Thomas Wright, The Percy Society, 1841
The object of the following Collection is to illustrate one of our old popular customs, which is fast disappearing. It was suggested that it should be made a seasonable publication; and the desire to publish it at the given time has necessarily restricted a little the extent of the Editor's researches. He has found also that the remains of this class of literature are not so numerous as might have been expected.
The Anglo-Saxon Gule or Yule, was an ancient Pagan festival, from which we derive the feasting and merriment still observed at the same season of the year. When the Anglo-Saxons were converted, the feasting and other observations were turned to another purpose, and were made to be considered a memorial of the nativity of our Saviour, the commemoration of which happened at the same time. The name of Yule still remained, and in some parts of our island has been preserved to the present day; but after the entry of the Normans, a foreign appellation was introduced, Ś Noel, derived from the Latin natalis (the dies natalis of our Lord), which soon became naturalised in our language and literature.*
Our carols illustrate the festive character, as well as the pious feelings, appropriate to the season. The Anglo-Norman song which stands first, is the earliest carol known to have been written in our island. It has been printed before, but it is now carefully edited from the original manuscript. The late Mr. Douce translated it into English verse; but as his version does not preserve a single characteristic of the original, it has been thought unnecessary to reprint it here. Another French carol has been inserted, as a specimen of similar compositions among our neighbours. Several carols in our Collection illustrate the fine old ceremony of bring in the boar's head, and other Christmas festivities. A Few pieces have been introduced which are not strictly carols, but which are more or less connected with the subject. Three modern carols are added at the end, taken from the Collection of Sandys, to show how long the expressions and allusions of the older carols have been preserved by popular tradition. The only desire of the Editor is to contribute towards the merry Christmas of the members of the Percy Society.
* In our carols these names appear in different forms: as §ol, yol, nowel, novels, &c. It may here be observed that in the first line of the poem beginning on p. 18 [Yf Crystmas day on the Sonday be], a later hand has corrected Sunday to Monday. Return
Editor's Note: Wright was also the editor of
Songs and Carols Printed From A Manuscript in the Sloane Collection in the British Museum (London: William Pickering, 1836). Twenty songs and carols from Sloane MS 2593.
Specimens of Old Christmas Carols Selected from Manuscripts and Printed Books (The Percy Society, 1841). [this page]
Thomas Wright and James Orchard Halliwell, eds., ReliquiŠ AntiquŠ. Two Volumes. (London: John Russell Smith, 1845).
Songs and Carols Now First Printed From a Manuscript of the Fifteenth Century (The Percy Society, 1847) and
Thomas Wright, Festive Songs Principally of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (London: Printed for the Percy Society by Richards, 1848).
Songs and Carols from a Manuscript in the British Museum of the Fifteenth Century (The Warton Club, 1856). The complete Sloane MS 2593, from which 20 poems were reprinted in 1836 by Wright (above).
Songs and Ballads, With Other Short Poems, Chiefly of the Reign of Philip and Mary (London: J. B. Nichols, 1860). Composed of 77 songs and ballads in 212 pages. For the Roxburghe Club, from a 16th Century Manuscript by Richard Sheale in the Library of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, MS. Ashm. No. 48. The reign of Queen Mary was from 1553-1558; she was succeed by her half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I.
Index of Carols
Editor's Note: Because Middle English contains letters not found in modern English, I've used a special font, "Junicode" created by Professor Peter S. Baker, Professor of English, University of Virginia on some pages. I will note on the individual carol's page which ones need this font. You can obtain a copy of this font from his website Old English at the University of Virginia (select "Windows TrueType," or right click here, and then select "Save File As" to save a copy of the zipped file to your computer). This font must be downloaded and installed before these pages will display accurately.
20. A Christemasse Game, made by Maister Benet Howe
25. There was no deathe nor worldlie joie [A Caroll of Saint Stephen]
41. Noel Nouveau [First line: CÚlÚbrons la naissance]
47. A Child This Day Is Born [from Sandys, alt.]
48. The first Nowell the Angell did say [from Sandys, The First Nowell]
49. Come rejoice, all good Christians [from Sandys, Come Rejoice, All Good Christians]
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