. messenger
nûper, adv. recently, lately, just now
nympha, -ae, f. nymph
 
O
ob, prep. with acc. on account of. In compounds it often means in front of, against, or it is intensive.
quam ob rem, for this reason (§ 340)
obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage
ob-sideô,-êre,-sêdî, -sessus [ob, against, + sedeô, sit], besiege
obtineô, -êre, -uî, -tentus [ob, against, + teneô, hold], possess, occupy, hold
occâsiô, -ônis, f. favorable opportunity, favorable moment
occâsus, -ûs, m. going down, setting
occîdô, -ere, -cîdî, -cîsus [ob, down, + caedô, strike], strike down; cut down, kill. Cf. interficiô, necô
occupô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [ob, completely, + capiô, take], seize, take possession of, occupy. Cf. rapio
oc-currô, -ere, -currî, -cursus [ob, against + currô, run], run towards; meet, with dat. (§ 426)
ôceanus, -î, m. the ocean
octô, indecl. numeral adj. eight
oculus, -î, m. eye
officium, offi´cî, n. duty
ôlim, adv. formerly, once upon a time
ômen, -inis, n. sign, token, omen
ô-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus [ob, over, past, + mittô, send], let go, omit.
consilium omittere, give up a plan
omnînô, adv. [omnis, all], altogether, wholly, entirely
omnis, -e, adj. all, every. Cf. tôtus
onerâria, -ae, f. [onus, load], with nâvis expressed or understood, merchant vessel, transport
onus, -eris, n. load, burden
opîniô, -ônis, f. [opînor, suppose], opinion, supposition, expectation
oppidânus, -î, m. [oppidum, town], townsman
oppidum, -î, n. town, stronghold
opportûnus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, opportune, favorable
op-primô, -ere, -pressî, -pressus [ob, against, + premô, press], (press against), crush; surprise
oppugnâtiô, -ônis, f. storming, assault
oppugnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [ob, against, + pugnô fight], fight against, assault, storm, assail
optimê, adv. in superl. degree, compared bene, melius, optimê, very well, best of all (§ 323)
optimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared bonus, melior, optimus, best, most excellent (§ 311)
opus, -eris, n. work, labor, task (§ 464. 2. b)
ôrâculum, -î, n. [ôrô, speak], oracle
ôrâtor, -ôris, m. [ôrô, speak], orator
orbis, -is, m. ring, circle.
orbis terrârum, the earth, world
orbita, -ae, f. [orbis, wheel], rut
Orcus, -î, m. Orcus, the lower world
ôrdô, -inis, m. row, order, rank (§ 247. 2. a)
orîgo, -inis, f. [orior, rise], source, origin
orior, -îrî, ortus sum, dep. verb, arise, rise, begin; spring, be born
ôrnâmentum, -î, n. [ôrnô, fit out], ornament, jewel
ôrnâtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of ôrnô, fit out] fitted out; adorned
ôrnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, fit out, adorn
 
P
P., abbreviation for Pûblius
paene, adv. nearly, almost
palûdâmentum, -î, n. military cloak
palûs, -ûdis, f. swamp, marsh
pânis, -is, m. bread
pâr, paris, adj. equal (§ 471. III)
parâtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of parô, prepare], prepared, ready
parcô, -ere, peper´cî (parsî), parsûrus, spare, with dat. (§ 501.14)
pâreô, -êre, -uî, ——, obey, with dat. (§ 501 .14)
parô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, prepare for, prepare; provide, procure
pars, partis, f. part, share; side, direction
parum, adv., compared minus, minimê, too little, not enough (§ 323)
parvus, -a, -um, adj., compared minor, minimus, small, little (§ 311)
passus, -ûs, m. step, pace.
mîlle passuum, thousand paces, mile (§ 331. b)
pateô, -êre, patuî, ——, lie open, be open; stretch, extend
pater, -tris, m. father (§ 464. 2. a)
patior, -î, passus sum, dep. verb, bear, suffer, allow, permit
patria, -ae, f. [cf. pater, father], fatherland, (one's) country
paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally plur.), few, only a few
paulisper, adv. for a little while
paulô, adv. by a little, little
paulum adv. a little, somewhat
pâx, pâcis, f. (no gen. plur.), peace
pecûnia, -ae, f. [pecus, cattle], money
pedes, -itis, m. [pês, foot], foot soldier
pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. [pês, foot], on foot; by land
peior, peius, -ôris, adj. in comp. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worse (§ 311)
pellis, -is, f. skin, hide
penna, -ae, f. feather
per, prep. with acc. through, by means of, on account of. In composition it often has the force of thoroughly, completely, very (§ 340)
percussus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of percutiô, strike through], pierced
per-dûcô, -ere, -dûxî, -ductus [per, through, + dûcô, lead], lead through.
fossam perdûcere, to construct a ditch
per-exiguus, -a, -um, adj. [per, very, + exiguus, small], very small, very short
perfidus, -a, -um, adj. faithless, treacherous, false
per-fringô, -ere, -frêgî, -frâctus [per, through, frangô, break], shatter
pergô, -ere, perrêxî, perrêctus [per, through, + regô, conduct], go on, proceed, hasten
perîculum, -î, n. trial, test; danger
perist[y]lum, -î, n. peristyle, an open court with columns around it
perîtus, -a, -um, adj. skillful
perpetuus, -a, -um, adj. perpetual
Perseus, -eî, Perseus, a Greek hero, son of Jupiter and Danaë
persôna, -ae, f. part, character, person
per-suâdeô, -êre, -suâsî, -suâsus [per, thoroughly, + suâdeô, persuade], persuade, advise, with dat. (§ 501.14), often with an object clause of purpose (§ 501.41)
per-terreô, -êre, -uî, -itus [per, thoroughly, + terreô, frighten], thoroughly terrify, alarm
per-veniô, -îre, -vênî, -ventus [per, through, + veniô, come], arrive, reach, come to
pês, pedis, m. foot.
pedem referre, retreat (§ 247. 2. a)
pessimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worst (§ 311)
petô, -ere, -îvî or -iî, -îtus, strive for, seek, beg, ask; make for, travel to. Cf. postulô, quaerô, rogô
Pharsâlus, -î, f. Pharsa´lus or Pharsa´lia, a town in Thessaly, near which Cassar defeated Pompey, 48 B.C.
philosophia, -ae, f. philosophy
philosophus, -î, m. philosopher
pictus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of pingô, paint], colored, variegated
pîlum, -î, n. spear, javelin (§ 462. b)
piscîna, -ae, f. [piscis, fish], fish pond
piscis, -is, m. fish
pîstor, -ôris, m. baker
placeô. -êre, -uî, -itus, please, be pleasing, with dat. (§ 501.14)
plânitiês, -êî, f. [plânus, level], plain
plânus, -a, -um, adj. level, flat
plênus, -a, -um, full
plûrimum, adv. in superl. degree, compared multum, plûs, plûrimum, very much.
plûrimum valêre, be most influential (§ 322)
plûrimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared multus, plûs, plûrimus, most, very many (§ 311)
plûs, plûris, adj. in comp. degree, compared multus, plûs, plûrimus; sing. n. as substantive, more; plur. more, several (§ 311)
pluteus, -î, m. shield, parapet
poena, -ae, f. punishment, penalty
poêta, -ae, m. poet
pompa, -ae, f. procession
Pompêiî, -ôrum, m. Pompeii, a city of Campania. See map
Pompêius, Pompê´î, m. Pompey, a Roman name
pômum, -î, n. apple
pônô, -ere, posuî, positus, put, place.
castra pônere, pitch camp
pôns, pontis, m. bridge (§ 247. 2. a)
popîna, -ae, f. restaurant
populus, -î, m. people
Porsena, -ae, m. Porsena, king of Etruria, a district of Italy. See map
porta, -ae, f. gate, door
portô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, bear, carry
portus, -ûs, m. [cf. porta, gate], harbor
possideô, -êre, -sêdî, -sessus, have, own, possess
possum, posse, potuî, ——, irreg. verb [potis, able, + sum, I am], be able, can (§ 495).
nihil posse, have no power
post, prep, with acc. after, behind (§ 340)
posteâ, adv. [post, after, + , this], afterwards
(posterus), -a, -um, adj., compared posterior, postrêmus or postumus, following, next (§ 312)
postquam, conj. after, as soon as
postrêmô, adv. [abl. of postrêmus, last], at last, finally. Cf. dêmum, dênique (§ 322)
postrîdiê, adv. [posterô, next, + diê, day], on the next day
postulô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, ask, demand, require. Cf. petô, quaerô, rogô
potentia, -ae, f. [potêns, able], might, power, force
prae-beô, -êre, -uî, -itus [prae, forth, + habeô, hold], offer, give
praeda, -ae, f. booty, spoil, plunder
prae-dîcô, -ere, -dîxî, -dictus [prae, before, + dîcô, tell], foretell, predict
prae-ficiô, -ere, -fêcî, -fectus [prae, before, + faciô, make], place in command, with acc. and dat. (§ 501.15)
prae-mittô, -ere, -mîsî, -missus [prae, forward, + mittô, send], send forward
praemium, praemî, n. reward, prize
praeruptus, -a, -um [part. of prae-rumpô, break off], broken off, steep
praesêns, -entis, adj. present, immediate
praesertim, adv. especially, chiefly
praesidium, praesi´di, n. guard, garrison, protection
prae-stô, -âre, -stitî, -stitus [prae, before, + sto, stand], (stand before), excel, surpass, with dat. (§ 501.15); show, exhibit
prae-sum, -esse, -fuî, -futûrus [prae, before, + sum, be], be over, be in command of, with dat. (§ 501.15)
praeter, prep, with acc. beyond, contrary to (§ 340)
praetereâ, adv. [praeter, besides, + , this], in addition, besides, moreover
praetextus, -a, -um, adj. bordered, edged
praetôrium, praetô´rî, n. prætorium
prandium, prandî, n. luncheon
premô, -ere, pressî, pressus, press hard, compress; crowd, drive, harass
(prex, precis), f. prayer
prîmô, adv. [prîmus, first], at first, in the beginning (§ 322)
prîmum, adv. [prîmus, first], first.
quam primum, as soon as possible
prîmus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared prior, prîmus, first (§ 315)
prînceps, -cipis, m. [prîmus, first, + capiô, take], (taking the first place), chief, leader (§ 464. 1)
prior, prius, -ôris, adj. in comp. degree, superl., prîmus, former (§ 315)
prîstinus, -a, -um, adj. former, previous
prô, prep, with abl. before; for, for the sake of, in behalf of; instead of, as (§ 209). In composition, forth, forward
prô-cêdô, -ere, -cussî, -cessûrus [prô, forward, + cêdô, go], go forward, proceed
procul, adv. far, afar off
prô-currô, -ere, -currî (-cucurrî), -cur-sus [prô, forward, + currô, run], run forward
proelium, proeli, n. battle, combat.
proelium committere, join battle.
proelium facere, fight a battle
profectiô, -ônis, f. departure
proficîscor, -î, -fectus sum, dep. verb, set out, march. Cf. êgredior, exeô
prô-gredior, -î, -gressus sum, dep. verb [prô, forth, + gradior, go], go forth, proceed, advance. Cf. pergô, prôcêdô
prôgressus, see prôgredior
prohibeô, -êre, -uî, -itus [prô, forth, away from, + habeô, hold], keep away from, hinder, prevent
prô-moveô, -êre, -môvî, -môtus [prô, forward, + moveô, move], move forward, advance
prô-nûntiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [prô, forth, + nûntiô, announce], proclaim, declare
prope, adv., compared propius, proxi-mê, nearly. Prep, with acc. near
prô-pellô, -ere, -pulî, -pulsus [prô, forth, + pellô, drive], drive forth; move, impel
properô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [properus, quick], go quickly, hasten. Cf. contendô, maturô
propinquus, -a, -um, adj. [prope, near], near, neighboring
propior, -ius, -ôris, adj. in comp. degree, superl., proximus, nearer (§ 315)
propius, adv. in comp. degree, compared prope, propius, proximê, nearer (§ 323)
propter, prep. with acc. on account of, because of (§ 340)
prô-scrîbô, -ere, -scrîpsî, -scriptus [prô, forth, + scribô, write], proclaim, publish. Cf. prônûntiô
prô-sequor, -sequî, -secûtus sum, dep. verb [prô, forth, + sequor, follow], escort, attend
prô-sum, prôdesse, prôfuî, prôfutûrus [prô, for, + sum, be], be useful, benefit, with dat. (§§ 496; 501.15)
prô-tegô, -ere, -têx=i], -têctus [prô, in front, + tegô, cover], cover in front, protect
prôvincia, -ae, f. territory, province
proximê, adv. in superl. degree, compared prope, propius, proximê, nearest, next; last, most recently (§ 323)
proximus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared propior, proximus, nearest, next (§ 315)
pûblicus, -a, -um, adj. [populus,people], of the people, public, res pûblica, the commonwealth
puella, -ae, f. [diminutive of puer, boy], girl, maiden
puer, -eri, m. boy; slave (§ 462. c)
pugna, -ae, f -fight, battle. Cf. proelium
pugnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus [pugna, battle], fight. Cf. contendô, dîmicô
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beautiful, pretty (§§ 469.b; 304)
Pullô, -ônis, m. Pullo, a centurion
pulsô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, strike, beat
puppis, -is (acc. -im, abl. ), f. stern of a ship, deck
pûrê, adv. [pûrus, pure], comp. pûrius, purely
pûrgô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, cleanse, clean
purpureus, -a, -um, adj. purple, dark red
putô, -âre, -âvî, -âtus, reckon, think (§ 420,c). Cf. arbitror, exîstimô
P[y]thia, -ae, f. Pythia, the inspired priestess of Apollo at Delphi
 
Q
quâ dê causâ, for this reason, wherefore
quâ rê, therefore, for this reason
quaerô, -ere, -sîvî, -sîtus, seek, ask, inquire. Cf. petô, postulô, rogô
quâlis, -e, interrog. pronom. adj. of what sort, what kind of.
talis ... qualis, such ... as
quam, adv. how; after a comparative, than ; with a superlative, translated as ... as possible, quam prîmum, as soon as possible
quantus, -a, -um, adj. [quam, how], how great, how much, tantus ... quantus, as great as
quârtus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [quattuor, four], fourth
quattuor, indecl. numeral adj. four
quattuor-decim, indecl. numeral adj. fourteen
-que, conj., enclitic, and (§ 16). Cf. ac, atque, et
quî, quae, quod, rel. pron. and adj. who, which, what, that (§ 482)
quia, conj. because. Cf. quod
quîdam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam), indef. pron. and adj. a certain one, a certain, a (